Though to some researchers the digitalforensic is in- clusive of computer forensic, network forensic, software forensic and information forensic, but it is largely used interchangeably with computer forensic . Computer forensic implies a connection between computers, the scientific method, and crime detection. It includes de- vices other than general-purpose computer systems such as network devices, cell phones, and other devices with embedded systems. There are over hundreds of digitalforensicinvestigation procedures developed indigitalforensicinvestigation practices. An organization tends to develop its own procedures and some focused on the technology aspects such as data acquisition or data analy- sis . Most of these procedures were developed in tack- ling different technology used in the inspected device. As a result, when underlying technology of the target device changes, new procedures have to be developed. However, [7,8] stated that the process of the investigation should be incorporated with the basic procedures inforensic inves- tigation which are preparation, investigation and presen- tation. A categorization of investigation process was done in  to group and merge the similar activities or processes in five phases that provide the same output. The phases are: Phase 1 (Preparation), Phase 2 (Collec- tion and Preservation), Phase 3 (Examination and Analy- sis), Phase 4 (Presentation and Reporting), and Phase 5 (Disseminating the case). The researcher also proposed a mapping process of digitalforensicinvestigation process model to eliminate the redundancy of the process in- volved in the model and standardize the terms used in achieving the investigation goal.
In this model, the stakeholder represents people who have an interest on requirements and on the tracing of requirements, the source represents the origins of a requirement and the artifacts used for documentation purposes, and the object represents the inputs and outputs being traced. In Fig. 5, the model represents what type of information is presented including salient attributes or characteristics of the information which is referred as object . For example, this information can be represented as an attribute of object and the traceability across various object is represented by a link namely traces to . The model also shows the stakeholders are the people who play different roles in the creation, maintenance and use the various objects and traceability links across them. These stakeholders act in different roles or capacities in the establishment and use the various conceptual object and traceability links. The subject represents the location of the documented traceability information i.e. which state that all objects are documented by subjects.
However in 2002,  proposed a framework called an abstract digital forensics framework based on DFRWS framework consists of eleven phases which are identification, preparation, approach strategy, preservation, collection, examination, analysis, presentation and returning evidence. Its does well at providing a general framework that can be applied to categorizing of incidents. This comprehensive process offers a number of advantages as listed by the authors such as mechanism for applying the same framework to future digital technologies. However this framework is open to at least one criticism where its third phase (the approach strategy) is to an extent a duplication of its second phase (the preparation phase). This is because at the time of responding to a notification of the incident, the identification of the appropriate procedure will likely entail the determination of techniques to be used.
In this model, the stakeholder represents people who have an interest on requirements and on the tracing of requirements, the source represents the origins of a requirement and the artifacts used for documentation purposes, and the object represents the inputs and outputs being traced. In Fig. 4, the model represents what type of information is presented including salient attributes or characteristics of the information which is referred as object. For example, this information can be represented as an attribute of object and the traceability across various object is represented by a link namely traces to. The model also shows the stakeholders are the people who play different roles in the creation, maintenance and use the various objects and traceability links across them. These stakeholders act in different roles or capacities in the establishment and use the various conceptual object and traceability links. The subject represents the location of the documented traceability information i.e. which state that all objects are documented by subjects.
Security is assured to minimize losses caused by network security attack. Network security system is an impor- tant factor to ensure the ability, integrity and validity of data. Such security can be built using the Network Fo- rensic Approach. Network forensic focuses on data obtained based on observation on the network. Observing attacks can use Snort Intrusion Detection System (IDS) tool. Snort is an open source-based NIDS software, wide- ly used to secure a network from malicious activity. The working of snort similar to tcpdump, but focus as a secu- rity packet sniffing. The aim of this study is to analyze the log snort as a result of network forensic. In the experi- ment using topology star. There is 1 PC as a snort, 3 PC client that perform attacks, 7 PC as a client too. In the test conducted set as rules as intelegence. The experimental results show that snort is able to monitor network traffic, so that when the suspicious packet containing the attack will send alerts snort, but it also stores the data in the log. The logs can be investigated using the forensic process model. The results of the investigation indicate there are 3 IP attack, as well as showing the attack data are the date of the attack, attacker IP, attack time, and type of attack.
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful. Alhamdulillah, all praises to Allah for the strengths and His blessing in completing this thesis. Special appreciation goes to my supervisor, DrAbd Majid Bin Darsono, for his supervision and constant support. His invaluable help of constructive comments and suggestions throughout the experimental and thesis works have contributed to the success of this project.
The scen es of what are generally referred to as ‘major crime’ such as rape or murder require stringent attention to control and preservation. Access to the scene of crime should be controllable and limited, achieved by creation of at least one access cordon; in some cases a second inner cordon may be used. A record should be retained of all persons entering and leaving the scene of crime. All personnel entering the scene shall wear personal protective equipment that ensures that they do not contaminate the scene. The forensic unit shall dispose of relevant items used or worn at the scene of crime in a timely manner, to ensure that exhibits recovered from other scenes of crime are not compromised.
Once decided if it is or not an alphabet letter, the letter is either passed to a state machine or the application will wait for the next timer interrupt. The state machine is used to check the credibility of the letter, since it could happen for the hand to be in a certain position corresponding to a certain letter in the exact moment of the reading procedure, but in fact it could have just passing by, resulting in erroneous data transmission. The principle of operation is simple, checking the current letter with the previous one and if they are the same, it can move to the next state. The previous letter refers to the decision made based on the sensors readings at the previously timer interrupt, thus the state machine advances to a new state or goes to the ﬁrst state at each timer interrupt. Once the state machine reaches state 3, meaning that the same letter was found 3 times in a row, the equivalent of 450 ms, it can be decided that a letter has been made and will be sent, using EUSART, towards the Bluetooth module which will further send using radio waves to the base station’s Bluetooth module. In the initial- izing process, the EUSART peripheral was used in a Full-Duplex communication so it can conﬁgure the Bluetooth module, sending commands and receiving the conﬁrma- tion. In the runtime process, a Full-Duplex communication is no longer required, the glove sending data to the base station when a certain letter has been detected, the data exchanging becoming simplex and the Bluetooth device acting as a transmitter.
