THE FEELING OF MEANINGLESSNESS OF THE 1990s YOUNG URBAN AMERICANS IN CHUCK PALAHNIUK’S FIGHT CLUB AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

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Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters


EKA ADI NUGRAHA Student Number : 994214056









Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters



Student Number : 994214056







- Spiderman -

He who knows a ‘why’ for living,

will surmount almost every how



I dedicate this thesis to:

God, Father, Mother, Dian, and Ida



I thank to God for endless blessing, lesson, gift, and even hardship that have shaped my momentous life and sculpted me as a better being than I was. High-regard and prayer may always attribute for my biggest inspirer, Muhammad, his families, companions, and his devotees.

I would like to convey my indebtedness to my former advisor, Dr. Novita Dewi, M.S., M.A. for her guidance, assistance, and encouragement in working this thesis. I should also like to express my gratitude to my major sponsor, Gabriel Fajar Sasmita Aji, S.S., M. Hum, for his guidance in completing this thesis. My gratitude also goes to the lecturers and staffs of English Letters Department for their aids during my study in Sanata Dharma University.

I would also like to express my gratitude to my beloved family: my father, Sudaryono, and my mother, Suparmi, for their ceaseless love, support, patience, and pray. I understand it takes a lot not to give up on me. I also thank especially to my sisters: Dian Anggraeni and Ida Nuraini Dewi Kn for their support, joke and patience. I thank, once again, to my family for loving me.

I am grateful to my best buddies: Penya, Sukri, Singgih, Siest, Willy, and Imam that have shared experiences with me. I am grateful also to my friends at the Gupon, the Budijaya, and other friends that I could not mention one by one down here.



A. Review of Related Studies...…….………... 9

B. Review of Related Theories...……...………..10

1. Theory of Character and Characterization………...…...……10

2. Theory of the Feeling of Meaninglessness………11

3. Review on Cultural-historical Context of the United States in the 1990s..………...14

A. Depiction of the Characters……… 27

1. Depiction of the Character “I”……….. 28

2. Depiction of the Character Tyler Durden..………37

B. The Feeling of Meaninglessness of the 1990’s Young Urban Americans in Chuck Palahniuk’sFight Club……….. 50

1. Palahniuk’s Fight Club Reflects the Feeling of Meaninglessness of the 1990’s Young Urban Americans …………...…….………... 51





EKA ADI NUGRAHA. The Feeling of Meaninglessness of the 1990’s Young Urban Americans in Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2007

Meaning of life is something that is essential in a human’s life without which a person would be profoundly preoccupied by the sense of purposelessness and futility in his/her life. In the novel of Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club, The character “I” represents a person who feels that his life is empty and meaningless. His decision to escape from facing such meaninglessness leads him to meet with Tyler Durden, his split character, who then teaches him to deal with the pain caused by such meaninglessness.

This thesis is aimed at solving two problems. The first problem is the characterization of the characters (the character “I” and Tyler Durden). The second problem is the revelation of the the feeling of meaninglessness of the 1990’s young urban Americans communicated by the novel.

The method applied in this thesis is the library research. The data are Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club and other sources that closely related to the topic discussed in this thesis. The approach applied in this thesis is the socio-cultural historical approach. There were four processes that are done respectively in analyzing this novel. The first was having a thorough reading of the novel. The second was compiling and reading some references and theories needed by this thesis. The third was was to meet the theory with the data and information that had been compiled, to employ the approach, and to conduct the analysis within the scope of the questions constructed in problem formulation. The last process was drawing the conclusion.




EKA ADI NUGRAHA. The Feeling of Meaninglessness of the 1990’s Young Urban Americans in Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2007

Arti hidup adalah sesuatu yang esensial dalam kehidupan seorang manusia, yang tanpanya seseorang akan sangat tersakiti oleh suatu rasa ketidakmemiliki tujuan dan ketidakbergunaan yang menguasai hidupnya. Dalam novel karya Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club, si karakter “aku” mewakili seseorang yang merasa bahwa hidupnya terasa kosong dan tanpa arti. Keputusannya untuk melarikan diri dari berhadapan dengan perasaan ketidakberartian membawanya untuk bertemu dengan Tyler Durden, karakter keduanya, yang kemudian mengajarnya untuk menghadapi suatu kesakitan yang diakibatkan oleh ketidakberatian tersebut.

Thesis ini bertujuan memecahkan dua permasalahan. Permasalahan pertama adalah penjabaran para karakter (karakter “aku” dan Tyler Durden). Permasalahan kedua adalah novel ini untuk mengkomunikasikan perasaan ketidakberartian yang dialami orang-orang muda kota di Amerika pada dekade 90-an.

Metode yang diterapkan dalam thesis ini adalah studi pustaka. Data-data yang digunakan adalah novel karya Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club, dan sumber-sumber lain yang erat kaitannya dengan objek yang didiskusikan dalam thesis ini. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam analisis di tesis ini adalah socio-cultural-historical. Terdapat empat proses yang akan diselesaikan secara urut untuk menganalisa novel tersebut. Langkah pertama adalah membaca novel tersebut secara menyeluruh. Langkah kedua adalah mengumpulkan, dan membaca referensi-referensi dan teori-teori yang dibutuhkan oleh thesis ini. Langkah ketiga adalah merangkaikan teori dengan data-data, menerapkan pendekatan yang dibutuhkan dan mengerjakan analisis dalam cakupan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang telah disusun di rumusan permasalahan. Process terakhir adalah membuat kesimpulan





