academies. As a consequence, the making and purveying of art was professionalized. Increasingly affluent immigrants and members of the local bourgeoisies became consumers of art, lending these urban centers a cosmopolitan air. The influx of foreign investment enabled urban reform and building expansion projects, through which these cities attempted to become reflections of European capitals. The emergent urban
A museum is institution to increase knowledge about history because museums collect objects of scientific, artistic, or historical importance and make them available for public through exhibitions that may be permanent or temporary. Museum is certainly organization with multiple purposes that has functions to protect, develop, utilize collectionsand do communication to society. It is in line with Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia (Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 66 (2015), Pasal 1 says that a museum is institution that has functions to protect, utilize collectionsand do communication to society. Museum’s collections have important value for history, knowledge, education, religion, culture, technological, and tourism. That is the reason why museums do the protection. Museum has function to utilize collections because museum’s collections have benefit for education, social interests, knowledge, technological, culture and tourism. Museum does communication to society because museum has special mission that is communicating with the public. It means museum tries to make the collections available to public both domestic and foreign visitors. The aim is to strengthen the relationship with the public and to serve visitors better.
The conservator’s concern is twofold. First, research on damaged telecommuni- cations equipment caused by hygroscopic nitrate particles suggests that metal objects in museum collections may be similarly sensitive. Nitrates were commonly found during the win- ter season at all the sites investigated in the present research, and were almost as high in concen- tration indoors as outdoors at the one historical house studied that used no filtration system. While this study took place in Southern California, the types of particles concerned are ubiqui- tous. Second, it is doubtful that once small particles settle on certain surfaces—such as feathers, fur, botanical specimens, large unframed tapestries and rugs, and unvarnished paintings—they can ever be removed. Larger particles may be partially blown off with an air current, but very small organic carbon and elemental (black) carbon particles cannot be dislodged in this way. A very soft brush may assist further, but once these small particles become imbedded in the surface texture, they become a permanent part of the structure. Just how permanent can be seen from the fact that no simple washing or bleaching technique is known to the field of paper conserva- tion that will remove elemental carbon and that does not pose its own damage or risk of future effects on natural aging.
On the other hand, Franco-Giraldo (2012:198) affirms that to achieve population- wide health, the reorientation of services is the means, PHC is the strategy, and population health is the general framework for action; however, some authors point out the advantages and limitations of this approach and the reasons why it have become a constraint rather than a facilitator of health equity. The Brazilian experi- ence is examplary; an inverse hypothesis has emerged in regard to equity, and it argues that new programs initially cover people with high status, and sometime later it reaches the poorest. The preventive care approach is especially represented in the PHC strategy, although in recent decades its scope has been expanded with the so- called renewed primary health care (2007). Therefore, the authors concluded that there is little reason to believe that working on universal coverage will lead to improvements in health equity. Progressive universalism is the alternative proposed by the authors, who observe two initiatives from Brazil and Mexico: Brazil’s Family Health Program (1994) and Mexico’s Popular Insurance initiative (2004). In both, the program began in the most depressed territories and social groups and was applied progressively in other precarious areas. The premise in the proposal is that groups with greater disadvantages at least earn the same as those who are better off at each stage of universal coverage.
Such a picture of the role of learning in Catullan poetry seduces for many reasons. The sort of learnedness Catullus values looks in kind a lot like the learning valued by philologists, and the ‘‘polemical’’ edge to the Catullan art of reference bears comparison to the way professional academics put their knowledge on display by building on and correcting the work of predecessors. But it is precisely the recogniz- ability of this Catullus that ought to put us on our guard, not simply because it raises the suspicion that Latinists have followed a long tradition of finding someone like themselves in the infinitely accommodating diversity of the Catullan oeuvre, but because what seems to need no explanation is often the most important thing to explain. My aim in this chapter therefore is to expand the picture of Catullan learning that emerges from the works of critics like Thomas by considering why such learn- edness matters in Catullus’ poetry and what work these displays of the mastery of Greek letters perform in the construction of his self-image. Not only was Catullus the most learned of Roman poets – doctus even in the eyes of the hyper-refined Ovid – but also his verses are explicitly embedded in contemporary social transactions. Yet for the most part the ‘‘social’’ Catullus of the polymetrics and epigrams and the ‘‘learned’’ Catullus of the longer poems move in different scholarly circles today. The former attracts the greatest share of attention from historically minded critics and the latter from formalists. By accepting this division, however, we risk both missing a rich and subtle document in the history of Rome’s engagement with Hellenic culture and underplaying an important area of contention and complexity within the poet’s work. For, as I hope to show, learnedness forms much more than a mode of poetic expression for Catullus; it is a subject his poetry explores in its own right, and its role in shaping the position and status of its author is made
"Latin Amerika" adı, 1860'lı yıllarda III. Napolyon döneminde Pan -L atinliğin hüküm sürdüğü dönemde popülerleşmişti. Latin Am erika ülkelerinin ABD’yle aynı yarımkürede yer almalarının siyasi tarihleri açısından önemli sonuçları olmuştur. 19. yüzyılın sonuna doğruysa ABD’nin hegemonyasında Amerika’nın birleşmesini öngören Pan -Amerikanizm fikri; ABD'n in sömürgeci bir imparatorluk kurması üzerine temellenen ve özellikle Jefferson tarafından geliştirilen bir yaklaşımdı. Aristokrasi nedeniyle halka toprak dağıtılmamış olması, Avrupa ile yapılan ticaretin ekonomik gelişmeye yol açmaması, Avrupa’nın ucuz mallarının yerel sanayi ve üreti me zarar vermesi 1820- 1870 yılları arasında çoğu Latin Amerika ülkesinin şiddet, diktatörlük, siyasi ve ekonomik istikrarsızlık içinde yaşamasına neden oldu. 1870’lerden itibaren Avrupa’dan gelen sermaye hareketi ekonomi de değişim yaratmakla birlikte bu ülkelerin borçlarını da artırdı. Öte yandan ticari imtiyazlar ve hammaddeler için büyük devletlerin -ABD'nin 1845-1848'de Meksika'ya ve 1855-1860'de Nikaragua'ya; Fransa'nın 1861 -1867'de Meksika'ya- Latin Amerika'ya müdahalesi saldırganlara karşı bir dayanışma duygusu da geliştir di. 1880’lerde ise ABD Dışişleri Bakanı James G. Blaine “Büyük Abi Politikası”nı yarattı ve Latin Amerika ülkelerine pazarlarını ABD’ye açması dayatıldı .
