Treatment and hospitalisation for patients with suspected or proven influenza A (H5N1) should be done for isolation due to clinical monitoring, appropriate diagnostic testing, and antiviral therapy. The management is based on supportive care with supplementary oxygen and mechanical ventilation with certain approach. Early treatment with oseltamivir is recommended and data from uncontrolled clinical trials suggest that it improves survival although the optimal dose and duration of therapy are uncertain. Mortality remains high despite administration of oseltamivir; late initiation of therapy appears to be a major factor. Uncontrolled viral replication, as reflected in the detection of persistent pharyngeal RNA after completion of standard therapy, is associated with a poor prognosis. Higher levels of viral replication and slower clearance of infection probably occur in the lower respiratory tract. 3 The oral bioavailability of oseltamivir in patients with severe diarrhea or gastrointestinal dysfunction related to influenza A (H5N1) virus infection or those in whom the drug has been administered extemporaneously (e.g., by means of a nasogastric tube) is uncertain. A higher dose of oseltamivir (e.g., 150 mg twice daily in adults) and an increased duration of therapy, for a total of 10 days, may be reasonable, given the high levels of replication of the influenza A (H5N1) virus, observations of progressive disease despite early administration of standard-dose oseltamivir (75 mg twice daily for 5 days in adults) within 1 to 3 days after the onset of the illness, and the proven safety of higher doses in adults with seasonal influenza, especially if there is pneumonic disease at presentation or evidence of clinical progression.
AvianInfluenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic AvianInfluenza (HPAI) and Low Pathogenic AvianInfluenza (LPAI). The AvianInfluenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak ofAvianInfluenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case AvianInfluenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission ofAvianInfluenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratorydiagnostic plays an important rolefor successful prevention, control and eradication programs ofAvianInfluenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods forAvianInfluenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis) and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnosticofAvianInfluenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnosticofAvianInfluenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well as pathogenicity test.
O n l y a f e w a c a d e m i c i a n s h a v e d i s c u s s e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e v e n t s o f t h e 19 3 0 s t h e a c c o u n t i n g r o l e . C h e n ( 1 9 7 5 ) d i d s o m e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e o r i g i n o f f i n a n c i a l s t e w a r d s h i p . S h e s u g g e s t e d t h a t it r e s u l t e d f r o m a n a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e v e n t s f r o m a r o u n d t h e 1 9 3 0 s , e s p e c i a l l y in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , s h e r e f e r r e d t o w h a t s h e c a l l e d ‘t h e s t e w a r d s h i p c r i s i s o f 1 9 2 9 ’ ( C h e n , 1 9 7 5 , p . 5 3 8 ) , t h e i n i ti a l s t i m u l u s o f w h i c h w a s t h e c r a s h o f t h e N e w Y o r k S t o c k M a r k e t in 1 9 2 9 . This crash left shock waves w hich reverberate 60 years later ( H e n d r i k s e n & B r e d a , 1 9 9 2 , p . 6 5 ) . T h e d e p r e s s i o n s t a r t e d a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e e n d i n g o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d W a r in 1 9 1 9 . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 s , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p a c t o f t h e e n d o f t h e w a r c r e a t e d a d e m a n d f o r c o n s u m e r g o o d s , p l a n t s a n d e q u i p m e n t . T h i s c o n d i t i o n f u e l l e d a n i n v e s t m e n t b o o m . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e w a s a r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f n e w i n d u s t r i e s m a k i n g r a d i o s , t e l e p h o n e s , m o t i o n p i c t u r e s a n d , m o s t m a r k e d l y , t h e a u t o m o b i l e . C a r p r o d u c t i o n , a l o n e , b y 1 9 2 9 h a d i n c r e a s e d e l e v e n t i m e s s i n c e 1 9 1 3 a n d b y n e a r l y t h r e e t i m e s s i n c e 1 9 1 9 . T h e u n o f f i c i a l e m p l o y m e n t f i g u r e in 1 9 2 9 w a s a s l o w a s 3 .3 p e r c e n t a n d l a b o u r p r o d u c t i v i t y h a d m u l t i p l i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h i s w a s o n e o f t h e b e s t e v e r p e r i o d s f o r t h e A m e r i c a n e c o n o m y .
T h e i n p u t - o u t p u t f a c t o r s a b o v e m a y b e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : a ) i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s , b ) e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , a n d c ) i n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k ill f a c t o r s , a s c a l l e d s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s . T h e l a t te r is m e a s u r e d b a s e d o n t h e i r h o u s e h o l d c o v e r i n g : 1) t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e , 2 ) t h e i n n o v a t i o n , 3 ) t h e r i s k - t a k i n g , 4 ) t h e i n i t i a t i v e a c t i o n , a n d a c t i v e l y c o m p e t e in h a v i n g m a r k e t / t r a d e p o t e n t i a l .