A. Background of the Study

The 1990s was the age in which some new young writers who shared a common subject were born. These young witers chronicle creatively and comment critically on the current problem of the contemporary culture while, at the same time, offer a new awareness and insight into reality of our stale daily experience that has been so dominated with materialism tendency. They are comparable to a generation of writers labelled as “the lost generation” in their eagerness to express their fears, doubts and frustrations through writing. If the writer of lost generation’s fears and frustration were originated from the experience of war, this new lost generations’ frustration is caused by their confusion to cope with the sense of loss and futility of the late American culture. The tide of this new lost generation was begun in Douglas Coupland’s Generation X. It was followed then by Bret Easton Ellis’s American Psycho, and Irvine Welsh’s Trainspotting. Shortly after the publication of these works, the emergence of Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club endures the attack of the new lost generation on such ailing culture. Being specifically distinct in style, these new generation of writers share a common tendency revealed in their effor t to crystallize the anxiety and frustration of contemporary generation live in the late culture of improvement .


introduces us to a realm of ever-wonder and confusion when many things that used to be of fantasy has now been represented in its ultimate shape, such as Disneyland, Seaworld, supersonic train, picnic to the moon and let alone the internet that enables us to do time and space travel. We have conceived, on the one hand, that all these new realities may indicate progress and improvement. On the other hand, we could have perceived that there are many problems are left unsolved by the work of this predominant culture, such as environmental damage, emasculation of local values and virtues, irresponsible freedom of the media, children pornography, politics turns into spectacle, a culture of cynicism for us to fix. Nevertheless, this is not simply the double-standard thing of the late modernism. Christopher Lasch in The Culture of Narcissism states that such paradox that is coexisting in today’s age has weighted down individuals with uncertainty just to define what is real that is indispensable to get relief from the void of meaning and lack of direction (Lasch, 1979: 169-170). In fact, such circumstances become the very engine of this new lost generation’s works.

Amongst those figures of the new lost generation, Chuck Palahniuk comes out as the most popular figure. His first novel, published in 1997, gained several awards, yet having adapted into film with the same title, its paperback edition was sold over 300,000 copies (www.stirrings-still.orgss22.pdf), particularly among young people who are known for their reluctance to read. Moreover, the charm of his novel Fight Club had transcend some of its core readership to bring fight clubthe club founded by the character “I” of the


these reasons, it would be reasonable to credit him as the spokesman for these previously mentioned generation of writers who have strong tendency to scrutinize the anxiety and frustration of the contemporary generation live in the late culture of improvement.

Presumably, psychological affliction in concomitant with violence is apparently central to the story. It may correspond to the feeling of meaninglessness or inner frustration have afflicted thousands of young people in the U.S. ( However, the novel still spares many spaces to discuss various other impacts of contemporary culture of improvement, that is not less significant to be discussed, such as support group culture, which is prevailing lately in the U.S., the idea of self-destruction in comparison with the predominance of self-improvement culture, emasculation of manliness, the ever struggle for authenticity ( Such apocalyptic issues that Palahniuk evokes in Fight Club do not necessarily to reflect the pessimistic voice of the author. It is perhaps a mere sort of strategy to defamiliarize our faded perception on something which we have faced everyday, or, perhaps, it could be the genuine description of today horror situation that goes unnoticed from our perception. Despite the previous presumption, those issues can be appropriatedthanks to himto

mirror today’s contemporary culture through the reflection of which we could perceive some of its flaws.


resulting meaningless daily experience. The character “I” in this story is desperately longing for a change in his life. The emergence of Tyler Durden with all of his revolutionary things as the ultimate embodiment of his crave for such a change seems to provide the character “I” with many experiences the character “I” never had been familiar with. Moreover, Tyler Durden does not merely provide the character “I” with many “new” experiences, he provides also the character “I” with lesson through which he is encouraged to view his life from a different perspective and, thus, renew the way he responds situation in his life. Thus, while the novel attempts to portray the mass anxiety of today’s young urban Americans, namely feeling of meaninglessness, it seemingly tries to offer a stance to such a feeling of meaninglessness that may inspire its readers to re-evaluate the way they live.

B. Problem Formulation

In order to bring into view the focus of this thesis so as to make it better organized, it is necessary to set up some questions that will be answered throughout this thesis.

The process of which thesis is conducted can be framed at the questions formulated below:

1. How are the characters (the character “I” and Tyler Durden) depicted in Palahniuk’s Fight Club?


meaninglessness of the 1990s young urban Americans?

C. The Objective of the Study

This thesis is primarily aimed to answer the questions set up in the Problem Formulation. From two questions constructed in the problem formulation, it is obvious that the focus of this thesis lies in the depiction of the character “I” and his alter personality, namely Tyler Durden, in the novel. Such focus is intended to bring into view the reality that has been captured and reproduced in the novel.

With regard to the fact that Fight Club, which is the object of this thesis, is presented through the perspective of an uncertain narrator, it is important, then, to know and understand his characteristics. Such understanding is crucial in order to comprehend what Fight Club says about. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to know how the character “I” is depicted in the story. Nevertheless, since the character “I” of Fight Club is afflicted with a sort of personality disorder by which he has another personality, known as Tyler Durden, it is ineluctable for this thesis to understand as well the character of Tyler Durden.


Club to contextualize the feeling of meaninglessness of the 1990s young urban Americans.

D. Definition of Terms

To make a better understanding on the discussion in this thesis, it would be necessary to understand some essential terms used in this thesis. They are: 1. Self-improvement

In this thesis, the term self-improvement refers generally to today’s late capitalism culture in which the individuals’ tendency is aimed at material success, improvement, and completeness. Such tendency is framed in the intention of experiencing the pleasure of possessing things and, more important, presenting a decent self-image as a successful, respectable, significant kind of person. Therefore, self-improvement is the orientation of the individuals in today’s late capitalist society that aimed at fulfilling immediate pleasure by means of material posession and improvement.

