Budget Actual Variance Revenues $59,000 $60,000 $1,000 F Cost of goods sold 42,000 43,400 1,400 U Wages 6,700 7,000 300 U General 1,300 900 400 F Fixed costs 5,000 5,000 0 Operating income $ 4,000 $ 3,700 $ 300 U
Interestingly, faculty and practice respondents were in substantial agreement as to which are the most important skills. It is also important to recognize that this ranking of skills aligns closely with the core competencies identified in the AICPA Vision Study and its Core Competency Framework for entry-level students, by the IMA in their 1995 and 1999 Practice Analyses, by the Institute of Internal Auditors in their recent study of the knowledge base of internal auditing, by the AECC, and with academic research on accounting education. It is interesting to note that faculty feel more strongly than do practitioners about the higher-ranking skills, but less strongly than do practitioners on most of the lower-ranking skills. Using 3 as a cutoff, there are only two skills that practitioners believe should have little or no priority. If we effectively teach these skills, we will add value that cannot be duplicated through distance learning and other lower-cost delivery methods. We must find ways to integrate the teaching of skills into our curricula.
5) Ruttles Circuit Company manufactures circuit boards for other firms. Management is attempting to search for ways to reduce manufacturing labor costs and has received a proposal from a consulting company to rearrange the production floor next year. Using the information below regarding current operations and the new proposal, which of the following decisions should management accept?
Stage 1 of a capital budgeting project is the identify projects stage in which a firm determines which types of capital investments are necessary to accomplish organization objectives and strategies. Stage 2 is the obtain information stage in which a firm gathers information from all parts of the value chain to analyze alternative projects. Stage 3 is the make predictions stage in which the firm forecasts all potential cash flows attributable to the alternative projects. Stage 4 is the make decisions by choosing among alternatives stage in which the firm determines which investment yields the greatest benefit and the least cost to the organization. Stage 5 is the implement the decision, evaluate performance, and learn stage that is further separated into two sub stages: (1) obtain funding and make the investments selected in the stage 4 process, and (2) track the realized cash flows, compare against the forecast numbers, and revise plans if necessary.
What may be the cost assignment problem if a key consideration is the value of the products being sold? Answer: First, the company needs to consider whether the byproducts are being treated as products, rather than byproducts. For the most part, byproducts should not be assigned costs. The revenue from the byproducts should be used as either minor sale categories or else as offsets to processing costs. A second consideration is the method used to assign the costs. It is possible that some physical measure (weight) is being used, in which case the parts items and the byproducts may weigh as much as the primary product. It may be necessary to evaluate the various methods of allocation and select the one which management feels is best for decision making.
The variable overhead spending variance is the difference between the actual variable overhead cost per unit of the cost-allocation base and the budgeted variable overhead cost per unit of the cost-allocation base, multiplied by actual quantity of the variable overhead cost-allocation base used for actual output. The meaning of this variance hinges on an explanation of why the per unit cost of the allocation base is lower or higher than the amount budgeted. Some explanations might include different-than-budgeted prices for the individual inputs to variable overhead or perhaps more efficient usage of some of the variable overhead items.
A product cost is one that is associated with making or acquiring inventory. A period cost is any cost other than those associated with making or acquiring products and is not considered inventory. Students will have a variety of examples, but direct material, direct labor, and overhead are product costs. Selling and administrative expenses are considered period costs. A direct cost is one that is physically and conveniently traceable to a cost object. Direct material and direct labor are direct costs. An indirect cost is one that cannot be conveniently traced to a cost object. Any type of overhead cost is considered indirect.