The roleof live vectors, such as infected wild birds, rodents or flies which may act as 'AIV mechanical and/or biological vectors' is largely undetermined and is still controversial. It was believed that flies do not constitute a major factor in transmitting AIV (Harder and Werner, 2006). Even though, the AI outbreak in Pennsylvania, USA in 1987 was suspected spread by garbage flies (Beard, 1998). In view of the fact that, anything that is crawling can be a vector foravianinfluenza has lead to a new hypothesis that house flies is an important mechanical and/or biological vector for AI viruses. In order to prove that hypothesis it is important to do a sequentially relevant research as follow: 1. Whole
Almost some children in the world have experienced an uncontrollable bedwetting condition. Sometimes the condition can last for years. In medical terms enuresis is a term for a child who wets the bed at least twice a week in a period of at least 3 months in children aged 5 years or older, which is not caused by the effects of drugs. From several studies, the condition of enuresis occurred at the age of 5 years, at that age, enuresis number about 10-15% where children still wet the bed at least once a week. The condition of enuresis in the child can be affected by several factors such as increased urine volume, inability to wake up and withhold urination when the bladder is full. Enuresis conditions can have an impact on the development of children physically and psychologically, such as the result of this enuresis children will experience behavioral disorders both from the internal or external. The handling of the enuresis condition is based on four principles such as increased motivation of the child, the behavioral setting of the child, the use of the alarm enuresis, and pharmacotherapy if all the conditions of non-pharmacotherapy have been done. Successful management involves ongoing interventions on these factors
Avianinfluenza (AI) causes the death of millions of domesticated birds and millions others have to be sacrificed in an effort to eradicate the disease (Swayne and Halvorson, 2003; Stageman and Bouma, 2004). Many affected countries suffer a great deal of economic losses brought out by the collapse their poultry industries (Perkins and Swayne, 2002; Perkins and Swayne, 2003; Lewis, 2006). More importantly, the disease also affects human causing a great concern among health authorities in the world (WHO, 2006). The availabilities of accurate and safe diagnostic methods are important in an effort to prevent and to control a future outbreak of AI in both animals and man. Many diagnostic methods developed in the recent years still require expensive facilities and reagents, slow to perform, lack of sensitivity and specificity, unsafe to perform, and unable to determine the virus subtype directly (Gough, 2004).
Pada manusia, pemeriksaan laboratorium yang diperlukan antara lain adalah pemeriksaan darah, usap tenggorokan, kadar hemoglobin, jumlah leukosit total dan masing-masing jenis leukosit, trombosit, laju endap darah. Pemeriksaan radiologi, foto thoraks untuk mengetahui adanya pneumonia. Pemeriksaan secara lengkap bisa merujuk ke RSPI ( Rumah Sakit Penyakit Infeksi) di Jakarta. Kasus dinyatakan positif flu burung, apabila memenuhi beberapa kriteria, yaitu hasil biakan virus positif influenza A (H5N1) atau hasil dengan pemeriksaan PCR positif untuk influenza H5 atau adanya peningkatan titer antibodi spesifik H5 sebesar > 4 kali dan hasil deteksi dengan IFA positif untuk antigen H5.
Both influenza A and B viruses are important respiratory pathogens, although influenza A viruses are the main cause of large epidemics with high mortality. Influenza occurs all over the world, with an annual global attack rate estimated at 5–10% in adults and 20–30% in children. Whereas in temperate climates outbreaks are experienced mainly during the winter season, influenza occurs more unpre- dictably in tropical regions. Recorded since the middle of the 18th century, new influenza A subtypes have caused major global outbreaks at unpredictable intervals. Of these pandemics, the “Spanish flu” in 1918 was the most severe, causing an estimated 20–40 million or more deaths world- wide. Less severe pandemics occurred in 1957 and 1968. Precise data on influenza morbidity and mortality are available mainly from industrialized countries. Seasonal increases of morbidity and mortality above a predicted baseline are frequently used as a measure of the relative severity ofinfluenza epidemics. In the United States, the average excess hospitalization associated with influenzain infants <6 months of age was found to approach 1000 per 100 000. For previously healthy children <4 years of age, the corresponding average rate was 100 per 100 000 andin the age group 5–15 years, 40 per 100 000. For children at par- ticular risk of serious infection, these annual rates were about 5 times higher than in previously healthy individuals. Whereas the highest infection rates are found in children aged 5–9 years, serious morbidity and mortality from influenza occur most frequently in children aged <2 years, elderly people, and people with high-risk conditions such as pulmonary or cardiovascular illness, metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction and various types of immunosuppression. In the United States, influenza-associated deaths range between 30 and 150 per 100 000 population aged >65 years. Since influenza may be confused with other respiratory infections and its most com- mon complication is pneumonia, the mortality ofinfluenza is often expressed as excess deaths caused by pneumonia. More than 90% of deaths attributed to pneumonia andinfluenza occur in elderly people and other high-risk groups. Very high case-fatality rates are observed among residents of long-term care facilities andin children <6 months of age. Studies in pregnant women suggest increased severity of the disease especially after the first trimester.
Fama and Jensen (1983) found evidence that internal control functions proxied with the roleof external directors would improve corporate controls, thus reducing fraud by management. Young (2000) examines that the audit committee is the vanguard in anticipating fraud measures against financial statements. However, Beasley (1996) and Dechow et al (1996) found different evidence that the existence of the audit committee had no significant effect on fraud in financial reporting. Beasley (2000) examines corporate governance between samples of companies that commit fraud and those who do not fraud; they find evidence that fraud firms have few audit committees. It is possible that the audit committee is not independent and does not work maximally. While the sample companies that do not do fraud, put more extern directors.
