Political ambition to tackle the loss of tropical forests may be stronger than ever before, but a disconnect remains in translating rhetoric into concrete action. Tropical forests are now widely recognised by governments for their important role in climate, food, water, energy, and livelihood security. Yet since 2000, the 25 forest countries included in the Forest500 have lost 95 million hectares of tree cover and deforestation rates show little sign of slowing 1 .
The Forest500 specifically tracks the commitments that have been made by these 150 investors related to their investments in, or lending to, companies involved in forest risk commodity supply chains. To assess the strength of their sustainability policies and the extent to which these are being applied, investors have been scored relative to indicators within three overarching categories: overall forest policy; policy strength; and reporting and transparency. Investors have been scored based on publicly available policies and information.
Certiication and roundtables have been key tools for companies to ensure the sustainable sourcing of commodities. They will continue to play a key role, as more companies make zero deforestation commitments and should be strengthened accordingly� However, reporting and auditing frameworks should be consolidated to reduce ineiciencies and costs. Multiple certiications for the same area of land overload suppliers and certiication schemes have generally had limited take- up relative to overall supply� More proactive action from the Tropical Forest Alliance (TFA) and Consumer Goods Forum (CGF) is needed to rationalise these processes and deliver workable consensus that might help to overcome this gap, guide action by companies and foster engagement by other actors, to ensure more rapid progress towards a deforestation-free economy�
To this end, the Heart of Borneo (HoB) (http://heartofborneo.org/) initiative, one of the most important cross-boundary ecological projects in the world, involving the ecological systems of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia, may not be adequately serviced because of a lack of proper monitoring and assessment instruments. As a leading and prestigious project, HoB requires a current set of data, not only for the size of the area declared for it, but also for any changes in the permanent and the phenomenological vegetation cover, the land use and the anthropogenic infrastructure, including transportation and dwellings. This type of detailed and current data on HoB will only be available if functional data acquisition systems are in place, mainly remote sensing systems, but also regular reports from stakeholders such as the Ministry of Development, the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources and the Ministry of Defence. In addition, a dedicated geographic information system (GIS) would facilitate data processing, analysis, data collection and information development.
Hingga kini, Agis m erupakan sebuah Perusahaan konsum er elektronik terintegritas yang m em iliki lebih dari 500 orang karyawan. Tidak hanya mewakili merek Sony di Indonesia tetapi juga m erek Internasional lainnya dim ulai dari produk planning, pengelolaan m erek, dan layanan purna-jual. Dengan jaringan distribusi produk elektronik telah mencakup lebih dari 1.000 toko retail independen di seluruh Indonesia. Perseroan memiliki rantai retail sendiri yang mencakup lebih dari 4.000 m2 ruang pameran di lim a m all utam a di Indonesia dan satu-satu-nya rantai retail yang m em berikan garansi bagi produknya, layanan penyerahan produk ke seluruh negeri dan 100% asuransi produk terhadap segala resiko m elalui kerjasam a dengan salah satu lem baga asuransi terkenal di dunia.
Wild honey has been traditionally harvested by local and indigenous people for home consumption and is widely traded locally because people believe it can treat diseases. They also value wild honey as food. It is one of the key NTFPs people can harvest from the forest besides resin, bamboo, bamboo and rattan shoots, mushrooms, forest fruits and traditional medicine. However, there is not enough technology for packaging or to prove the purity and cleanliness of the honey. Consumers purchase honey based on their trust in particular traders or through using simple techniques to test if the honey is pure or not. But these methods are open to error. Traders put honey in plastic buckets by the roadside, in bottles to sell at farmers’ markets, or trade in a more mobile way using bicycle or motorbikes. There is little commercial honey production in Cambodia and in the major markets such as Phnom Penh, the only historic option to obtain commercial-grade honey was to import it from other countries like Thailand, Vietnam, Australia and China. In 2007, the potential collection of wild honey to serve the market was identified, under project funding support from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Netherlands. WWF and NTFP-EP began their community-based honey enterprise development project. IUCN support was followed by support from others such as The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/ International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO), Oxfam Hong Kong, the Toyota Foundation and later from the group Social Investment for Cambodia (SIFC) – an earlier programme of Arun LLC, a Japanese social investment platform.
Treehomegardens:These are land-use systems that consist of multipurpose trees and shrubs with annual and perennial agricultural crops within homesteads, and managed by the family to meet domestic needs. These home gardens are common in high rainfall areas of the tropics, and have been practiced for centuries. Of course home gardens without trees do exist and they are not relevant for forestry. Forestry-related home gardens are preferably referred to as tree home gardens (Torquebiau 1992). The typical tree home gardens have high species diversity, and the vegetation is usually in 3-4 strata, with emergent timber and fruit trees in the upper layers, the second layer with food crops such as papaya and banana, and the ground floor with vegetables and spices. The choice of species varies depending on what is locally available and cultivated. According to a survey in Sri Lanka, home gardens covered 858,000 ha which is about 30 percent of the forest area of the country (Ariyadasa 2002). Some of their common timber species included Alstonia macrophylla, Artocarpus integer, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus spp., Hevea brasiliensis, Mangifera indica, Swietenia macrophylla and Tectona grandis. These home gardens produced 41 percent of the nation’s sawlogs and 26 percent of the biofuel needs. In fact, trees raised in homesteads and other agroforestry systems have become the main strategy to meet domestic timber needs of Sri Lanka. Farmforests: Farm forestry is the incorporation of commercial tree growing into farming systems, and may come in the form of woodlots, timber belts, alleys and widespread tree plantings. It differs from the classical agroforestry system which refers to production of timber and an agricultural product from the same parcel of land. Besides the commercial gain, farm forests provide substantial environmental benefits. In countries like Australia farm forests are gaining interest as their benefits include carbon sequestration, water table
The latency is derived from two time values by subtracting the message transmission time from the reception time. Because these values must be collected by the DMS and not the client, the message reception value must be transmitted to the DMS by the client. Using the Reliable Messaging acknowledgement message sent by the client as a way to transport the timestamp from the client to the DMS was explored. This solution required modification of how the client sends Reliable Messaging acknowledgement in a way that is not supported by the Reliable Messaging standard. It was determined that the Reliable Messaging standard should be left unaltered to prevent interoperability issues in the future. To work around this, a solution is to move the responsibility of DMS – client latency calculation from the DMS, to the client. Because the receiving party has direct access to both the transmission and reception timestamp, it requires less actions to calculate a one-way latency value by the client hen the DMS. Once the client has logged latency values, it sends periodic reports to the Validation Module containing latency reports for logging by the DMS.