This project used a PIC 18F4550 as a platform in order to design robot vacuum cleaner. Basedon figure 1.1, implement IR sensor and metal detector as an input of this robot to detect obstacle and metal which can interference path of robot. The output of this robot vacuum cleaner is the motor, and alarm which linked to PICmicrocontroller. The robot vacuum cleaner was controlled by the PICmicrocontroller which create the peripheral between input and output. The power source was supply to PIC and DC motor as power to drive the robot vacuum cleaner. Figure 1.1 shows the block diagram of robot vacuum cleaner which divides into two parts, input and output peripheral.
Abstract. The development of a digital Viscometer of fluid using photodiode and ultrasonic sensor has been done. The time taken of the ball to pass a distance in the fluid is controlled using two photodiode sensors. On the other hand, the ultrasonic sensor is used to measure the distance between the photodiode sensors. An Arduino microcontroller is used as data processing and interfacing with digital displays (LCD). The Viscometer system is validated by an expert and a valid criterion is obtained of 91.67%. Empirically, the measurement error of the system is obtained of 0.5%. Viscosity measurement is carried out on three types of fluid which are glycerine, oil and cooking oil. Basedon the measured data, the viscosity of the glycerine, oil and cooking oil are 1.12 Pa s, 0.78 Pa s and 0.39 Pa s, respectively. The satisfy result show the digital Viscometer is promising to be used in industry and schools as a tool to improve the understanding of the viscosity concept of the student.
The conventional pressure sensors use film resistor, strain gauges, metal alloys, or polycrystalline semiconductor as the resistive media. These materials conduct more or less electricity basedon geometric deformations in their structure and make the measurement of the pressure become inaccurately. The disadvantages of conventional pressure sensor is the data that been transmit are in analog. So, it must be converting from the analog to digital at the electronic signal processing and the measurement that obtain would be effect. Nowadays, it is well known that optical fiber sensors play a major role on the performance of various state of the art measurement devices and systems, namely: gyroscopes, accelerometer, strain and temperature sensors, among many other. In order to increase the range of applications of such kind of sensors a great deal of researcher activities has been guided towards the design and implementation of low-cost sensors. This work addresses design, implementation and characterization of a plastic optical fiber microbend sensor, and points out its potential as a low-cost anti-squeeze sensor. Quite reasonable results were obtained using plastic optical fiber sensor and standard optoelectronic detection scheme.
The Braille system was basedon a method of communication originally developed by Charles Barbier in response to Napoleon's demand for a code that soldiers could use to communicate silently and without light at night called night writing. Barbier's system was too complex for soldiers to learn, and was rejected by the military. In 1821 he visited the National Institute for the Blind in Paris, France, where he met Louis Braille. Braille identified the major failing of the code, which was that the human finger could not encompass the whole symbol without moving, and so could not move rapidly from one symbol to another. His modification was to use a 6 dot cell — the Braille system — which revolutionized written communication for the blind.
interfacing a microcontroller or microprocessor to the AD7715. Figures 9, 10 and 11 show some typical interface circuits. The serial interface on the AD7715 has the capability of operat- ing from just three wires and is compatible with SPI interface protocols. The three-wire operation makes the part ideal for isolated systems where minimizing the number of interface lines minimizes the number of opto-isolators required in the system. The rise and fall times of the digital inputs to the AD7715 (especially the SCLK input) should be no longer than 1␣ µ s. Most of the registers on the AD7715 are 8-bit registers. This facilitates easy interfacing to the 8-bit serial ports of microcon- trollers. Some of the registers on the part are up to 16 bits, but data transfers to these 16-bit registers can consist of a full 16-bit transfer or two 8-bit transfers to the serial port of the microcon- troller. DSP processors and microprocessors generally transfer 16 bits of data in a serial data operation. Some of these proces- sors, such as the ADSP-2105, have the facility to program the amount of cycles in a serial transfer. This allows the user to tailor the number of bits in any transfer to match the register length of the required register in the AD7715.
Direct current (DC) motor has already become n important drive coniguration for many applications across a wide range of powers and speeds. The ease of control and excellent pefomance of the DC motors will ensure that the number of applications using them will continue grow for the foreseeable uture. This project is mainly concened on C motor speed control system by using microcontrollerPIC 16F877 A. It is a closed-loop real time control system, where optical encoder (built in this project) is coupled to the motor shat to provide he feedback speed sinal to controller. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used where its sinal is generated in microcontroller. Microcontroller acts as propotional (P) controller wih Kp =1 in this study. The PWM sinal will send to motor driver to vary the voltage supply to motor to maintain at constant speed. Besides, it also shows a raph of motor speed versus time to let the user monitor the perfomnce of the system easily. Basedon the esult, the reading of tachnometer built is quie reliable. Through the project, it can be concluded that microconroller PIC 16F877 A can conrol motor speed at desired speed althouh there is a vriation of load.