2. Feeling of Meaninglessness





A. Review of Related Studies

Henry A. Giroux in his criticism to Palahniuk’ Fight Club mentions,

“Representations of violence, masculinity, and gender in Fight Club seem all too willing to mirror the pathology of individual and institutional violence that informs the American landscape, extending from all manner of hate crimes to the far right’s celebration of paramilitary and protofascist subcultures” (

Despite his opinion quoted above that implied the way Palahniuk’s Fight Club reflects its socio-cultural problems, he argues that Fight Club has reduced the violence as one significant social problem to senseless brutality and an indifference to human suffering. Jesse Kavadlo, in his writing about Palahniuk’s Fight Club’s aesthetic and moral imperatives, argues that Giroux’ latter argument shows that he has been trapped to read the novel as a story about Tyler and his


way Palahniuk kept secret his sexual background as a significant means to

alternatively read Palahniuk’s works, particularly Fight Club, Kavadlo notifies

that the act of violence and rebellion discussed in Fight Club has concealed the

more crucial issue the novel attempts to communicate, that of the long suffering

for spiritual fulfilment (www.stirrings-still.orgss22.pdf). Hence, he suggests

readers to pay more attention to the novel’s subtext and implication rather than its

context or language.

Kavadlo’s argument about the way Fight Club attempts to communicate

the long suffering for spiritual fulfilment is supported by Antonio Casado de

Rocha’s writing about disease and community in Palahniuk’s early works. He

considers that the rebellion in the novel is aimed at the commodification of life

and to articulate human response to such a dehumanization of life. He believes

that the crisis afflicts the characters in Fight Club is existential crisis; to live a

more authentic life (www.stirrings-still.orgss22.pdf).

This thesis agrees to Giroux’s writing to the extent that Fight Club

reflects the socio-cultural problems occurred in the U.S. This thesis will employ

Kavadlo’s suggestion on the peculiar way to read Fight Club. This thesis

combines Henry A. Giroux’s (2001), Jesse Kavadlo’s (2005) and Antonio Casado

de Rocha’s study (2005) on the way the novel attempts to communicate the inner

crisis of the individuals in urban society and to reveal the way such an inner crisis


B. Review of Related Theories

In order to answer the question stated in problem formulation, it will be

helpful to discuss briefly the theories that will be employed later in analysing the

novel. Those theories are as follows:

1. Theory of Character and Characterization

It is through its characters a story often presents its ideas, since through

the character can the readers identify themselves with. According to Abrams in A

Glossary of Literary Terms, characters are persons presented in dramatic or narrative work. The character is interpreted as having moral, disposition, and

emotional qualities through their action and their dialogues in the story(…..).

Harvey Birenbaum in The Happy Critic argues that a story often presents

its idea through the pattern of relationship among characters (Birenbaum, 1997:

132). A character must have particular personalities, characteristics, attitudes and

view of life that are used to distinguish him from other characters in a story.

Characterization is the way through which the author creates and presents the

figure, nature and qualities of the characters. In order to evaluate the

characterization of the characters, Birenbaum in suggests some aspects of

consideration, it comprises: “…how the characters are seenby the narrator and

other characters, how the characters see themselves, how they behave, what their

behaviour expresses, and what it conceals, how they experience themselves, and


According to Birenbaum, the attempt of the modern literature to break

off the old values has caused the emergence of a new conception of literary form

(1997: 146). The central character of a story was conventionally characterized as

the hero of the storywhether he triumphantly wins or tragically lose, still he is

the hero. Birenbaum mentions that the hero in a literary work is the center of

consciousness through whom readers experiences the other though, he adds, this

hero does not necessarily means that s/he is an admirable character (1997: 105).In

such new conception, the central character of a story is often characterized as

anti-hero. Anti-hero, Birenbaum notes, is a charactercentral or main characterthat

is characteristically described to posses the quality of an ordinary person (1997:


2. Theory of the Feeling of Meaninglessness

The feeling of meaninglessness is a term that is often used by Viktor E.

Frankl in his works, Psychotherapy and Existentialism and The Unheard Cry for

Meaning to mention the mental condition of a person whose life is profoundly afflicted by the sense of loss, futility, and emptiness when s/he is fail to fulfil the

will to meaning of life. This kind of feeling is less to do with one’s failure in his

struggle to gain material success, such as promotion in career, profit in trade,

academic achievementthough in someway it may be a factor of its emergence

and more to do with one’s ‘spiritual’ emptiness that in spite of his or her material

success in life, s/he feels that his or her life is purposeless. However, this is does


in The Unheard Cry for Meaning, one’ quest for meaning to life is human natural

and, indeed, a distinctive characteristic of being human and nothing pathological

(Frankl, 1985: 30). It refers rather to a mental distress than a mental disease or

simply means that one who experiences such a feeling cannot be regard mad


Frankl has proposed a symptomatology of such a mental frustration he

calls as mass neurotic triad. It comprises depression, addiction, and aggression.

Depression is emerged when one feels that his/her life seems lack of direction. In

this situation, one often does not know what he wants to do. S/he fells profoundly

that his/her life is purposeless and, hence, meaningless. In its extremity, such

depression might lead one to wish for suicide. Frankl finds that the drug

involvement and the addiction to alcohol are strongly related with one’s purpose

in life. He states that the one’s attraction to drugs and alcohol is often grounded by

the desire to find meaning in life and the search for meaningful experience (1985:

28-29). Frankl contends that aggression never exists by itself. Rather, it exists as a

response one takes against something or toward which one takes a response

against (Frankl, 1985: 80). Further, Frankl states that the notion of aggression is

closely related with one’s search for tensionan artificial tension, since, he said,

not only too much tension but lack of tension will result an inner frustration

(Frankl, 1985: 106-107).