The DCC Lifecycle model also is a helpful starting point in considering the progress that has been made in developing infrastructure for digital curation and designing tools to help achieve preservation and access goals. In the last few years, practitioners and researchers have focused significant atten- tion on studying communities of practice and meeting tech- nical challenges to support curation functions. In particular, the field has concentrated on the earlier part of the lifecycle by developing methods to study how users create, use, and reuse data. In a series of case studies, researchers from the JISC in the United Kingdom have examined a number of key communities in the hard sciences, social sciences, and engi- neering to identify patterns of data creation, use, reuse, and archiving through the Disciplinary Approaches to Sharing, Curation, Re-use and Preservation (SCARP) project. 79
Abstract Juwana Catchment and Logung Sub-catchment in particular has been sufering several major past lood events with signiicant loss. his study conducted an assessment of lood risk by using OpenLISEM as physical soil and hydro- logical model to generate the single storm lash lood occurrences. he physical input data were collected from remote sensing image interpretation, ield observation and measurement and literature review. here are three return periods chosen as scenarios that represent rainfall intensity in Logung Sub-Catchment. Model validation was done by adjusting initial moisture content and saturated hydraulic conductivity values to equate the calculated total discharge with the measured total discharge in several chosen dates. he results show increases in most of modeled hydrological parameter with respect to increasing of rainfall intensity.
To give the next four levels of abstraction sufficient rigor for unambiguous representation in software, we insist on imposing a great deal of structure upon the language of the Project World (which we call the Information Community Language.) It is through these structures that individuals certify that they are observing common phenomena, and have abstracted the Real World in a repeatable way. Specifically, we impose nine formal and rigorous structures: Feature Instances, Geometry, Coordinates, Geometry Schema, Coordinate Reference System, Feature Types, Attribute-Value Pairs, Attribute Schema, and Project Schema. All of these are to be understood as real world facts, not to be modeled in software at this level of abstraction. We forbid all language that lies outside these structures. Because all nine structures are essential for information sharing, we will discuss each of them, one at a time.
Guava has several different accessions. Guava diversity needs to be studied and evaluated in order to determine the next steps in the guava breeding. The objective of this research was to characterize and cluster some guava germplasm collections. The study was conducted at Aripan and Subang experimental farm, Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute from January 2012 to December 2012. Five fruits of each accession were randomly selected, sampled, and then characterized using UPOV guidelines. Obtained data were analyzed by NTSYS ver.2.1. The Similarity level of 19 accessions ranging from 70 – 90% or the genetic distance was between 0- 20%. Dendogram obtained could be clustered into two different groups, namely group I (ARP9406, ARP9407, ARP8653, ARP8742, ARP10.2, JBT001, JBT002, ARP8740, JBT003andJBT004) and group II (ARP10.7, ARP10.6, ARP10.1, ARP10.12, ARP10.9, ARP10.11, ARP8744, ARP8741 and ARP8743). The result of this research can be used for guava breeding. Species diversity and genetic resources are very important to produce new varieties. This is expected to be highly valuable in the future.
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Our international qualiications are recognised by the world’s best universities and employers, giving students a wide range of options in their education and career. As a not-for-proit organisation, we devote our resources to delivering high-quality educational programmes that can unlock learners’ potential. Our programmes and qualiications set the global standard for international education. They are created by subject experts, rooted in academic rigour and relect the latest educational research. They provide a strong platform for students to progress from one stage to the next, and are well supported by teaching and learning resources.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was the catalyst for many nonviolent protests. The fight smolder of black and made the sympathetic white as nothing had ever done before, but was not without cost. Thousands of people were jailed because they defined Jim Crow laws. There was many conflict of racial, and the climax of this conflict was “March on Washington” in 1963. The United State occurred racial and social crisis that could influenced the unity of nation. The remaining Jim Crow law was overruled by the Civil Right Act of 1964. The civil right movement was produced significant gains for the Black, progress continuous today. This signified a change in the social acceptance of legislative racial problem in America and a profound increase in the number of opportunities available for the Black people. In 1989 the United States court delivered options in several cases dealing with seniority and racial discrimination in employment. 16
Women position in the 19 th was really suffer. Because in this period, the position of women is subordinate class and men is the super ordinate in the society. According to Andersen (1983:9), feminists believe that women are treated as inferior. The meaning of feminism has been developed and understood in different ways. Woman was oppressed by a special form of life called patriarchy through which man appropriate all superior social role and keeps women in subordinated and exploited position (Mandell, 1995: 14).