Jim Cummins is a Canada Research Chair in Language Learning and Literacy Development in Multilingual Contexts, a member of the Centrefor Educational Research on Languages and Literacies and a professor in the department of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning.
Interleukin α disekresikan oleh sel yang mengalami apoptosis serta berfungsi sebagai faktor transkripsi (Carmi et al. 2009). Inflammasomes merupakan kompleks makromolekul sitosolik yang terdiri dari golongan nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) yang memproduksi IL-1β dan IL-18 dalam melawan patogen serta aktivitasnya diregulasi oleh IFN tipe I (Guarda et al. 2011). Aktivitas IL-1 diperantarai oleh IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) yang berperan dalam memberikan sinyal. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) adalah sitokin pro-inflamasi yang dihasilkan oleh sel Natural Killer (NK), sel B, sel dendritik, fibroblast dan sel epitel (Ben-sasson et al. 2009) . Interleukin 1β disintesis sebagai suatu prekursor yang dipecah oleh caspase1 yang diaktivasi oleh inflammasome (Ravikumar et al. 2009). Interleukin 1β berfungsi sebagai kemoatraktan terhadap granulosit untuk meningkatkan perkembangan dan diferensiasi sel T CD4 khususnya sel yang memproduksi IL-17 dan IL- 4 (Ben-sasson et al. 2009). Interleukin 1β menimbulkan respon fase akut dan meningkatkan respon kekebalan (Schmitz et al. 2005).
Phytoextraction is a practical example of phytoremediation, defined as the use of plants to manage or to clean up the environment, andin this sense is a classical industrial biotechnology (Robinson et al., 2009). The concept is not new; plants have been used for hundreds of years to treat human waste, limit soil erosion and to protect water quality. But it is only in the last 30 years that phytoremediation as a defined system has entered the world of science and technology. To make phytoremediation work, plants act as biological pumps or ‘biopumps’ using the sun’s energy to move water and contaminants from the soil into their leaves and stems. At the same time they return some of the products of photosynthesis, such as sugars, to the root-zone. Transpiration is thus the driving force of phytoremediation. By removing water from degraded soil, plants limit the potential for erosion, runoff and leaching. They thereby manage the off-site movement of soil contaminants. Some contaminants are removed along with water. These are stored in plant
I n H a n a f i t e s ' j u r i s p r u d e n c e , " r i g h t s " a r e n o t s e g r e g a t e d ( a b s t r a c t ) f r o m p r o p e r t i e s . T h e i r e x i s t e n c e is n o t o n t h e i r o w n b e h a l v e s ; r a t h e r is l a t i t u d i n a l ( t r a n s v e r s a l ) a n d is t h e o u t c o m e o f s u b s t a n c e a n d b e n e f i t . T h e r e f o r e , a l l o f t h e S e c t s o f I s l a m h o l d t h a t a n i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r k , s a m e a s a p h y s i c a l w o r k s , is t h e s o u r c e o f b e n e f i t ( A d d a r i n i in A y a t i
of virus in their faeces, opportunities for exposure to infected droppings or to environments contaminated by the virus are abundant under such conditions. Moreover, because many households in Asia depend on poultry for income and food, many families sell or slaughter and consume birds when signs of illness appear in a flock, and this practice has proved difficult to change. Exposure is considered most likely during slaughter, defeathering, butchering, and preparation of poultry for cooking . Investigations of all the most recently confirmed human cases in 2005 and early 2006, in China, Indonesia, and Turkey, have identified direct contact with infected birds as the most likely source of exposure. To date, not all human cases have arisen from exposure to dead or visibly ill domestic birds. Exposure to an environment that may have been contaminated by faeces from infected birds is a second source of human infection. Researchin 2005 has shown that domestic ducks can excrete large quantities of highly pathogenic virus without showing signs of illness. 1,2
In the past, ResearchManagementCentrein Malaysia only get the research funding from academic, governmental or any funding institutions, this often slow down the process of getting promising innovations into the market, and this typical of funding sources do not support the development of prototyping and product creation. Now, because of the explosion of vibrant social networking media, the crowdfunding sensation stretches to the far reaches of the global communities. Crowdfunding helps to bridging the gap between idea and reality in the academic researchand practice.
Multi facet relationships of rationality with various behaviors make them very complex. Also, trust will follow the way of thinking, culture and ideology in society. According to Weber, the development of modern in the western society is related to with the development of rationality. This development is reflected in daily individual economic action andin the structure of social organization. It is also expressed in the evolution of western music. Although music is often seen as an emotional language, Weber shows that the development of music also follows rationalization tendency which permeates to the development of modern western civilization (Weber, in Johnson, 1988:207). Weber’s argumentation can explain the phenomenon why western countries become dominant in almost all living sectors, whereas the eastern countries and other groups of society stay in the subordination of the west and its culture.