Feeling of meaninglessness does not merely caused by difficult

condition of a person’s life. It possibly threatens even a person whose life seems


in life may be found even when a person experiences hopeless situation or facing

a fate that cannot be changed. This kind of meaning fulfilment is on the way that

such a person is able to transform his tragedy or suffering into a personal triumph.

Frankl identifies this kind of person as homo patiens. In order to avoid confusion,

it would be helpful to draw a illustration Frankl has provided.

Homo sapiens, Frankl suggests, refers to ordinary man who know how to be

success. It moves between the success/failure axis. Homo patiens or, Frankl calls,

the suffering man is the man who know and able to transform his suffering into a

triumphant. It moves on fulfillment/despair axis. This illustration is useful to

explain that there are people who in spite of their successful lives are found

distress in despair and meaninglessness and, on the other hand, there are some

people who in spite of their failure are found in high spirits having fulfilled

meaning in his life.

To conclude, Frankl emphasizes that when a man can find the meaning

he seeks in his life, he will likely to experience suffering and torment, to offer

something to be sacrificed even if, in an extreme scale, it is his life for the sake of


person will seem lethargic to take his life even if all the means he needs to live

have been satisfied (1997: 20).

3. Review on Socio-cultural-historical Context of the United States in the


It was in the beginning of the 1990s, Americans were being introduced

with the term of ‘Angry White Male’. The term was not quite popular, since it

was not widely used. It was being used mostly in the political arena in the United

States to mention those urban people; working-class and lower-middle class, who

experienced scarcity opportunity to work in industrial jobs, since such jobs had

being displaced to rural areas or to third-world counties, such as Mexico

( In order to enter other kind of job, they must compete with people

who have a better education and skill. These people, then, were thrown into low

paying service jobs. In short, they were people who feel out of place in the late

economy of computers and high technology. However, the term ‘Angry White

Male’ used in this thesis is not mentioned to include any sociological problem,

particularly the racial problem that opposes the white people, statistically in

numbers as the majority of the American with other people from the statistically

minority races. Rather, it is used simply with the consideration refers to numbers.

The fact that may be understood from the phenomena of the angry white male is

that the sense of promising future that was flourishing in the postwar period was


feel useless and less significant to work in such a job that mostly considered


Certainly, such reflection is not a generalization. At this period, the

sense of economic opportunity had been decreasing in the United States and

standard work becoming increasingly unavailable to the urban people

( The sense of

economic insecurity was particularly being experienced by the young workers in

the work force who had once lived in fairly good economic family. They

supposedly grew up to foster a dream that they could own more than that of their

parent. Experienced such difficult economic situation, these American young

workers maintained to work harder and longer with the intention of material

accumulation. Such gesture may reflect that these American young workers had

not yielded their desire to economic security and material comfort. However, such

desire is understandable, since it was the age where the role model was not

anymore a kind of humble person, but instead a media-star with all his

materialistic splendor. Thus, it became intolerable for these young people of being

unsuccessful person, or simply a loser. It is then understood that their desire to

obtain material progress was framed within a higher desire, that of to appear as

successful person. Such a goal had consequently forced these urban young people

to tolerate working in jobs they were unprepared for

( Thus, the sense of declining economic opportunity did not merely


experienced also by those who had been in the work force. Instead of gaining their

wage raised, it remained stagnant or, worse, declined

( The word future and

‘career’, therefore, remained unarticulated.

The diminishing sense of future and the loss sense of self-belonging and

the threat to one’s self-esteem that occurred in the U.S. after the period of its

industrial transition or, Donald L. Kanter in The Cynical American says,

de-industrialization (Kanter, 1989: 138) has inevitably caused the sense of self fell

into crisis. Heavily distressed and disappointed by their reality, it was reasonable

that many of these urban young people attempted to seek a way to cope with

predominant sense of loss, anger, emptiness, and meaninglessness that

preoccupied them.

The most popular means these urban young people embraced to cope

with their inner frustration was consumerism. Although consumerism was not a

culture peculiar to the 1990s, it had been transformed with different background

and motive. Consumerism had since long ago been promoted as a way of life that

people, particularly in urban society, were to conform. In the nineties, it was

offered not simply as a way of life, but a kind of answer to disappointment in life.

It promised to fill the empty void of the American urban people who experienced

the economic insecurity and upcoming uncertainty of the resulting of the change

in its industry. The anxiety that preoccupied the 1990s American young workers

has consequently dissolved all together the old values their parents had taught to


replaced by a prevalent passion to live for the moment. Such ethical

transformation could not, of course, be separated from the role of media and

advertising that played seduction to these disappointed young workers. Indeed,

Wachtel in his reflection states,

“ …[W]e have sought to quell the vulnerability through our possession. When we can buy nice new things, when we look around and see our homes well stocked and well equipped, we feel strong and expansive rather than small and endangered.” (Wachtel:…)

As Wachtel reflects, the nineties American young people bestowed a meaning

upon their devalued lives through consumption.

Advertising, as the main engine of consumerism, that had victimized

women began to prey man as well in the nineties. The shift from industrial and

manufacturing based to a service and information-based economy according to

Susan Faludi, had offered men fewer and fewer meaningful occupation

( To cure the sense of disappointment,

advertising seductively promised men a way to gain back meaning of men’s

existence through presenting images of successful or heroic man for men to

emulate with. Such images of successful man scattered in various product of

advertisement, from car, suits and clothes to hair spray, body spray or perfume,

face cream, moisturizer, even furniture and interior stuff. In these images, the term

success symbolized or referred to, according to Dianne Barthel in her writing


Jack Salomon (eds.), 1997: 145 – 154). Hence, men entered an identity crisis in

which the old opposition between masculine and feminine has been so blurred.

