The framework proposed by  has clear steps to be taken during the investigationprocess starting from preparation ofinvestigationprocess right after the crime is reported until the case disseminated. The framework includes the phases which he call as activities such as awareness, authorization, planning, notification, search and identify, collection, transport, storage, examination, hypotheses, presentation, proof/defense and dissemination. The framework also provides a basis for the development of techniques and tools to support the work of investigators. Therefore, this framework is probably considered as the most complete to date .  proposed multi-tier process after they reviewed that most of previous forensic frameworks were single tier process but in fact the process tends to be multi-tiered. They specifically propose several subtasks for the data analysis phase using survey extract and examine approach. The phases of the first tier are preparation, incident response, data collection, data analysis, presentation and incident closure. The data analysis phase is further organized into the survey phase, extract phase and examine phase in the second tier. In the proposed framework, the analysis task using the concept of objective-based tasks is introduced. As stated by the authors, this framework offers unique benefits in the areas of practicality and specificity. These benefits can overcome the problems in the framework proposed by .
In this model, the stakeholder represents people who have an interest on requirements and on the tracing of requirements, the source represents the origins of a requirement and the artifacts used for documentation purposes, and the object represents the inputs and outputs being traced. In Fig. 5, the model represents what type of information is presented including salient attributes or characteristics of the information which is referred as object . For example, this information can be represented as an attribute of object and the traceability across various object is represented by a link namely traces to . The model also shows the stakeholders are the people who play different roles in the creation, maintenance and use the various objects and traceability links across them. These stakeholders act in different roles or capacities in the establishment and use the various conceptual object and traceability links. The subject represents the location of the documented traceability information i.e. which state that all objects are documented by subjects.
Abstract: Paleography is the study of ancient handwritten manuscripts to date the age and to localize ancient and medieval scripts. It also deals with analyzing the development of the letters shape. Ancient Jawi manuscripts are one of the less studied. Nowadays, there are over 7789 known Jawi manuscripts were kept in custody of various libraries in Malaysia. Most of those manuscripts were undated with unknown author and location of origin. This important information can be discovered by analyzing the different type of writing styles and recognizing the manuscript illuminations. In this paper, we discuss the paleographical analysis from the perspective of computer science and propose a general framework for that. This process involves investigationof Arabic influence on the Jawi manuscript writings, establishing the paleographical type of the script, and classification of writing styles based on local and global Jawi image features.
According to , there is a need for security metrics in digitalforensic that: 1) meet legal requirements for meas- ureable reliability, authenticity, accuracy and precision, 2) based on a sound scientific methodology properly ap- plied, and 3) have a basis provided for independent test- ing. Unfortunately, the digitalforensic metric is not yet formulated and there is no industry consensus that a judge and jury can rely upon as adequate to support a claim and meet legal requirements for measurable reli- ability, authenticity, accuracy, and precision. These are currently elusive and must be constructed on a case-by- case basis. Due to this reason, it is possible to transfer concepts from another research area to build a metric to be used in the current research as described in . Therefore, this research is proposed to transfer concepts from another research area to build a metric to measure the effectiveness of the tracing evidence (incident traces), mapping evidence (incident traces), and identifying the origin of the incident.
Over the last decade, the number of crimes that involves computers has grown and it needs products that can assist law enforcement in using computer-based evidence to determine the who, what, where, when, and how for crimes . As a result, computer and network forensics have evolved to assure proper presentation of computer crime evidentiary data into court. The main purpose offorensic is to identify the origin while maintaining the chain of custody in order to enable the legal process to take its due course . If any computer related incident happens, fundamental questions to answer are when and where the incident occurred and, from which device, system and geographic location did the incident originate. Hence, there is a need in the forensic areas on investigationprocess in order to gather the evidence to be used on identifying the offender. A digitalinvestigation is a processof answering questions about digital states and events. In contrast, a digital forensics investigation is a special case ofdigitalinvestigation where the procedures and techniques used will allow the results to be entered into a court of law .
