ex traction was done 6 hours in 40 After the had fished, the tube brought out. The fat who is in fat cup, was until all ofthe fat steamed. then fat cup was dried in oven at for 3-5 hours. The cold fat cup was in desiccators constant
cup ofof was cold put to the filter cup, than it was diluted with 200 water, contain nitrogen, added sotne boiled and 100 in order rha t solution became base. filter cup was put above fast. The process went until was caught by which is in the or if part ofthe legend in the cup
Proximate analysis: Table 1 showed the proximate analysis ofdeep-see fish about moisture composition, ash, fat, protein and carbohydrates. Proximate contents on some type ofdeep-seafish have different content. The differences caused by environmental differences among others, temperature, salinity, pressure, oxygen availability and more. Deepseafish need fat to keep body temperature because ofthe environment in thedeepocean has a lower temperature than pelagic environment/surface (Davis, 1991). When compared with tuna, somedeep-seafish have higher fat content. It is because deep-seafish movement is less than the pelagic fish (Nybakken, 1988).
In the expedition of Baruna Jaya IV research vessel which did research in the Indian Ocean start from Southern of Java Ocean until Western Sumatra, found 530 speciesof marine fish, 70 species were recently identified andthe scientific name haven’t known yet (Suman et al. 2006). Several studies in thedeep-seafish have done them, Suman and Badrudin (2010) regarding arrest policies and utilization of resources in marine fish in Indonesia, Damayanti (2005) regarding the use ofsomeofthe early studies ofdeepseafish in waters westof Sumatra as a source of food and drugs, Suseno et al. (2006) showed that thenutrientcontentand antibacterial potency ofdeepseafish in Southern Oceanof Java, as well as taurine content analysis of several marine fishspecies in the research Suseno et al. (2008) among others, Antagonia capros, Diretmoides pauciradiatus, Neoscopelus microchir, and Zenopsis conchifer.
I FLUE CE UPWELLI G PROCESSES TO BLOOMI G ALGAE I MARI E ECOSYSTEM. It has been done the study about influence of upwelling processes to blooming algae. Upwelling definite that rise up the deeply water to surface cause by physical oceanic parameter. Upwelling processes was be marked by accumulation nutrientcontent in these area. It was caused the deeply water contain more nutrient compared with surface water. utrients, especially phosphate, nitrate and silicate will influences the high numbers of phytoplankton. The blooms of phytoplankton population would become precursor to fish mortalities, seafood contamination, threat to human health and changes ecosystem community. The data from Oceanographical Cruise Report (OCR) that have been done the observation in thewestSumatera Island, included thenutrientcontent in the several station sampling points. Sampling were carried out in 30 point sampling and 8 point analyzed and reported indicated rise up thenutrientcontent with more deepsea level. utrient content in the deeply seawater will move to surface level and would be trigger the blooming algae. However, the controlled upwelling could be gave the benefit to fish farming.
The International Chamber of Shipping announced its intention to reduce CO2 emissions in order to mitigate warmer ocean temperatures and prevent acidification by: (i) Maintaining international shipping's annual total CO2 emissions below 2008 levels; (ii) Reducing CO2 emissions per tonne-km by at least 20% by 2022, compared to 2008. Implementation will be achieved principally through technical and operational measures by shipping companies. The Italian General Confederation of Enterprises, Professions and Self-Employment (Confcommercio) announced that it will allocate EUR 50,000 in 2018 to the "DUE project - Divers united for the environment". In partnership with the University of Bologna, the Professional Association of Divers Instructors, SCUBAPRO and ANSA, the project provides a monitoring program of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea, based on the observations of recreational divers. In 2018, thanks to the investment of Confcommercio, the project will be expanded and will target all tourists, which will detect the evolution ofthe marine biodiversity by observing and filling in simple questionnaires, analysed then by the University of Bologna. DUE project allows to improve the knowledge of a possible shift in Mediterranean Sea biodiversity driven by human activities and climate change and at the same time to raise awareness on the ocean's health.
