The adoption of solar energy usage amongst home owners to enhance the solar panel (PHOTOVOLTAIC) home system in Malacca.

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SUPERVISOR VALIDATION

I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this project is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of

Bachelor of Technology Management (Innovation Technology)

Signature : ... Name : ... Date : ...

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THE ADOPTION OF SOLAR ENERGY USAGE AMONGST HOME OWNERS TO ENHANCE THE SOLAR PANEL (PHOTOVOLTAIC) HOME SYSTEM IN

MALACCA

ANDY CHEN TZER KANG

Report submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelor Degree of Technology Management (Innovation Technology)

Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM)

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the report has been prepared by my own self except the summaries and citations that I have been clarify the resource.

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DEDICATION

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First of all, I would like to express my largest gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Fararishah binti Abdul Khalid, who has been an ideal supervisor which guided me, given me advices, and supported me through the entire process of completing this work. I would also like to thank all my family and friends who have given me supports and encouragement to complete this work.

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ABSTRACT

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ABSTRAK

Pada masa kini, penggunaan tenaga yang tidak boleh diperbaharui telah semakin

berkurang, dan peramal percaya bahawa tenaga yang tidak boleh diperbaharui seperti

bahan api fosil akan pupus dalam beberapa dekad yang datang. Oleh itu, tenaga boleh

diperbaharui seperti solar telah diterima dengan pesat dalam era ini untuk mengatasi

masalah ini. Kerajaan Malaysia juga telah mengisytiharkan pelbagai jenis dasar untuk

menggalakkan orang ramai untuk menggunakan solar. Walau bagaimanapun, penyelidik

mendapati bahawa sebahagian besar rakyat di negeri Melaka tidak menggunakan panel

solar di rumah mereka. Oleh itu, penyelidik bertujuan untuk mengkaji faktor yang boleh

memberi kesan kepada penggunaan panel solar, dan juga untuk mengetahui sejauh mana

faktor-faktor memberi kesan kepada penggunaan solar di kalangan pengguna Melaka.

Penyelidik menerima pakai lima faktor (faktor kewangan, faktor persekitaran, faktor

teknikal, faktor institusi, dan faktor sosial) yang dikaji oleh Adachi (2009) dan Eronini

(2014). Kajian ini dijalankan dengan mengedarkan soal selidik untuk mengkaji

hubungan antara lima faktor dan penggunaan panel solar. 50 responden telah menjawab

soal selidik tersebut. Keputusan telah dianalisis dengan mengguna kan korelasi Pearson

untuk mengkaji sejauh mana faktor-faktor memberi kesan kepada penggunaan panel

solar, dan menggunakan Linear Regresi Analisis untuk mengkaji faktor yang boleh

memberi kesan kepada penggunaan panel solar. Melalui keputusan yang dijana daripada

SPSS, empat daripada lima faktor (faktor kewangan, faktor persekitaran, faktor institusi,

dan faktor sosial) telah menunjukkan hubungan yang signifikan, dan faktor sosial telah

ditunjukkan sebagai faktor yang paling kritikal untuk memberi kesan kepada penggunaan

panel solar. Kesimpulannya, faktor sosial memainkan peranan penting dalam

mempengaruhi penggunaan panel solar, di mana persepsi orang di Melaka ke arah

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VIII 2.5 The TEMIF Model

2.6 Barriers and Drivers of Solar Panel Adoption 2.6.1 Financial Factor

3.4 Primary Data Sources and Secondary Data Sources 3.4.1 Primary Data Sources

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XI

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary of Findings

5.2.1 Summary of Descriptive Analysis 5.2.2 Summary of Reliability Test

5.2.3 Summary of Linear Regression Analysis 5.2.3.1 Simple Linear Regression

5.2.3.2 Multiple Regression Analysis 5.2.4 Summary of Pearson’s Correlation 5.3 Discussion and Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations

REFERENCES APPENDICES

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89 90 90-91

91 92 92-94

95 96 97-99

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LIST OF TABLES

TITLE OF THE TABLE

Table 2.1: Reference List

Table 3.1: Focus of Questions to be Asked Table 3.2: Overview of Questionnaire’s Layout

Table 3.3: Data Analysis based on Research Objectives Table 3.4: Threats of Reliability Table 4.1: Respondents’ Gender

Table 4.2: Respondents’ Race

Table 4.3: Respondents’ Income per Month Table 4.4: Respondents’ Type of House

Table 4.5: Respondents’ Length of Using Solar Panel

Table 4.6: Respondents’ Perception of Solar Panel’s Ability to Generate Benefit Table 4.7: Respondents’ Factor Consideration Before Adopt Solar Panel

Table 4.8: Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Table 4.9: Reliability Statistics

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Table 4.10: Simple Linear Regression between Financial Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Model Summary)

Table 4.11: Simple Linear Regression between Financial Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (ANOVA)

Table 4.12: Simple Linear Regression between Financial Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Coefficients)

Table 4.13: Simple Linear Regression between Environmental Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Model Summary)

Table 4.14: Simple Linear Regression between Environmental Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (ANOVA)

Table 4.15: Simple Linear Regression between Environmental Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Coefficient)

Table 4.16: Simple Linear Regression between Technical Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Model Summary)

Table 4.17: Simple Linear Regression between Technical Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (ANOVA)

Table 4.18: Simple Linear Regression between Technical Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Coefficients)

Table 4.19: Simple Linear Regression between Institutional Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Model Summary)

Table 4.20: Simple Linear Regression between Institutional Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (ANOVA)

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Table 4.22: Simple Linear Regression between Social Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Model Summary)

Table 4.23: Simple Linear Regression between Social Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (ANOVA)

Table 4.24: Simple Linear Regression between Social Factor and Solar Panel Adoption (Coefficients)

Table 4.25: Multiple Regression Analysis between the Five Factors and the Solar Panel Adoption (Model Summary)

Table 4.26: Multiple Regression Analysis between the Five Factors and the Solar Panel Adoption (ANOVA)

Table 4.27: Multiple Regression Analysis between the Five Factors and the Solar Panel Adoption (Coefficients)

Table 4.28: Correlation of Financial Factor Table 4.29: Correlation of Environmental Factor Table 4.30: Correlation of Technical Factor Table 4.31: Correlation of Institutional Factor Table 4.32: Correlation of Social Factor

Table 4.33: Correlation of Solar Panel Adoption

Table 4.34: Correlations between the Five Independent Variables and the Dependent Variable

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LIST OF FIGURES

TITLE OF THE FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Roger’s Bell Curve

Figure 2.2: The Five Stages in the Decision Innovation Process

Figure 2.3: Theoretical Framework: Factors of Solar Energy Adoption Figure 3.1: Likert Scale with Five-point Scale

Figure 3.2: Likert Scale with Proper Coding Figure 4.1: Respondents’ Gender

Figure 4.2: Respondents’ Race

Figure 4.3: Respondents’ Income per Month Figure 4.4: Respondents’ Type of House

Figure 4.5: Respondents’ Length of Using Solar Panel

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LIST OF APPENDICES

TITLE OF APPENDIX

Appendix A: Letter of Consent Appendix B: Questionnaire

Appendix C: Overall Reliability Statistics

PAGE

107 108-112

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1Introduction

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the researcher’s opinion, the solar energy is the most suitable renewable energy to be used in Malacca, Malaysia since Malaysia is a tropical country with accessible sunlight whole year long.

Even though the solar energy is suitable in Malaysia, however there is a problem in which the solar technologies are still not fully adopted in Malacca. Therefore, the researcher conducted this research in order to find the factors that can affect the solar panel adoption.

1.2Problem Statement/ Research Questions

According to Johari et al.(2012), Malaysia was still highly dependent on non-renewable source such as fossil fuels and natural gases. Gas and coal was estimated to contribute 92% of the sources of electricity generation whereas hydro and oil would contribute 7% and 1%, respectively by the year 2010(International Energy Agency, 2010 as cited in Johari et al.,2012). Since Malaysia is a tropical country with accessible solar energy, people in Malacca should have fully utilized the solar power to enhance the usage of renewable energy. From the researcher’s observation, people in Malacca do not have much awareness to the solar technologies, in fact only a few are utilizing it.

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Hence, the researcher developed two research questions as below:

1) What are the factors that can affect the solar panel adoption in Malacca?

2) To what extent do the factors impact on solar panel adoption among Malacca users?

The researcher aimed to know the factors that could affect the adoption decision of solar panel among the adopters in Malacca with the weather that is suitable to exploit the usage of solar technologies. Lastly, the researcher aimed to know to what extent the factors impact the solar panel adoption among the solar users in Malacca.

1.3Research Objectives

There are two research objectives being constructed in order to answer the research questions:

1) To identify the factors that can affect the solar panel adoption in Malacca.

2) To find out what is the extent do the factors impact on solar panel adoption among Malacca users.

1.4Scope, Limitation and Key Assumption of the Study

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1.4.1 Scope

Malacca is a state in Malaysia which is currently still adopting the solar technologies to enhance sustainable feature. In this research, the scope has been limited to study the solar housing that are available in Malacca only, but not in other state in Malaysia. Besides that, the study of solar technologies in other related field, for example the exploitation of solar technologies in farming, industry etc. in Malacca will not be studied in this research.

1.4.2 Limitations

In this research, there are certain limits that may cause the limitation of this study, or towards the finding of the researcher. The limits are:

i) This study is only limited on the solar panel housing. Therefore, the findings of the researcher will only cover on the perspective of the owner of houses with solar panel, but not on perspective of whole solar energy usage

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1.4.3 Key Assumptions of the Study

The key assumption in this study is that the researcher assumes that the respondent will answer the question honestly, providing the answer in his or her very first intend. This is because if the respondent has lengthy time to think for his or her answers, the answers may be affected by secondary sources during the answering period. For example, the respondent may answer the question according to the answers from he or she had been heard, but not his or her own idea.

1.5 Importance of the Study

This study aimed to make awareness to the adoption of solar panel among the residents. Therefore, the contribution of this study is to help entrepreneurs or agents of solar technologies gain awareness towards the residents, and also help them to study the trend or factors of adoption in solar technologies, thus penetrate through the solar technologies market in Malacca. Besides that, the awareness of solar technologies adoption towards the resident would probably increase the usage of solar panel housing, thus further move our steps towards achieving the aim of ‘Green State’ in Malacca.

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1.6 Summary

The development of a few Malaysian policies such as the 8th Malaysian Plan, and

Figur

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