The theory of multiple intelligences is derived from the hypothesis that there is no child who is lacking intelligence; hence, the thought that every child is potential to accomplish achievements should be possessed by every teacher. One of attempts to comprehend the theory of multiple intelligences is by recognizing child’s intelligence potential in early stage, which will be used as the development framework of multipleintelligence-basedlearning. This current study aimed at constructing multiple intellegence indicator system inkindergarten. The first phase of data collection process was done through literature review and pre-survey to identify multipleintelligence indicator and inventory design. The data gained from the first phase were used as fieldwork instrument. The findings of this study were utilized to generate child’s behavior developmental inventory in each intelligence type. The results of this study concluded the followings: (1) Teachers do not develop multipleintelligence-basedlearningin a specific way, but only several types of intelligence that are developed through certain themes, learning programmes, and activities; (2) There is no multipleintelligence that is found to have a significant progress in any kindergarten types; (3) the indicators that are generally characterized by all kinds of kindergarten are: linguistics intelligence/linguistics competence and intrapersonal intelligence/social intelligence; and (4) multicultural kindergartens have shown a higher score on logical-mathematical intellectual development and intrapersonal intelligence; while Islamic-based kindergartens have shown to predominate in naturalist and existential intelligences.
Since there is no English Language curriculum for kindergarten students, the teachers adapt and compose it appropriately from the national curriculum – Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan- in that school so that it could be implemented well in syllabus, lesson plan, and in class finally. Nevertheless, the problem is that teaching resources and information on teaching methods and techniques are limited for both learners and teachers. Furthermore, there are limited English resource books as references that support teaching-learning activities especially for kindergarten students. That problem brings effect to the teachers’ preparation and planning before teaching. The teachers often get confused how to set materials and methods which are interesting for children. A lesson plan should be seen as opportunity to help them develop the eight multiple intelligences aspects.
Learning nowadays has a purpose to build a human being, which is good in all aspects of life. Consequently, to improve the quality of education, the teaching learning should not be emphasized in cognitive domain only, but also to all aspects of humanity such as morale, attitudes, arts, sports, etc. Learningin school should motivate students to be active and happy learners. Happy students learn more readily than they who are not. Additionally, to make the learning successful, teachers should acknowledge that their students are unique learners who posses different style inlearning. Since all students do not learn in the same way, they cannot be assessed in the same way. Knowing about students’ learning will allow the teacher to properly assess the students’ progress (Lazear, 1992: 17). Considering the students’ different learning style, the teachers should find an alternative in teaching to give more contribution toward learning.
• Using the embedded R engine(s) spawned by Oracle DB, ORE allows data- and task- parallelism via its embedded R execution support. Taking advantage of more memory availability and database-enabled data parallelism, embedded R execution enables execution of R scripts (including those that are based on open source CRAN packages) embedded in SQL and PL/SQL routines. This type of processing is called lights-out processing. The R scripts can be stored in the database R script repository and invoked by name in calling SQL statements. This can be done dynamically too. Embedded R execution is exposed through both R and SQL APIs. The output of such execution can be structuredd data, XML representations of R objects and graphics, or PNG graphics via BLOB columns in Oracle table(s). The latter allows seamless integration with other applications such as OBIEE RPDs and dashboards by passing results from R for business intelligence and advanced analytics. Table 3-3 lists these APIs (both R interface and SQL interface) for ORE v1.5.0.
(1) Syntax of CERDAS model can be implemented, but the allocation time should be revised. To manage time effectively, steps that requires much time such as Concept exposure need to be made longer, while Self Mirror step made to be shortened. Self Mirror is not always conducted at the beginning of every lesson. In order not to feel monotonous, teacher can change the activity at this stage. For example, beside telling about themselves, students are asked to assess their own homework or assignment and then express the strength and the weaknessess, or other activities. The point is these activities intend to invite students to learn more about themselves in order to strengthen intrapersonal intelligence.
The enhancement on students’ scientific consistency occur after giving the treatment problem basedlearning with scientific consistency approach, because student used to learn with it. Student could understand the concept in various representations and it is suitable with Kohl and Noah’s (2003) state that teaching learningin class effect the multiple representation ability of students. Using multiple representations approach on PBL model, student used to various representation such verbal, picture, and mathematics. This multiple representations approach served on the syntax of problem basedlearning model and the questions on studen ts’ worksheet. Besides that, the enhancement of scientific consistency is supported on the previous research stated that after the treatment in the problem basedlearning model with multiple representations approach towards improving students’ scientific consistency , ob tained a normalized gain value by 0.58 in enough category (Sari, 2015). The scientific consistency could enhance due to the percentage of implementation is 100% means student get the multiple representation during class activity. Besides that, one of the function of multiple representations is using multiple representation inlearning students integrate information from more than one representation (Nieminen, 2010). In the field, students are able to explain, analyze the phenomena heat transfer problem in different representation. For example inlearning sea breeze and land breeze, students explain the wind flow from the picture and compare the temperature, pressure in the land and in the sea. Students not only think the wind flow abstractly but also using picture helps student master the concept.