The PcDuino is used to control the operation of the system in order to have an optimal solution of the output power produced by the PV system from time to time. The use of PcDuino is due to its speed performance, memory size and relatively low cost compared to Digital Signal Processing (DSP) board. 
The purpose of digital revolution counter is more as a reference to the engine lifetime and do car maintenance schedule. The car maintenance schedule such as changing the spark plugs, timing belt, engine oil, gear oil, oil filter and the others was proposed basedon the total number of engine revolution recorded. These two instruments were implemented and also combined together in one system using the Microchip PICmicrocontroller. The digital tachometer and revolution counter will give more accurate reading compared to analogue reading. The usage of digital tachometer is rare because the price is quit expensive while digital revolution counter is non existent. So, the purpose of this project is to build a low cost and efficient digital tachometer and revolution counter by using Microchip PICMicrocontroller.
General Instruments sold off their microelectronics division in 1988 to a start up company called Arizona Microchip Technology. Microchip’s main product was, and is still, a series of microcontroller families basedon this PIC architecture. Their first family was introduced in 1989 with the PIC16C5X series. These Harvard processors are basedon a set of only 33 instructions. All instructions are coded in a single 12-bit word. This use of a primordial instruction set is known as Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) and contrasts with the Complex Instruction Set Com- puter (CISC) model used in most computers/MPUs where several hundred instructions/modes are provided, and because of their number take sev- eral memory words to encode. The combination of single-word instruc- tions, the simplified instruction decoder implicit with the RISC paradigm and the Harvard separate Program and Data buses gives a fast, efficient and cost effective processor implementation. The PIC16C5XX 12-bit core family features between 512 and 2048-instruction Program stores imple- mented as One-Time Programmable (OTP) EEPROM (see page 26), 25 to 73 bytes of Data memory, 12 or 20 I/O pins in the 18- and 28-pin pack- age respectively, and an 8-bit timer. The PIC12CXXX family are 8-pin equivalents.
The origin of video games lies in early cathode ray tube-based missile defense systems in the late 1940s. These programs were later adapted into other simple games during the 1950s. By the late 1950s and through the 1960s, more computer games were developed (mostly on mainframe computers), gradually increasing in sophistication and complexity. Following this period, video games diverged into different platforms: arcade, mainframe, console, personal computer and later handheld games. 
Since a fan creates its cooling effect by speeding, thus, the most important part of a fan is its speed controller. Electric fan come in a different ways of operating method, that is depend on the manufactures and style. The conventional fans are operated by pull-chain control or capacitor-stepped wall control. In contemporary day nowadays, a luxurious feature offered on many modern ceiling fans that speed is controlled by the hand-held wireless remote control. These types of fan are typically has three or five of speed control. Most ceiling fans sold in recent years have switch for turned the fan on and off operation together with adjust the speed at which the blades rotate.
Phase sequence detection algorithm works by detecting the polarity of the 3-phase grid, then performed twice comparation on one of the 3-phase grid. The method is selected due to its simplicity that only require voltage divider by the resistor arrangement, and ADC feature of the microcontroller. In addition, the method has not been used in most application. In this prototype, ADC features is applied using ARM microcontroller Mini51, and phase sequence detection algorithm is also programmed on ARM microcontroller Mini51. The ARM Mini51 then sends a command to the STM32F401RE for the combination of relay switch via the transmitter serial pin (ARM Mini51 TX), and is received by receiver serial pin (STM32F401RE RX).
The major weaknesses of traffic controllers in Indonesia are unable to accommodate the variety of traffic volume and unable to be coordinated. To solve the problem, a pre-timed and coordinated traffic controller system is built. The system consists of a master and a local controller. Each controller has a database containing signal-timing plans. To synchronize the signal-timing, the master controller sends the synchronization data to the local controller wirelessly, and the local controller can modify a cycle length by adding or subtracting the green interval of any phases. The transition time for synchronization only takes one to several cycles. The algorithm for controlling the traffic including coordination can be done by an AVR microcontroller. Memory usage of the microcontroller is lower than 10%, meanwhile the CPU utilization is no more than 1%, and thus the systems could be widely developed.
On top of that, I take this opportunity to express gratitude to all of the Department faculty members for the stimulating discussion, for the sleepless nights we were working together before deadlines and for the fun we have had fun in this three years. Last but not the least,I would like to thank my parents for the encouragement, support and attention to complete this thesis and my final year project. I also place on record, my sense of gratitude to one and all, who directly or indirectly involve in this project.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. The LED is basedon the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area, and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. These advantages makes LED a suitable CO level indicator for the project.