Particular consideration should be given to the role of OCSR intergovern- mental standards and internal corporate codes of conduct in judicial civil lia- bility proceedings. An outstanding issue to consider in this regard is whether non-compliance by an operator with the OCSR standards of conduct could be considered as “negligence” and thereby trigger liability under the treaty-based civil liability regime. This issue emerged in the Erika case, where the French Court of Appeal exonerated Total, the oil company chartering the ship at the time ofthe incident, from liability under Art. III(4) ofthe 1992 CLC Convention. The reasoning ofthe Court focused precisely on the non-legally binding nature of Total’s internal rules and reached the conclusion that, as such, there was no legal obligation upon the company to carry out the inspections.81 However, this judgment was later reversed by the Cour de Cassation, which held that Total’s omission to perform the controls was indeed reckless in the meaning of Art. III(4), albeit without giving a specific reason for this revirement.
The discovery of new antibiotics is one ofthe most important goals in biomedical research, as the appearance of multiresistant bacterial strains has made certain human and animal infections virtually untreatable. Sponges are known to contain a high number of compounds that act against terrestrial pathogenic bacteria, while considerably lower activities have been observed against marine bacteria . Furthermore, in comparison with sponges found in temperate and tropical seas, Antarctic sponges have been reported to have a smaller number of antimicrobial secondary metabolites  that show generally weaker activities . Previous screenings of crude extracts from 93 Arctic sponges against bacteria and fungi associated with opportunistic infections showed that about 10% ofthe sponges yielded significant antimicrobial activities, with IC 50 values from 0.2 to 5 μ g/mL . In the present study, only eight
water quality is an increasingly severe problem in many estuaries since sewage treatment is non-existent or nearly so. It is easy to forget that cholera epidemics in Providence andthe stench of polluted waters led this state to build the first municipal sewage treatment plant in 1901. Estuarine fisheries are collapsing through- out the tropics. Fish were once so abundant in Narragansett Bay that it could - for a brief pe- riod - support hundreds of floating traps. The first big collapse here came in the late 1860s and overfishing offshore is dramatically evident today. We have seen a lucrative farmed oyster industry that once provided hundreds of jobs boom and bust - a pattern now being repeated with shrimp farming in many tropical nations. The differences lie in whether such changes are taking place today or 50 or 100 years ago, andthe speed with which they happen.
Firstly observed in Med. Sea in 1984 off the Monaco Oceanographic Museum. Following year, it had grown to cover 30km2 and was preventing native plants from growing. The aquarium strain reproduces asexually. Rate of growth up to 1 cm/day. If any small part is severed fromthe rest ofthe alga, it will regrow into another alga
Most fish processing households believe their vulnerability levels are increasing with climate change (Figure 12). The major reason ascribed to this increasing vulnerability is dwindling fish catch for processing and rate of destruction of ovens. Other non-climate related reasons given were high cost of transportation and low bargains gotten for smoked fish as the number of people engaged in the business has increased over the years. Considering the perishability of their product, they are compelled to sell at low prices to market women to meet their cost of production and make little revenue. In order to adapt to low incomes and increasing vulnerabilities, some strategies have been adopted by these fish processing households ranging from reducing food quantities previously consumed to others resorting to borrowing from friends and relatives to supplement low incomes for household expenditure.
The purpose ofthe research was to produce collagen hydrolysate from pangasius catfish skin and bone using bromelain enzyme. The resulted collagen peptides were expected to have antioxidative activity. Five different enzyme concentration ranged from 1-5% and different hydrolysis time (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90, 120 and 160 min) were used in the experiment. The parameters observed were yields of both skin and bone collagen, degree of hydrolysis and antioxidative activity (DPPH and reducing power). The result showed that collagen hydrolysate prepared by bromelain enzyme has antioxidative activity. The yield for both skin and bone collagen hydrolysate was 45.84% and 12.86% respectively. The highest degree of hydrolysis skin collagen hydrolysate was 2.58% at 160 minutes whereas the bone collagen hydrolysate had the highest degree of hydrolysis was 2.97% at 160 minutes. Based on the DPPH method skin and bone collagen hydrolysate had the antioxidative activity of 61.67% and 71.83%. In the other hand the reducing power method skin and bone collagen hydrolysate had the antioxidative activity of 0.35 and 0.38.
Chickweed (Caryophyllaceae, Stellaria media) is a cosmopolitan weed (Allen and Hatfield 2004). Many animals eat their shoots and seeds, both domesticated and wild, with no reported deleterious effects (Sobey 1981), but high oxalic acid content may be a problem (Guil et al. 1996, 1997). Chickweed is readily eaten and digested by chaffinches. Derrick et al. (1993) reported that sheep readily digested chickweed. It is used as a leaf veg- etable, often raw in salads by people (Slavokhotova et al. 2011). Chickweed is reported to have probiotic effects including: anti-inflammation, anti- viral, anti-itch, anti-pyretic, anti-rheumatic, demulcent, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, expectorant, lactagogue, and vulnerary (Zhu 1998; Duke et al. 2002).
effects on the decomposition (as indicated by the organic matter disappearance) of both manure types (Table 1; Fig. 2). With meso-fauna (in cages) and averaged across both types of manure, on the crusted ‘Glacis’ soils with large termite presence as evidenced by a larger number of mounts per area compared to ‘Dallol’ soils, 75% ofthe applied manure disappeared during the first 10 weeks after application. This com- pares to a disappearance rate of only 28% on the loose ‘Dallol’ soils. Without meso-fauna (in nylon bags) manure decomposition at 10 weeks was much lower being 38% on ‘Glacis’ soils and 16% on ‘Dallol’ soils. These differences remained unchanged throughout the rest ofthe study period and demonstrated the impor- tant role of meso-fauna in the decomposition process in this environment. The higher termite activity on the crusted ‘Glacis’ sites may be linked to the heavier texture of their more wind- and water-eroded surface
To further investigate any spatial changes associated with known changes in setting practices by P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar vessels (from surface to deep setting), the P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar spatial; effort and catch data were plotted by year (Figure 3 and 4). P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar effort occurred in the range 0°-20° S and 95°-140° E in the 1980s (Figure 3). Consistent with the results of Marcille et al. (1984), the P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar data showed that the majority of P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar effort occurred in the Banda Sea in 1981. Fishing grounds remained predominantly in the Banda Sea until 1982. In 1987, P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar effort began to decline (to 39% of that in 1985). From 1992, P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar effort decreased further and became localised between 10°-15° S and 110°-115° E where limited fishing had previously occurred. This was consistent with the results of Eddrisea et al. (2008), who stated that P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar effort occurred in smaller area between 0° and 20° S and between 105° and 135° E during this time. Prior to the 1990s, P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar had experienced higher catches of yellow fin tuna in this area whereas big eye tuna were predominantly caught in the area between 0°-5° S, <105° E (Figure 4). In the 1990s, P.T. Perikanan Samodra Besar spatial catch composition showed that big eye tuna were the predominant species caught in any given 5-degree block.
Bambu andong (Gigantochloa verticillata (Will.) Munro memiliki nama daerah yang bermacam-macam. Bambu gembong, pring surat (Jawa), awi andong (Sunda), buluh batuang danto (Padang, Sumatera) (Dransfield dan Widjaja, 1995). Umumnya jenis bambu ini digunakan sebagai bahan baku bangunan, anyaman atau kerajinan tangan. Di desa-desa di Jawa digunakan sebagai saluran air, yaitu dengan cara menghilangkan sekat-sekatnya (Lembaga Biologi Nasional-LIPI 1977). Di Indonesia bambu andong biasanya digunakan sebagai bahan bangunan, pipa air, furniture, peralatan rumah tangga, sumpit, tusuk gigi dan keranjang. Rebung muda dapat dikonsumsi sebagai sayuran, terutama yang tidak terlalu tegak sedangkan batangnya bisa dibuat arang (Dransfield dan Widjaja 1995).
Analysis of lead contamination on frying oil before and after frying used by deep-fried seller in the area of traffic light in Medan concluded that reused frying oil contained lead (Pb), there should, therefore, consideration of its using. The utilization of oil to fry food in the area of traffic light may elevate lead level until excesses the maximum level which is based on the hygiene and food sanitation principles in order to keep food from smoke exposure emitted by motor vehicl .