Enkripsi merupakan suatu ilmu seni didalam melakukan penyandian suatu pesan. Pesan yang sifatnya rahasia akan dirubah menjadi ciphertext dalam proses enkripsi yang bertujuan untuk mengacak plaintext sehingga sulit untuk dipahami makna dari pesan tersebut. Pada kriptografi menggunakan algoritma Triple DES untuk penyandian pesan aslinya menjadi ciphertext. Pesan ciphertext tersebut akan disisipkan atau disembunyikan kedalam sebuah media digital berupa file gambar dengan format .bmp. Penggunaan dengan gambar format .bmp karena sederhana, tidak dikompresi, sehingga setiap pixel menyatakan nilai keabuan secara langsung. Penggunaan metode Least Significant Bit (LSB) pada Steganografi digunakan untuk penanaman pesan kedalam sebuah citra gambar, dimana seluruh byte dari gambar akan dirumah menjadi bit dari suatu pesan rahasia. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah rancangan dan desain awal dari aplikasi dan penerapan Algoritma Triple DES dan Least Significant Bit untuk penyembunyian pesan didalam sebuah media digital berupa gambar. Dengan begitu, hasil dari penelitian ini bisa digunakan untuk tahap berikutnya yaitu ketahap coding dan implementasi.
12.4 It is not because the rate of interest is lower on overdrafts, it isn’t, it is higher! It is because interest on overdrafts is charged daily on the amount of the overdraft on that date. Bank loans are for fixed amounts and interest is paid on the full amount each day whether or not the money has been spent. With an overdraft, customers have the freedom to use as much or as little of the over- draft as they wish (and so incur interest on the amount they are overdrawn). In many cases, they will never actually use the overdraft facility. Also, bank loans must be repaid on a stated date. Overdrafts are only payable to the bank when the bank demands repayment, which is rare, unless the individual or business looks likely to have problems paying back the overdraft at some future date. Thus, overdrafts are cheaper to use than bank loans, they are more flexible, and the bor- rower doesn’t have to regularly look for other funds to replace them.
The School of Engineering also champions industrial collaboration with companies, be it multinational corporations or SMEs. The companies typically provide inal-year project (FYP) titles for qualiied 4th Year students to work on. A number of projects have been initiated and completed successfully with companies such as Top Glove, ABB, Daikin R&D, Mawea Industries, ERL Maintenance Support, Signal Transmission, among others. In addition, many such projects resulted from the proactive efforts of the lecturers in establishing Memorandum of Agreements (MOAs) with companies. All these have resulted in a win-win situation whereby companies beneit from the outcome of the research and development efforts while students are able to solve real-work complex engineering problems by leveraging on resources and expertise from the industries.
The speech processing is the processing methods of the input signal and the research of speech signals. The signals are processed in a digital representation therefore speech processing can be observed as the interaction of natural language processing and digital signal processing. Natural language processing is a branch of artificial intelligence and linguistics . It examines the issues of human understanding of natural language which is automatically generated. Natural language understanding systems convert samples of human language into more formal representations that are easier for computer programs to manipulate, and conversion of natural language generation system from computer database information into normal-sounding human language.
Corruption in Indonesia is still happening today. Not less, but continues to increase even though various efforts to eradicate corruption have been carried out. The 2017 KPK annual report shows corruption over the past five years has increased (KPK Team, 2018). In general, an increase in the level of corruption occurs because of a criminal culture that is contrary to the norms of social behavior, ethics, and law (Ramamoorti, 2008) and low moral levels (Gray, 2008). Yuwanto's (2015) research shows that there are several crisis values that encourage corruption behavior. First, corruption is considered a culture or habit, so it is natural to do so. Second, corruption is done to achieve pleasure, wealth, and personal success in order to be recognized or praised by others so that they can control others with their wealth. Third, corruption is done because of the tendency to follow other people's behavior patterns that are common around them for the sake of selfishness.
In terms of economy, corruption is better known as fraud. In modern times Fraud actions occur more often because of the opportunity and opportunity for someone to take action. This is in accordance with two well-known theories, namely the Fraud Triangle Theory and GONE Theory. The Fraud Triangle Theory which was pioneered by Donald R. Cressey (1953) suggests that one's actions to do Fraud are caused by three factors, namely pressure, opportunity, and justification. Whereas according to GONE Theory Fraud actions occur because of 4 things, namely greed, fatigue, needs, and disclosure. This fraudulent action must be prevented immediately because it harms many parties. Therefore according to Miqdad (2008), fraud can be prevented by 4 steps, namely: 1. Building a good internal control structure; 2. Effective control activities; 3. Improve organizational culture; 4 — effective internal audit functions. In addition to the above steps, prevention of fraud can also be overcome by implementing character education especially for students majoring inForensic Accountants and Investigation Auditors.
An employee, John Price has been suspended from his place of employment when an audit discovered that he was using the organizations computing resources to illegally distribute copyrighted material. Unfortunately Mr. Price was able to wipe the hard disk of his office PC before investigators could be deployed. However, a single 3.5-inch floppy disk (the floppy disk image that you must use for this assignment can be downloaded here) was found in the drive of the PC. Although Mr. Price has subsequently denied that the floppy belonged to him, it was seized and entered into evidence: