clause “Playing football” acts as a noun phrase within the sentences as a whole; it is the subject ofthe verb “is”. When a gerund ( verb + ing) is used as the subject of a sentence, it becomes a singular noun. However, if two or more gerund are joined by a conjunction “and” ;it will be a plural noun.
non-Jewish people inthe region were prejudiced by their expulsion from their homes and farms. The British Mandate in Palestine ended on May 14, 1948, the same day the Israelis announced their Declaration of Independence and the birth ofthe Jewish state. Gaza, according to the United Nations partition plan of 1947, was supposed to become part of an independent Arab state, but the terms were not acceptable to the Palestinian people, who were forced to walk away from their homeland. Nor was the plan acceptable to their Arab neighbors. So when Israel declared its independence, Egypt acted on behalf ofthe rest ofthe region and invaded from the south, triggering the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
empathy. Tragic plot is the plot which makes the reader feel affected because the main character who does not know about the problem that comes and had faced. Punitive plot is the plot which ends with the failure ofthe main character who can not attract the reader’s symphaty. Sentimental plot is the plot in which the main character gets the victory after facing the problem. Admiration plot is the opposite of tragic plot which makes the reader admire because the main character can overcome the problem at the end.
Metaphor is a kind of figures of speech, or something that is used to describe normal words in order to help others understand or enjoy the message within. Tarigan (1995:121) says that metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. Typically, a first object is described as being a second object. In this way, the first object can be economically described because implicit and explicit attributes from the second object can be used to fill inthe description ofthe first. More simply, this means using one thing to describe another thing. When you see a word that substitutes the real or normal word one would use, it‟s probably a metaphor.
In addition, Clara HerlinaKarjo made a research about “An analysisofthe translation of English idioms by Indonesian Novel translators.” In her research study, he has four problems statement: (1) whatthe type of idioms are mostly usedin English novels? (2) Which the translation strategies are used by Indonesian novel translators to render English idioms into Indonesian? (3) To what extent are there equivalents in Indonesian for English Idiom? (4) To what extent are the meanings of English idioms transferred by the novel translator? By using Indonesia Novel translators as subject, she also focuses on English Idioms as an instrument. She uses qualitative design and as a result, this study found that only thirty percents ofthe idioms were translatable and seventy percents were untranslatable.
The word "novel" is derived from Italian word "novella" that used to describe a short, compact, broadly realistic tale popular during the medieval period. Novel had got something like its present meaning which tells us a characters and actions that represent of real life whose are portrayed in a plot of more or less complexity'. In other word a novel, as we understand it is a story longer, more realistic and more complicated. The novel is now the most widely read all of kinds ofliterature and the new form of such kind of prose was then called „novel' novel means „new' .
The word “to” after the following verbs is a preposition rather than the sign ofthe infinitive and therefore requires a gerund after it: accustom oneself, allude, confess, confine oneself, dedicate oneself, limit oneself, look forward, object, plead guilty, reconcile oneself, resign oneself, resort, and revert.
Reading comprehension is an active process inthe construction of meaning. It is the process of deriving meaning from connected text. It involves word knowledge (vocabulary) as well as thinking and reasoning. The reader actively engages with the text to construct meaning. This active engagement includes making use of prior knowledge. It involves drawing inferences from the word and expressions that a writer uses to communicate information, ideas and viewpoints. 10
The result of this research is the third grade students of SMK Nusantara are still find difficulty in uses ofgerund especially inthe use ofgerund as object of preposition were 21 or 16%, second many ofthe students still find difficulty inthe use gerund as direct object of certain verbs were 63 or 39%, and also gerund as subject ofthe sentence were 24 or 17.77% and the last the students still find the difficulty inthe use gerund as complement ofthe sentence were 8 or 7% .Most ofthe students find difficult because many of students confused weather the verb followed by gerund and weather the verb not followed by thegerund,they did not understand gerund well, many ofthe students do not familiar with object of preposition, the students got low motivation in learning and they also didn’t understood what have explained by the teacher.
In analyzing data, the writer uses descriptive qualitative method. Bunging (2001:290) says, “Penggunaan strategi deskriptif kualitatif dimulai dari analisis yang terhimpun dari suatu penelitian kemudian bergerak ke arah pembentukan kesimpulan kategori atau ciri-ciri umum tertentu. (The use of qualitative descriptive strategy starts with an analysisof various aggregate data from a research then moves towards the establishment of conclusion category of certain common.)
There are various of techniques can be applied in order to write a skill writing, or in this circumstances it is called a paper as the final duty for any student who wants to finish his or her study from the English Study Diploma III Program at the Faculty of culture Study at the University of North Sumatera. For examples, field research method, library research method, or experimental method. These three different methods are differentiate by the techniques applied by the writer to have the data ofthe writing. In order to write this paper the writer take written text as the data to be analyzed. Therefore the technique applied by the writer is library research. The required data were taken from written text.
they occur in a context, but which he can not produce correctly himself. According to Elfrida and Michael, there were two kinds of vocabulary, namely productive vocabulary and receptive vocabulary. Productive vocabulary is the set of words that an individual can use when speaking and writing. They are words that are well-known, familiar, and used frequently. Receptive vocabulary is the set of words for which an individual can assign meanings when listening or reading. These are words that are often less well known to students and less frequent in use. 37
According to George Watson (1979: 3) “Novel is the name of a literary kind, and there is a story to tell about how, over the centuries, its substance has widened and its conventions changed.” So it means novel is literary work, narrate about the life in centuries ago. Of course, novel is a way to send message in social, such as in novel find character that plays role hero and felon. Hero in novel will be success but not felon will be loser. From this message the reader can get inspiration that hero is good but felon is bad.
16. Sam dreams of __________ (be) a popstar. 17. He is interested in __________ (make) friends. 18. My uncle is afraid of __________ (go) by plane. 19. We insist on __________ (cook) the dinner ourselves. 20. She avoided __________ (tell) him about her plans
TempoMagazine published in weekly. I take one magazine which consists of six articles. This magazine published on March 18-24 edition. The data are 27 sentences using simple gerund and 25 sentences using form ofgerund. This analyses consist six articles which are chosen at random, the titles are Coup Vadis, SBY ?, The Ides of March, Navigating a Party Minefield, Gangs of Kembangan, Purezento, Japanese-Style Indonesian Gifts and “Dialogue Used To Be Taboo, Today It Is A Key Word.” The data are collected and list inthe table below according to the classification forms ofgerund and functions ofgerund.
As student write, they put ideas into draft form. They also take breaks to read the draft. They reflect on whether or not their writing reveals their intended meaning. They should also consider the purpose and audience. As they read over the draft, they may cross out paragraphs, sentences, and words. They also rearrange the way they present ideas, and jot down notes about how to revise writing. They continue to write and read and change the draft until they are satisfied with the piece writing. Dealing with the teaching of writing, Gebhard (2002, p. 221) stated : “The usual things associated with writing are word choice, use of appropriate grammar (such as subject-verb agreement, tense, and article use), syntax (word order), mechanics (e.g., punctuation, spelling, and handwriting), and organization of ideas into a coherence and cohesive form.
Jabez Wilson, a pawnbroker, consults Holmes about a job he gained only because of his red hair. The job took him away from his shop for a short period each afternoon, and involved him copying the Encyclopaedia Britannica. After eight weeks, he was informed that the job had suddenly finished. Holmes visits the pawnbroker's shop, and after some investigation contacts a police inspector and the manager of a nearby bank. Along with Watson, they hide inthe bank vault, and catch two thieves, who had dug a tunnel from the shop during the hours that Wilson was out each afternoon.
Both gerund and infinitive are part of verb. Gerunds are formed attaching suffix – ing to the verb stem (study → studying). Infinitives are the simple form ofthe verb with the word ‘to’ in front on it (study → to study). Gerund and infinitives are usually followed by another verb. Some verbs can only be followed by a gerund and some verbs can only followed by infinitive. On the other hand, there are some verbs which can be followed by either gerund or infinitive without changing the meaning, but in some cases, there are some verbs which change the meaning ofthe sentence.
Plot is a literary term defined as the events that make up a story, particularly as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, how the reader views the story, or simply by coincidence. A plot "insures that you get your character from point A to point Z". Jenna Blum (2013) says, "One is generally interested in how well this pattern of events accomplishes some artistic or emotional effect. An intricate, complicated plot is called an imbroglio, but even the simplest statements of plot may include multiple inferences."
Rudyanto (2011:68) said, ”A Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word or subordinator) comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or dependent) clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest ofthe sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest ofthe sentence for its meaning.”