The first related study conducted by Millington (2011) focused on developing songs from activities into language learning tasks. The study showed that adapting existing children’s songs is one method that teachers can use to increase their repertoire of songs, thus giving them more opportunity to use songs in their teaching contexts. The next related study conducted by Meyer (2013). He focused on the design of learning material for pre-school teaching and learning through the example of a game-based platform for learning English called Mingoville.com. He found that a game based platform that uses its versatility and adaptability to address needs in the market that arise from a growing political and parental pressure on introducing English to pre-school children. In this role Mingoville situates itself between formal and informal contexts for learning and between play and learn activities that can and should be negotiated locally.
Nissani (1993) also argued that children are encouraged to become involved in purposeful and creative activities with other children, to make major choices among hands-on learning activities, to initiate and accomplish self-motivated tasks in a rich environment, and to construct knowledge at their own individual pace by discovering and engaging in open-ended activities that reflect all areas of their development. It tends to be highly student centered and keeps children’s developmental needs in mind by allowing them to learn at their own pace and in their own learning styles. It involves a great deal of creativity on the part of the teacher, who continually develops ways for children to interact in hands-on tasks and activities in which they may construct their own meaning through interaction.
Those who have high body-kinesthetic intelligence are able to move with high accuracy, skillfully uses their hands to create or change something, and have some specific physical skills such as coordination, balance, skill, strength, flexibility, and speed of movement. They also have a sensitivity to accept or tactile stimulation. To utilize and develop bodily-kinesthetic intelligence of the students, math teacher can design hands-on activities. Allow students to move in class, give students the opportunity to demonstrate the use of props in front of the class, or doing math games that require movement, can also be done by mathematics teachers to motivate students with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence actively involved inlearning mathematics.
Language major in eleventh grade contained 25 students. English subject was run three times a week: two meetings run for 2 x 45 minutes and one meeting only run for 1 x 45 minutes. Each class was equipped with a white board, board markers and a set of speaker. There were an English laboratory equipped with 35 listening booths, a VCD player and television, two rooms with 1 overhead projector (OHP) and computers, and a computer lab with internet connection. English literature such as magazines and story books were unavailable. English club was unavailable but there was an English wall magazine which was developed with teachers’ assistance. However, the wall magazine was not regularly present. The budget for excursion and additional learning material were taken from students’ contribution.
The preliminary field testing showed the means of the designed materials evaluation were between 4 – 4.66, it means that the designed materials were acceptable. It is expected that this designed materials will encourage teachers and future researchers to implement Multiple Intelligences theory in teaching learning activities.
of about 125 million hours of content per day. The viewing pattern and behavior aspects of all its viewers and the likelihood of people watching a series with lead actor Kevin Spacey gave them solid predictions about its success. Not limited to the identification and confirmed prediction of this content, the analytics also divided the viewer base into ten different categories based on behavioral and content preference choices demonstrated, which helped them to promote House of Cards. Based on these analytics, ten different trailers were made to be presented to relevant groups of viewers (e.g., people who prefer watching action more should see the one with more action packed into it, people with a higher choice index for watching Kevin should see the one with maximum exposure of Kevin, and people watching mostly female-centric movies were shown the one suiting their taste). So instead of going to any media house for promotion data acquisition or execution of a promotion plan, Netflix took a decision based on user data and promoted back exactly based on their user preference. This is a good example of the changing paradigm of IT. Instead of just back-end data processing, ETL, and presenting to business, IT in this example is a great enabler of business for Netflix. They have a data-driven, and thus IT-driven, business model. The business expansion and product expansion details are taken very well considering the scope of business and with utilizing user data, and even promotions are handled that way. Before this, Netflix didn’t utilize this aspect of the IT-business connection. Before 2002, Netflix had only suggestions running based on the geography of users.
Setelah Gardner mengumumkan teori multiple intelligencenya, anak-anak dengan kecerdasan non linguistic dan matematis mendapat perhatian. Cap-cap negatif terhadap anak diterjemahkan ulang sebagai gaya atau kecenderungan belajar. Anak yang banyak gerak, banyak bicara, suka menyentuh benda-benda, berani berdekatan dengan hewan suka menyendiri tidak lagi diidentifikasi sebagai anak nakal atau berkelainan. Lebih lanjut Gardner mengatakan bahwa cara mudah mengetahui kecerdasan anak adalah dengan memperhatikan ”kenakalan -kenakalan merek a’ yaitu perilaku menonjol yang sangat dinikmati anak (Armstrong, 1993). Semua anak adalah cerdas, hal tersebut merupakan pandangan teori multiple intellingence dapat memberikan ruang gerak yang luas bagi anak. Perilaku dan kecenderungan anak diamati dan diidentifikasi sehingga kecenderungan kecerdasan anak ditemukan dan dijadikan dasar dalam mengembangkan program kegiatan. Berbagai kegiatan dan variasinya di gunakan untuk merangsang kemunculan dan penguatan setiap indikator yang dimiliki anak.
