Usage rate of electric energy because of number of electrical equipment is overload and not appropriate for single phase user .The effective powertransfer is very important because the secondary coil is the types of material determine the amount ofpower transferred. In that case the power supply is of special concern. This is because in a number of cases where batteries are used, the energy content is too low and batteries have a limited life time.
A Class E converter circuit has been proposed in our work to increase the efficiency of the powertransfer. This is because the Class E converter circuit guarantees that the switching loss is always at a very minimum level [3, 4]. Meanwhile, the capacitor compensation circuit needs to be connected either in series or parallel in order to achieve resonant inductive coupling . This technique will ensure the maximum powertransfer to the load. Then, voltage doubler and Darlington circuit is proposed to increase the current and also the voltage at the receiver circuit. Therefore, through the proposed approach, this paper aims to investigate the performance ofIPT system at 1MHz using Class E converter and 9V DC supply that is able to power-up the low-power electronic devices.
The electric vehicle (EV) charging system which uses inductivepowertransfer (IPT) technique is not a newly found technique of wireless powertransfer (WPT) technology. In fact, IPT is the first technique used for WPT. The existing method ofIPT technique uses closely coupled magnetic resonance powertransfer has limitations. The alignment of the transmitter and receiver affects the power transmission efficiency. Besides that, the charging rate on par with current technology is low. There are many researches done and designs made to curb this issue. In contrast, this project work on the new approach of the IPT technique via loosely coupled IPT (LCIPT) and aims to prove the concept is applicable to electric vehicle charging system. There are many researches have been done on IPT. However, most of the researches done are on the closely coupled IPTand lesser on loosely coupled IPT (LCIPT). Moreover, most research are described theoretically and only simulated as the results. Practically, the system only applied on the EV charging stations. Topics to be discussed covered in this chapter are about the electric vehicle (EV) charging systems, IPTand other WPT methods performance analysis, and the circuits used in the IPT systems such as supply inverters and efficiency compensator circuits.
Wireless powertransfer (WPT) is the transmission of electrical power across a medium without the use of electrical conductors. There is three major type of WPT which are Acoustic PowerTransfer (APT), InductivePowerTransfer (IPT) and Capacitive PowerTransfer (CPT). Between these, the APT has the advantages of such as can be used where the EM fields are not allowed, and the efficiency of APT is much higher compared to IPT in terms of greater distance transferpower range and different medium oftransfer i.e (body tissue, water, air, etc). Due to this fact, for this project the acoustic method has been considered. This project aims to transfer low power wirelessly by using the acoustic based method. The feasibility of transmitting electric power through some specific surface or material by propagating acoustic waves using piezoelectric transducers was analysed. The efficiency ofpower transmission for APT has been briefly examined at the different transmission medium. For this project, the metal block and air were chosen as the transfer medium and the efficiency performance of these medium have successfully been analyzed. In the end, a prototype of APT system was developed which was capable of transferring voltage through air at the maximum distance of 10cm at 0.96V. The performances analyses of the developed prototype are discussed and the future recommendation of this method is also presented.
The most well-known technique in the WPT technology is inductive coupling between transmitter and receiver which is widely applied to most of the applications nowadays . The concept of the inductivepowertransfer (IPT) is the power is being transmitted to the receiver by electromagnetic induction via inductive coupling . However, the major drawback ofIPT is ferromagnetic interference which is the flux cannot pass through the magnetisable material.
A traditional approach of wireless powertransfer, the IPT is commonly used. The main drawback ofIPT is a very high common mode source impedance to overcome high power factor of current topology that may cause eddy current losses and difficult to penetrate the metal. A priority project is to study how to design a capacitive powertransfer system with lower power factor. This involves the low power transmission at the interface capacitance and lead to the low power applications. All weaknesses ofIPT can be improved and enhanced using the CPT system.
All electronic devices such as implantable devices, mobile phones, among others, need a power supply to activate them. To make it more portable, flexible and convenient in order to charge the battery, a WPT system is more preferable compared to a wired charger. For example, the use of a smart phone causes fast discharging due to the use of many applications. Consequently, a wired power bank needs to be plugged in to charge the smartphone’s battery. In order to eliminate the hassle of a wired connection, a WPT system based on a loosely coupled IPT system was proposed. This is because other WPT systems, like Capacitive PowerTransfer (CPT) systems and Acoustic Energy Transfer (AET) systems have their own limitations. A CPT system can only obtain low output power at the smallest air gap. Meanwhile, an AET system is very sensitive to the variation of operating frequency propagation. Therefore, an IPT system was chosen in this research, mainly because of its higher output powertransferand produces better efficiency. In an IPT system, a loosely coupled system is a non-contact powertransfer with a small gap between the primary and secondary side that is suitable to be used for moving objects, especially for charging systems. Therefore, a contactless powertransfer solution, i.e., loosely coupled IPT system forpower delivery or battery charging without direct electrical contact is preferred for these mobile devices.