One of the most powerful weapons in the Forms Management arsenal is the process map. As forms professionals, we are tasked with creating efficient and useful tools for our organizations, often with little understanding of the underlying business process. Often we are collaborating with customers who don’t understand their own business processes, much less the upstream and downstream processes. A process map can go a long way to building that understanding while highlighting problems, miscommunications, gaps, redundancies, workarounds, rework loops and waste. In short, process maps show us “what” we do, “how” we do and “where” we do it. And above every process map should hang a huge sign that reads: “Why?”
Prognosis is a relatively new area and has become a significant function into a maintenance system . From human perspective, it seems that machines fail abruptly. But the fact machines usually go through a measurable sign of failure before occurring . Because of this situation, prognosis is able to use this measurable sign for predicting and estimating the amount of time is left before failure. Thus in the study, prognosis can be referred as the ability to predict how much time is left or remaining useful life (RUL) before a failure occurs given that an observed machine condition variable and past operation profile . The observed condition can be attributed from physical characteristics or process performance to its failures. For instance, vibration signature and oil analysis have been successfully used for monitoring the presence of failure in equipment. Other alternative condition parameters that can be used in prognostic are acoustic data, temperature, pressure, moisture, humidity, weather or environment data, etc . These observed condition is subject to data input of the prognosis process.
As daily needs, FMCG contribute a large portion of consumers’ budget in every country, where high quality and low cost become the main preference (Çelen, Erdogan, & Taymaz, 2005). According to those conditions, fast moving consumer goods are classified into functional product. Some characteristics of functional product are predictable demand and low profit margin (Susman, 2004). Along with population growth, demands of fast moving consumer goods are increasing progressively. However, warehouse’s capacity is already fixed and improvement is needed to handle this situation. Application of mass production will help to achieve higher profit margin. Also in response to both issues, the FMCG manufacturer should implement efficient supply chain strategy where Kamadjaja Logistics takes part there.
The last stage of our process entails building a high- performance digital organization. To do so, we will need to accomplish a series of steps which have been outlined before. In a nutshell, these type of organizations will have a specific and well defined design, integrated by people holding a set of talents and skills, aligned with and committed to a common purpose, who consistently show high levels of collaboration and innovation that produce superior results. Additionally, leadership is not vested into a single individual but taken up by various
dikesampingkan karena pelaksanaan DigitalForensic tidak sesuai dengan tahapan yang seharusnya karena apabila DigitalForensic tidak dilakukan dengan mengikuti ketiga tahapan tersebut di atas, hasil DATA IMAGE FILE yang TIDAK IDENTIK dengan DATA ASAL karena dimungkinkan terjadi penambahan, pengurangan atau penghapusan DATA ASAL. Apabila dalam persidangan terngkap fakta bahwa DATA ASLI sudah terhapus, maka pelru dipertanyakan pula apakah AHLI DigitalForensic telah melakukan tahapan mencarai DATA ASAL yang sudah terhapus tersebut atau dikenal dengan istilah DATA FILE RECOVERY, sebelum melakukan 3 tahapan DigitalForensic sebagaimana telah dijelaskan sebelumnya.
One thing that we should bear in mind about disk imaging tool is, if the copy is not accurate as the original, then analysis may be flawed or incomplete, which may lead to unresolved cases. From time to time new technology and better imaging tools will be invented. It is really up to us to master appropriate tools so that it can be used effectively especially when emergency case happens. The next step after collection is the analysis and presentation of the evidence. Stick to the methodology and cardinal rules of computer forensics then analysis and presentation of the evidence so that the prime objective of computer forensics is met, which is to have the evidence accepted by the court of law.
Dalam buku “Digital Evidence and Computer Crime Forensic Science, Computer and the Internet 3 rd Edition” Casey (2000) mendefinisikan bukti digital sebagai data yang dapat memberikan pernyataan dari sebuah tindak kejahatan yang telah terjadi, atau data yang dapat menghubungkan antara kejahatan dengan korban atau antara kejahatan dan pelakunya.