Within the individual, a range of abilities or knowledge are evident and can help a person in enriching their lives and effectively respond to the environment. These are called multiple intelligences. The proposed discipline program can develop interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, kinesthetic intelligence and children aged 4-6 years. Children recognize the concept of right and wrong, self-control and be responsible to develop their intrapersonal intelligence. Good adjustment with the environment develops interpersonal intelligence. While the methods used in this program is a play which is believed to be able to develop children's kinesthetic intelligence.
Students as the object inlearning process have different nature. Some students enjoy singing, some other love drawing, while some of them like reading. According to Gardner as cited by Armstrong (2009), all humans exhibit the range of intelligences. They are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and natural. These differences indicate that children have different ways to enjoy the learning process. Pinter (2006) states that it is important for teachers to take into account that all children have stronger and weaker aspects of their Multiple Intelligences and preferred learning style. In providing fun and enjoyable activities, teachers need to know about students’ interests, characteristics, and abi lities. Therefore, the Multiple
perkembangan anak usia dini, mampu mengoptimalkan 9 indikator multipleintelligence menggunakan pendekatan yang berpusat pada anak yang ditandai dengan interaksi misalnya antara para instruktur dan terapis program layanan anak usia dini di daerah bencana, memunculkan media play therapy yang dapat melibatkan anak aktif dan secara totalitas telah dilakukan melalui kegiatan nyata atau sesungguhnya. Ternyata di daerah- daerah bencana Jawa Tengah yang meliputi Kabupaten Kebumen, Kabupaten Wonosobo, dan Kabupaten Klaten tidak dijumpai media- media play therapy yang telah sepenuhnya digunakan oleh para instruktur dan terapis untuk menerapkan multipleintelligence yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini. Para instruktur dan terapis di daerah bencana Jawa Tengah yang menyatakan telah menggunakan media play therapy seperti yang dimaksud dalam penelitian ini (tidak terbukti dalam dokumen tertulis) beranggapan bahwa dalam menangani terapi pada anak yang mengalami gangguan- gangguan psikis serta perilaku menyimpang akibat bencana, cukup menggunakan media yang ada, siap pakai, maupun yang sudah tersedia di sekitar. Pada hal berdasar kajian teori multipleintelligence seharusnya sebuah media play therapy ketika digunakan untuk memberikan terapi kepada anak harus mampu mengintegrasikan satu kecerdasan dengan kecerdasan lainnya. Artinya, suatu media seharusnya dapat mengembangkan berbagai kecerdasan, misalnya media tanah liat bukan hanya untuk mengembangkan kecerdasan motorik halus saja, tetapi juga harus dapat mengembangkan dimensi multipleintelligence lainnya.
Based on Graduate Tracer Study 2012 done by Ministry of Education (MOE) Malaysia, formerly known as Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), the latest statistics of unemployed students according to the fields of study has been released. This study stated that there were 184,581 students graduated in 2011 and 44,391 or 24% of these graduates, mostly bachelor „ s degree holders were unemployed. Arts and Social Sciences had the highest number of unemployment, contributing 44.5% or 19,784 from the total number of unemployed graduates. Trailing behind are graduates from Technical fields with 12,321 which account for 27.7% and Science graduates with 7,321 which account for 16.49% of the total (Ministry of Higher Education, 2012). This study is supported by other researchers such as Allen (1998) and Drewes (2002) who believe that social science graduates may initially be disadvantaged by the lack of technical content and inability to relate to their programs of study and occupations although they do as well as graduates of applied courses of study once established. In general, graduates in science and technology seem to have fewer problems in getting a job compared to those in humanities and social science (Kougioumoutzaki and Kalamatianou, 2008).
The process of learningin the Mardisiwi Islamic Kindergarten turns out to have both the strengths and weaknesses. The strengths are elaborated as follows. First, the class was adjusted to the theme given at that time. There was interrelation between the theme and the materials. Second, the teacher used the Educational Demonstration Media (EDM) which was available in the classroom. Third, the teacher had capability in controlling the class and memorized the names of the entire students in the class (Group A was a small class of 12 students). Forth, the improvement of child’s development could be implemented simultaneously in the class: Cognitive development by counting numbers, Motor skill and physical development by coloring and free drawing, and Language development by recognizing new vocabularies. Fifth, the learning process was complete; it comprised the opening, apperception, core, evaluation, and closing. The weaknesses of the learning process were: First, it relied mainly upon the human resources. Educational background of the teacher was not English, thus, it became a main obstacle in the class due to the limit of teacher’s vocabulary. Second, asynchronous activity in the class—which was coloring calligraphy in magazines, circle, triangle, and rectangle shapes—whereas the theme being presented at that time was The Universe. Third, despite of using bilingual, most of the learning process was communicated in Bahasa. It focused primarily on the introduction of some vocabularies related to the theme.
The WGCTA ® is a standardized, copyrighted, assessment tool for assessing the success of programs and courses in developing critical thinking skills (Watson & Glaser, 1994). The instrument includes exercises which are purported to be examples of problems, statements, arguments and interpretations of data which are regularly encountered at work as well as at school and in other activities. The WGCTA ® is designed to measure critical thinking as a composite of attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The instrument is available in parallel forms A and B and is also available in an abbreviated version (Form S). Form S was used for this study as it is approved for secondary students and can be completed in approximately 45 minutes.