Therefore, the classification of WPT is divided into two categories that are near-field powertransferand far-field powertransfer. In near-field powertransfer, the inductivepowertransfer (IPT) is the favourite powertransfer type used for real world applications compared to capacitive powertransfer (CPT) and acoustic powertransfer (APT). Last year, IKEA has released a new product that is a small table that able to charge electronics gadgets by placing the item at a certain spot and has introduced the WPT technology to the consumers in worldwide and eliminate cable . Besides IPT, CPT and APT, microwave powertransfer (MPT) and light powertransfer (LPT) are under the far-field powertransfer category respectively . For this project, WPT is applied in the aquarium; using near field technique with CPT approach for WPT is chosen. This is because CPT is capable to transmit through metal objects unlike IPTand has higher efficiency than APT. Therefore, application of WPT in water for instance, aquarium is interesting topic to be done because multiple devices are usually used in the aquarium so the fishes can live comfortably although there are some obstacles need to overcome to achieve perfect result.
There are various types of WPTs such as the capacitive powertransfer (CPT) andinductivepowertransfer (IPT).The CPT only can be applied to the low power range. The amount of coupling capacitance of CPT depends on the available area of devices. This situation is not practical in some applications or by targeting the low power applications . ForIPT system, this system is capable to transfer higher power compared to CPT system at the medium or large air gap. The potential of electric shock forIPT is low due to no exposed conductors. Other than that, the IPT is waterproof since the charging connections are fully enclosed and thus, make it suitable for harsh environments in general .
Pemindahan kuasa tanpa wayar (WPT) adalah penghantaran tenaga elektrik melalui sesuatu benda tanpa menggunakan sebarang konduktor elektrik atau wayar. Terdapat tiga teknik pemindahan tenaga tanpa wayar dalam kategori medan dekat adalah pemindahan kuasa berdasarkan induktif (IPT), pemindahan kausa berdasarkan kapasitif (CPT) dan pemindahan kuasa berdasarkan akustik (APT). Antara ketiga- tiga teknik pemindahan tenaga tanpa wayar, IPT mempunyai kelebihan dalam jarak penghantaran yang jauh dan kecekapan yang tinggi berbanding dengan CPT dan APT. Oleh itu, projek ini bertujuan untuk menggunakan IPT sebagai teknik untuk memindahkan kuasa secara tanpa wayar. Dengan teknik IPT, kuasa akan menghantar daripada satu gegelung pemancar kepada beberapa gegelung penerima. Oleh itu, peralatan elektronik seperti jam digital dan lampu meja akan dapat kuasa tanpa menggunakan kabel atau bateri. Untuk menjadi tertentu, inverter kelas E direka dalam kejar ini untuk menukar sumber arus terus (DC) kepada sumber arus pada frekuensi yang tinggi dengan kecekapan yang tinggi. Analisis prototaip yang dibangunkan disiap dan dibincang dari segi kecekapan serta cadangan untuk masa depan juga dibentagkan. Pada akhir projek ini, prototaip ini mampu menghasilkan 75% daripada kecekapan.
5 force supply (battery) and solidified substitute parts. The pacemaker unit is typically introduced in the pectoral zone (Sandro A. P. Haddad, 2009). In year 1958, a thoracic master at Karonlinska Hospital in Stockholm do embedded myocardial terminals and heartbeat generator with a rechargeable nickel-cadmium on 40 year old patient but the beat generator is fizzled inside of a few hours and function back on around 6 weeks.
The important terms such as BAN, RF harvesting system, rectifier, operating region of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) transistor anddesign consideration of high-quality rectifier have been described. Section 2.7 presents the RF rectifier topologies based on MOSFET which are Fully Gate Cross Coupler (FGCC) rectifier, Self Vth Cancellation (SVC) rectifier and Dynamic Threshold- voltage MOSFET (DTMOS) rectifier. Their specifications, advantages, disadvantages, circuit designand operation have been reviewed. Charge transfer switches in Integrated Circuit (IC) domain have been studied in Section 2.8. It includes Schottky diode, diode-connected diode and Ultra-Low Power (ULP) diode.