Payload attribution system (PAS) is a partial quoting payload (excerpt) technique to drive traffic to efficient media storage. Payload and query processing are two main tasks in the PAS. In payload processing, all traffic that passes on the network is tested according to the existing rules, as well as some of the data stored in permanent storage. Filtering technique is often used in the processof capturing in example on HTTP traffic only. This data is stored later in the archive unit, which has two timestamps, the start and end time interval collecting data. FlowIDs information includes source and destination IP addresses are also required for the identification of data packets. The second task of PAS, querying processing, is an important part to retrieve all to the storage unit, then performed an excerpt for each flowID and report its activity. Several techniques have been developed such as the Hierarchical Bloom Filter (HBF), Variable Block Shigling (VBS), Winnowing Block Shingling (WBS) and Winnowing Multi Hashing (WMH) . Three basic concepts in payload attribution are:
This report is submitted to the Faculty of Manufacturing of UTeM as a partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing Management) with Honours. The member of the supervisory committee is as follow:
All too often, project teams are given the ultimate accountability for product delivery, while staff groups—project offices, process management, data admin- istrators—are given decision power. In order to innovate and react to change, agile teams reflect a better alignment of accountability and responsibility. It is again an emphasis, at the team level, on competency rather than process. AGILE ORGANIZATIONS
The second category is author resolvability, which consists of two domains: Writer Identification (WI) and Writer Verification (WV). WI performs a one-to-many search in a large database with handwriting samples of known authorship and returns a likely list of candidates, while WV involves a one-to-one comparison with a decision whether or not the two samples are written by the same person, by determining whether the distance between two chosen samples is smaller than a predefined thre- shold . Furthermore, there are two modes of WV, claim verification and ques- tioned document verification. In the first mode, the system verifies the claim made by a person previously enrolled in the system, while in the second mode, verification problem verifies whether two given documents, questioned document, whose identity need to be verified and reference document, which is collected from the writer for comparison, belong to the same writer or not. The writer of the reference document may or may not be known. The difference between the two is that in this case no da- tabase of writers is available and thus, a threshold cannot be computed. In order to solve the problem, some statistical measure such as such as hypothesis testing, stan- dard deviation, and mean square error is needed to compute the significance of the score [21, 22].
World Health Organization (WHO) has given us the de ﬁ nition of patient empower- ment. It is the power and control, which makes patients to have a better control on their health-related decision making. The empowered and proactive patients have good understanding of latest method of treatment and medication therapy. There are some recent technology trends which have a potential to disrupt existing health care industry. For example, wearable smart devices have made easier for people to use various sensors with ability to continuously check and predict their health status. Toxicological information about different chemicals, metals is easily accessible today by using mobile apps related to drug-drug interaction, drug-food interaction and different medication with their chemical names. Moreover, a number of mobile apps can suggest over the counter drugs, their side effects and synergistic effects with different ingredients. Genetic engineering is another area, which is already disrupting the pharmaceutical industry as there are many companies provide data to people about their genes. People can now easily get familiar about their genetics, metabolic defects and acceptance to different diseases. Moreover, 3D printing is transforming manufacturing industry and already making a huge impact on electronic to airline industries. The 3D printers are being adopted in pharmaceutical industry and will make on demand and targeted drugs. This will also give a chance to new innovators and small companies to come and practice their ideas. Apricia pharmaceuticals has already approved a 3D printed drug called Spritam, which is being used in epilepsy. Generic name of this medication is Levetiracetam and it is available in market with different drug delivery systems .
Presenting (mempresentasikan data) Kegiatan yang dilakukan penyidik untuk membeberkan hasil temuannya kepada pihak berwajib atau di pengadilan. Biasanya presentasi data dilakukan oleh seorang ahli forensic untuk menjelaskan hal-hal yang susah dipahami oleh kalangan umum, sehingga data-data tersebut dapat membantu proses penyidikan untuk menemukan tersangka.