RF energy harvesting is a process that converts a suitable DC power from an unlimited source such an ambient RF energy. The main element of the RF energy harvesting system is shown in Figure 1.1. Matching circuit consist of the conductive andinductive element to ensure the maximum input power delivery from the antenna to rectifier . A good matching circuit depends on its capability to deliver maximum input power to the rectifying circuit. The challenges task to design dual band rectifier is to match the rectifier with a two frequency band and at the same time minimize the sensitivity of rectifier . Rectenna are the combination of rectifier and antenna that was initially designed by W. C. Brown for converting the microwave power into direct current DC power , . Rectenna is the key block of the front end receiving a portion of a wireless powering system. The rectifier will give a smooth DC power by transform RF energy that captured by antenna .
Powerinverter is a kind ofpower electronic converter that used to convert a dc input voltage to an ac output voltage. In solar power plant application, the PV inverter converts the dc voltage from Solar PV panel, which is usually stored in the battery, into an ac output voltage to serve the load of household appliances, such as lighting, television, mobile charger, even a washing machine and water pump. Therefore, a reliable inverter that can produce a good output voltage is necessary.The main purpose of this paper is to designand develop a dynamic evolution control (DEC) for a PV Inverter in solar power plant application. The analysis anddesignof the DEC control technique are provided. The performance of the PV inverter controller is verified through MATLAB Simulink. To validate the simulation results, an experimental prototype of PV inverter is developed. The controller of the PV inverter system was implemented based on dynamic evolution control. The performance of the proposed dynamic evolution control is tested through simulation and experiment.
The most common wireless powertransfer technologies are the electromagnetic induction and the microwave powertransfer. For efficient midrange powertransfer, the wireless powertransfer system must satisfy three conditions: (a) high efficiency, (b) large air gap, (c) high power. The microwave powertransfer has a low efficiency. For near field powertransfer this method may be inefficient, since it involves radiation of electromagnetic waves. Wireless powertransfer canbe done via electric field coupling, but electric field coupling provides an inductively loaded electrical dipole that
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research anddevelopmentof wireless power technology to eliminate the “last cable” after Wi -Fi becomes widely accepted . Imagine sitting down for a cup of coffee, and placing your mobile phone on the table. The phone lights up, and starts to automatically charge without connectors or cables. You could simply grab your mobile phone on your way out in the morning, and charge it wherever you needed to at home, the office, the library, the local coffee shop. It would be even better if you did not ever need a charger. We could simply forget about USB cables, chargers and, when traveling, adapters. Inductivepowertransfer is being used in numerous applications for transferring power wirelessly. Inductively coupled chargers are being used for wireless charging of mobile phones, MP3 Player and other handheld devices as proposed in [2-4].
A major part of this paper is to refers previous data from others publication on efficiency limits and cites from a further one, but new aspects about resonance operation and magnetic emissions are also added up that have been discovered by E.Waffenschmidt . In a further part of this work, an inductivepower transmission pad is applied, which is it need to charge devices like mobile phones. Finally, the Wireless Power Consortium is discovered, which is it’s recently released the first industry standard forinductive charging of mobile devices called “Qi”, and have been reviewed in this paper. Figure 2.3 shows the input current (for a fixed voltage) at the part of transmitter coil shows a typical inductivepower system, where the receiver comprises a series resonant capacitor.
AC/DC current-mode switching power supply that implementing in flyback converter is widely used in off line power supplies for modern office equipments such as laptops, printers, and etc, this due to its high power density and high efficiency as well as cost effectiveness, compactness, and light weight . The main use of these power systems is to regulate output voltage and current according to the loads specifications.
Power systems are indispensable for contemporary lifestyles, and demand for expected to remain vigorous worldwide. Leveraging expertise cultivated since the company's foundation, Toshiba Group is contributing to the creation of infrastructure that enriches quality of life for people throughout the world. In order to ensure stable supply of electricity, we offer hydro, solar, geothermal and wind power generation facilities in the renewables space, as well as thermal and nuclear power generation systems.
on the accumulator battery is 112,736305 Watt-hour, while the power supplied by the accumulator battery for one day is 216,63835 Watt-hour in sunny conditions throughout the day. The system works according to the capacity of the battery at that time. With the DC Power House is the problem of local electricity can be resolved.