Another thing meant by the 1990s young American to alleviate their pain

of inner frustration was to consume self-help book. It was reported by the trade

publication American Bookseller that during the period from 1991 – 1996 there

was inclining trend in self-help book sales. In fact, by the beginning of 1998, the

total sales for books categorized as self-help book was constituted to 581 million

dollars U.S. ( Such fact was in contrast with

the decline of the publishing industry for several unsupported factors. Such

phenomena, however, occurred at the same time when American must face the

period where future becomes uncertain, insecurity in economic condition and the

acute sense of meaningless life. Thus, it was not surprising that psychological and

spiritual theme was dominant subject in so many self-help books. Something that

can be induced from such a fact is that there were hunger in the shelves of those

exhausted new breed workers of the nineties for emotional and spiritual

immediacy. This was due to a reason that after spending many hours in their job,

these workers must spend some time more to improve themselves through joining

trainings or courses, continuing their study and perfecting their appearance just so

they remained in the competition. Supposedly, there was barely enough time to

maintain intimate interpersonal relationship. To fill their emotional emptiness,

therefore, self-help book seemed to provide perfect answer. Other possible reason

was the diminishing self-esteem of the resulting uncertain reality they were to


Other thing that similar with self-help book is the culture of support

group or twelve-step program that was so prevailing in the U.S. during nineties.

The economic insecurity experienced by many American workers’ families has

eroded the interpersonal relationship among the family members or the larger

community. The sense of crisis made people to focus so sharply on their own need

that they had ground apart from others. Such attitude, then, had them to lose their

capacity for intimacy and community. When eventually their struggle to gain the

sense of well being were failed, they ended up sad in loneliness and depression;

drunk, smoke, eat a lot, go to prostitute, etc. Longing for such intimacy they

gathered themselves to support each other against the forces that threaten their

lives. Until recently, it is reported that such a community as support group or

encounter group is still prevailing in the United States


Along with the massive consumption that overwhelmed the U.S. in the

nineties, the uncertain condition had inescapably raised violent and destructive

activities. The jobs that were open in the economic transition from heavy industry

to service and technological industry required good deal of education and skills

that many people from lower-middle class could not afford. Disappointed working

in low paying service jobs or, at all, unemployed, the sense of pride and

confidence of many American young men diminished. Lost meaning in life

saturated the U.S. during the nineties. Hence, violence as pathological response of

spiritual search for self-identity became epidemic. Gibson Winter in his writing


“…[V]iolence and threats of violence are present in all parts of America. The bombing of Federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995, the spread of militias, the increase in abused of women and children, the escalating numbers of rapes, the constant threats against government agents who try to enforce rules…terrorist bombings of family-planning clinic…reflect a deep crisis of violence in American life” (

The horror condition in American society had increasingly perceivable as

‘spiritual’ or inner frustration. White males, who felt that their lives have been

stolen by immigrant, women, or people from minority races, gathered themselves

in racist group like skinheads or white separatist community or many various kind

of progressive movements in urban area in the U.S.. All these violent activities

makes clear of how hunger for sense of identity and hope for the future fuel this

violence (

Nevertheless, the violence that was saturating the U.S. in the nineties,

did not merely take form physical destructive and nihilistic action as it has

previously been mentioned, but also another kind of violence in the form of

cynicism. The fact that the U.S. had lost it’s heavy industry in the midst of

eighties and has lost many more in the beginning of nineties by the increase of

service, professional and technological industry, makes such a cynicism

understandable. Studies by Kanter shows that many American young people

seeking blue-collar job believed that they were less able than their parents to find

a job with long-term security. He finds out that many of these youth, who were

eventually going into the service industries, experienced downward mobility

(Kanter, 1989: 138 – 139). The uncertainty and the economic insecurity that


less education, skill and income. But, Kanter shows that many new-breed young

American workers who have a higher level of education, social security and

income found themselves cold and lonely in their struggle to cope with their sense

of purposelessness (Kanter: 143). Such facts show that the condition in the 1990s

had caused many people, especially young people who were readily to enter the

workforce or some new faces in the workforce to lose their dreams and

expectation and left them embittered and cynical.

The change that marked the decade transition from the eighties to the

nineties in the U.S. is, as it has been acknowledged, the change in its industry

from heavy industry to service industry. Such change seems promising for many

youth who had entered and who were to enter the workforce. Kanter and Mirvis

see this optimism was derived from these urban young people’s expectation,

particularly with regard to money and financial success that exceed their parents’

(Kanter: 149). Unfortunately, by contrast to their expectation, the fact in the field

showed somewhat contradictive.

To sum up, high competition in the workforce caused many people, who

failed to compete with other, were thrown to low paying service jobs and caused

many others, who have been in the workforce, had to tolerate to work with static

or, worse, declining income and caused some, who were less lucky, become sad

or angry in despair. Experiencing such uncertain condition, many of these urban

American young men lost their sense of belonging and, certainly, their hope for


seek meaning of life through consumption, violence, cynicism, self-help book,

therapeutic support group or twelve-step program.

C. Theoretical Framework

There are three theories used in this study: the theory of character and

characterzation, socio-cultural-historical review of the United States during the

1990, and the theory of the feeling of meaninglessness. These theories will be

employed to answer the objective of these thesis constructed in problem


The theory of character consists of explanation about the character and

characterization. It is used along with theory of characterization to give an

understandable description of the central character[s] in the novel and to reveal

the characteristic of the central character[s]. The socio-cultural-historical review

of the United States during the 1990 is used along with theory of the feeling of

meaninglessness will be employed to reveal the manifestation of the feeling of

meaninglessness in the novel and the way it reflects the American urban young

people’s feeling of meaninglessness during the nineties. This last theory,

particularly in its illustration on meaninglessness and suffering that distinguishes

man from his/her ability to fulfil meaning in life is used to reveal the way the

novel stands as a response to such psychological phenomenon of inner frustration

or feeling of meaninglessness.





A. Object of the Study

The object of study is Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club. It is a novel that portrays an urban young man who is profoundly overcome by the sense of emptiness in life, namely the feeling of meaninglessness, and his attempt to cope with such a feeling.

This book is United Kingdom version of the United States original version, which was published by W.W. Norton & Company Ltd. The copyright of the original version was in 1996 by Chuck Palahniuk. The United Kingdom version was published in 1997 by Vintage, London.

The original hardcover edition of the book received many reviews and won some awards; the 1997 Pacific Northwest Bookseller Association Award and the 1997 Oregon Book Award for Best Novel. Yet, it was adapte d into a film, which used the same title, distributed by the 20t h Fox Century in 1999. The book had been re-released three times in paperback, in 1999, in 2004 and in 2005.


any way out to change meaningless condition of his life. While he tries to cope with the inner pain given by his meaningless life, he nurture a wish to be someone else who can deal and solve such meaninglessness. Tyler Durden is the figure incarnated from his wish. Tyler helps the narrator to deal with the feeling of meaninglessness that threatens his life and to have courage to face such an inner problem. Presented from the perspective of an uncertain narrator, Palahniuk’s Fight Club offers a caustic, unsettled, and insightful glance at the American urban socio-culture in the late capitalism that beneath its phenomenological improvement and advancement lies covert psychological threat of futility and meaninglessness that has caused many young people confuse, furious, and suffered.

B. Approach of the Study


the novel responds the very culture that gave its birth and, therefore, reveals the significance of the novel in its socio-cultural-historical context.

This thesis focuses on the feeling of meaninglessness as it seems to preoccupy many people described in the novel and as socio-psychological problem that seemingly has been transformed as socio-cultural phenomenon in the United States during the publication and the consumption of the novel. Employing the approach, the thesis attempt to reveal the way the novel reflects such a socio-cultural-historical phenomenon of the 1990s American urban young people’s inner frustration and the way the novel stands as response to it.

C. Method of the Study

In order to fulfil the objectives of this thesis, this thesis used library research method. Using this method, this thesis attempted to collect some theories needed in this thesis and many information that related to the socio-cultural condition in the United States during 1990s and the feeling of meaninglessness. This thesis would do also some research in the internet in order to gain more complete information to support some information compiled from the library research.


discussed in the novel and other texts had been found, while sometimes raising some critical questions some of which would be constructed as the problem formulation of this thesis.

The second process was to arrange all findings collected from the first process into two parts. The first part is the compilation of information and theories that is going to be used to analyse the character and characterization and the second part is the compilation of information and theories was going to be used to reveal the way Palahniuk’s Fight Club contextualize the feeling of meaninglessness of the 1990s urban young Americans..

The third process was to refer the theory with the data and information that had been compiled and arranged, to employ the approach, and to conduct the analysis within the scope of the questions constructed in problem formulation.





A. Depiction of the Characters (the Character “I” and Tyler Durden) in

Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club

The central character in Chuck Palahniuk’ is the character “I” in this story. However, it must not be forgotten that his existence cannot be separated from another character, namely Tyler Durden. In fact, the character “I” and Tyler Durden exist in a relationship in which one is dependent on the other. the character “I” emphasises this dependency in the end of chapter I,

“I want Tyler…[but] Tyler doesn’t want around, not anymore. This isn’t about love as in caring. This is about the property in ownership” (Palahniuk: 14).

Entrapped in his desolation from the resulting meaningless daily experience, the character “I” is desperately longing for a change. The emergence of Tyler Durden with all of his revolutionary things seems to provide the character “I” with such a change since he is capable of introducing many experiences the character “I” never had been familiar with.


“Oh, This is bullshit. This is a dream. Tyler is a projection. He is a disassociative personality disorder. A psychogenic fugue state. Tyler is my hallucination. Fuck that shit, Tyler says” (Palahniuk, 1997: 168).

With regard to this thesis’ agreement to Giroux’s perspective that Fight Club

mimics the working of a today’s predominant culture, the relationship of these

characters (the character “I” and Tyler Durden) is considered, here, to provide

pictures of possible condition of today’s individuals that are inflicted very much

with the growing sense of uncertainty. Further, both characters relationship

provides the ‘form’ through which today’s reality is responded and valued in

some ways and thus, a certain ‘truth’ is revealed into our seeing. Harvey

Birenbaum in The Happy Critic argues that a story often presents its idea through

the pattern of relationship among characters and hrough the response the character

takes toward his world (Birenbaum, 1997: 132). Given this consideration, this

thesis attempts to reveal the way the both characters are depicted in the story in

order to understand the logic of one’s response to live in world in which the sense

of uncertainty has preoccupied everyone.

1. The Depiction of the Character ‘I’

The character “I” is nameless. Precisely, he is not simply nameless but

unwilling to mention his name.

“…[T]onight we introduce ourselves: I’m Bob, I’m Paul, I’m Terry, I’m David. I never give my real name ” (1997: 23).

Such unwillingness to mention his name has become a kind of natural gesture for


introduction. A name, for whatever reason he tends to hide, seems problematical

for him. In fact, his name remains unknown to the end of the story.

The character “I” is a middle-aged man who works as a recall campaign

coordinator of an automobile company in certain place in the United States. Such

occupation is surely not a kind of low-wage job. Indeed, from his description, he

seems to have a close relationship with his boss or, in other words, he is the man

whom his boss trusts upon. This is shown whenever there is a meeting his boss

does not want to attend, the character “I” becomes the boss’ representative to run

some presentations for the company. Consequently, then, working in such a job,

the character “I” is materially sufficient.

This is how he can afford to practice a delightful life in a condominium;

a space on the fifteenth floor of a high-rise building, he calls as home. To live in a

condominium implies the character “I’s” preference to live in a private and secure

place, rather than to life in a neighbourhood environment.

In a glance, from this personal description, the character “I’s” life seems

normal, in the way that his life is not distinct from generally urban people practice

a life; individual, stranger to each other, lack of sociability, and spending much of

their time working as an employee of a certain industrial company. In the case of

the character “I”, such urban phenomenon is obviously described in his preference

to live at a condominium since to life in such place, the character “I” consents to

foster a secluded life; to live in limitationof space, of air, of social interaction

and, intentionally, of external disturbance.


ceiling and wall between me and any adjacent stereo or turned-up television. A foot of concrete and air conditioner, you couldn’t open the windows so even with maple flooring and dimmer switches, all seventeen hundred airtight feet would smell like the last meal you cooked or your last trip to bathroom…Still, a foot of concrete is important when your neighbor lets the battery on her hearing aid go and has to watch her game shows at full blast. Or when volcanic blast of a burning gas and debris that used to be your living-room set and personal effects blows out your floor-to-ceiling windows and sails down flaming to leave just your condo, only yours…” (1997: 41).

Such individualistic tendency that is apparently shared by many people in the

character “I’s” world has consequently given birth to the culture of apathy by

which, then, people tends to be a stranger to each other. There is no adequate

space for such a thing such as intimate interpersonal relationship or friendship to

be articulated. What is left is, the character “I” says, tiny friendship.

“…tiny life…tiny soap, tiny shampoo…tiny mouthwash…tiny friendship” (1997: 28-31).

Thus, the character “I’s” reluctant to reveal his name in every moment of

introduction is sufficient to explain his characteristic as an individualistic person.

in. Hiding his name, the character “I” intends to keep certain distance from other


The way the character “I” remains nameless is explainable in relation to

his preference to live condominium and also his occupation. Working such a job,

which spends most of his time, has consequently caused the character “I”

exhausted physically and psychologically. It is reasonable or justifiable, then, for

the character “I” to spend some time he got left to detach from his daily life.

Condominium seems perfect for such intention, in which he is able to feel relax


limits or norms or any external disturbance. Such self-absorption intention is

explainable with his tendency to hide name; afraid of intimacy.

Further, the background of narrator’s quality, informed in his personal

description, has immediately given us an impression of a picture of a common

man. The way he responds the banality of his everyday life is, presumably, not

quite distinct from many other people in his world. This is evidently in the case of

condominium, the place he prefers to live at, “…for young professionals” (1997:

41). In this way, the character “I” is, presumably, as banal as his everyday life and

as anonymous as his anonymity. Characteristically, therefore, he is an ‘anti-hero’.

An anti-hero, Birenbaum notes, is a charactercentral or main

characterthat is characteristically described to posses the quality of an ordinary

person (1997: 146). Thus, to know how ordinary is the character “I”, this thesis

needs to reveal his characteristic of which evaluated from the depiction of him in

the story.

The character “I” often conceives himself as misfortunate person. He

verbalizes this in a confession.

“This is when I’d cry because right now, [my] life comes down to nothing and not even nothing, oblivion…When [I] see how everything [I] can ever accomplish will end up as trash. Anything [I] ever proud of will be thrown away” (1997: 17).

Such perception becomes more obvious in the way he often values himself as

nothing in comparison with other people.


To compare to Chloe who is inflicted by the brain cancer, the character “I” is

supposedly feeling better since he is not in the middle of any kind of deadly

diseases. The character “I”, on the contrary, views himself worse in comparison

with Chloe. Further, when he places himself in a comparison with other people,

the character “I” tends to value himself in subordinate position. He never sees

himself as the one who is better. It exemplifies through the way he associates

himself as a cockroach in a comparison with a dinner party guest or as trash and

crap in comparison with Marla Singeranother character that its relation to the

character “I” will be discussed later. Such ironical self-awareness may imply that

at the very moment, the character “I” despises himself for his life is, in any way,

never better than other people’s life, and not even better than those people in

support group.

However, the way the character “I” equates himself with those people

who is socially subordinated is deceiving. It is proven by his doctor’s refusal to

consider him in pain.

“My doctor said [that] [I]nsomnia is just the symptom of something larger. Find out what actually wrong. Listen to your body[,]…chew valerian root and get more exercise” (1997: 25-30).

The doctor’s suggestion implies that the character “I” is not at all in pain, not in

the way patients of dangerous diseases experience pain. Such delusion of pain that

the character “I” experiences is revealed through the Marla’s reflection whose

gaze is able to give the character “I” a sense of judgement and remind him of his


“To Marla I’m a fake. Since the second night I saw her I can’t sleep…In this moment, Marla’s lie reflects my lie…Marla is smoking and rolling her eyes, and me, I’m buried under a sobbing carpet” (1997: 25-30).

For the character “I”, life appears in a paradox; a life that is supposed to be

meaningful in its every moment turns out to be stale, narrow and meaningless. He

never has a sense of belonging because his life is his job and his job turns to be

his life. He finds his life like a meaningless motion and job description. He often

mocks and ridicules himself for such a finding just to convey his dissatisfaction

and disappointment with his life

“I set my watch two hours earlier or three hours later, Pacific, Mountain, Central or Eastern time; lose an hour, gain an hour. This is your life, and it’s ending one minute at a time…What I am is a recall campaign coordinator,…but I’m working toward a career as a dishwasher” (1997: 29-31).

This way, Marla’s reflection together with the doctors’ suggestion cancels

immediately the character “I’s” assumption of a miserable life he is living. Thus,

this thesis argues, the way the character “I” often perceives himself in subordinate

position compared to other people informs clearly his characteristic as a person

who often feels unsatisfied with his life and who lacks sense of self-esteem.

Other attitude that is significant to the character “I” is his tendency to

make cynical comment and ridicules other people’s gesture. This is very obvious

when he describes the people at support group.

“Bob’s big shoulder made me think of horizon. Bob’s thick blond hair was what you get when hair cream calls itself a sculpting mousse…Bob’s shoulders inhale themselves up in a long draw, then drop, drop, drop in jerking sobs. Draw themselves up. Drop. Drop. Drop ” (1997: 17).


Commenting on Bob’s flaw, the character “I” seems to suggest that his condition

is someway better than Bob or, in another saying, the character “I” intends to

project himself better than other people.

“Around us in the Trinity Episcopal basement with the thrift store plaid sofa are maybe twenty men…Some pairs lean forward heads pressed ear-to-ear, the way wrestler stand, locked” (1997: 17).

The atmosphere in support group is obviously sad and sorrow as there are many

people, to use Peter Mathews’ words, again, “who have lost all productive

purpose in life through the intervention of sickness” cry to each other just to share

their worst fear and pain. Such situation would consequently make anyone in

there to feel sad, or at least is affected. The way the character “I” describes the

situation in support group, in this context, implies his tendency to project himself

superior to his environment.

Such sense of superiority the character “I” intends to project by means of

mocking and cynicism may serve to explain his qualities as a person who is

indifferent to other people suferring. He appropriates other people’s suffering in

several support groups he participates with the intention of fulfilling his hunger

for emotional experience, attention, and most of all, sureness that “Everyone has

something wrong” (1997: 109). This is shown in his confession,

“Stranger with this kind of honesty make me go a big rubbery one, if you know you know what I mean…Walking home after a support group, I felt more alive than I’d ever felt. I wasn’t host to cancer or blood parasites; I was the little warm center that the life if the world crowded around” (1997: 21-22).

Seen from the character “I’s” two prominent ways of behaving,


discussed attitudes are derived becomes perceptible. The situation at support

group has surely impressed him in which he experiences freedom from ‘pain’,

anxiety and meaningless life. This is something that he is never to feel in his daily

experience and, indeed, he mentions his experience at support group as ‘vacation’.

Stating that support group is ‘vacation’, the character “I”, thus, has unconsciously

made comparison between his daily life and support group in which he earnestly

concludes “…[t]his (support group) is better than real life…” (1997: 22). Since

then, the character “I” tends to compare and evaluate things from such

perspective. It simply results his ironical way of seeing, mocking and cynicism

just to conceal his disappointment with his life and envy.

Amongst the character “I’s” way of behaving that has been discussed so

far, there is one most significant attitude that foregrounds all his attitudes. It is his

preoccupation with the condition of his psychic health. Overwhelmed in fatigue

and acute sense of emptiness, the character “I”, instead of struggling to deal with

such desolation, tends to seek any possible detachment from such sense, he

experiences as ‘pain’. This is seen obviously in his wandering from relaxant pills,

consumerism and support group. These things serve as a means that enables him

to forget momentarily his ‘pain’ of an empty life in which he says, “For the

moment, nothing matters” (1997: 31). His tendency to escape from such pain

expresses, then, his image as a patient rather than an agent to his life. Such images

are started by his pathetic request for relaxant pills and followed then by his


The way the character “I” behaves revealed from the way he responds to

his situation speak of the way he experiences his life. He seems unconsciously

busy to overcome his inner crises; to find sense of meaning and purpose in his

life. Surely, there is a void within him that has caused him to act in a way lack

sense of pride of self. This is worsen by his tendency to compare himself to other

people. In an extreme scale, as in the case of the character “I”, such lack of

self-esteem would necessarily entail self-denial. This way, his unwillingness to

mention his name is one of the most perceptible symptoms of his self-denial.

Through denying his ‘existence’, the character “I” is able to forget all of problems

a life has weight down on him. Thus, this is the context of the character “I’s”

wandering from one thing to another thing in order to give himself relief from

anxiety of his empty life. This intention is apparently shared by many others. It is

revealed from his description on the tendency to consumerism in which he

parodies the men common fondness to sit in the bathroom with pornography that

has transformed in their preferring to read instead IKEA catalogue and his

description on various support group he attends of which suggests the prevalence

of support group culture among people in his world and the way that a lot of

people are interested to join in fight club. Thus, the character “I’s” wandering

from one thing to another thing just to escape from the ‘pain’ of meaningless life

conveys his earnest aversion to be the man he is presently. It entails his strong

desire to be someone else.


Having finished the discussion, this thesis has revealed the

characteristics of the character “I”. As it has been revealed, it is a psychic problem

that gives the character “I” anxiety and uneasiness to live. Despite his material

success, such inner anxiety has instead caused him to feel less proud over himself

and the life he currently undergoes. In short, he is lack of self-esteem. Such a lack

of sense of self has then leads him to have a habit to compare his life to other

people. From this kind of attitude, the character “I” finds out that his life is worse

than that of other people. He often mocks himself for such a finding just to convey

his dissatisfaction and disappointment with his life. As a way to cope with such a

sense of disappointment and futility, he embraces cynicism. He simply regards

with such a sense of knowingness that other people conceal something wrong in

their lives. Along with cynicism, he runs to consumerism through which he

intends to convince to both himself and others that he is not less significant

person. However, rather than reduce his unhappiness, it instead reinforces his

unhappiness. Experiences such unhappy and meaningless life, he fosters a fantasy

that he can be someone else whose life is interesting. It can be seen that to cope

with his inner problem the character “I” chooses to escape and disregard it. This

escapism is what grounds his all characteristics.

2. The Depiction of Tyler Durden

Tyler has no occupationnot in the sense of any formal daily

occupation, but he works part-time as a movie projectionist and a banquet waiter.


monotonous routines. As a part-time projectionist, for example, Tyler has to

arrange several reels of film of every movie in a certain order at every theatre

where the movie is played. the character “I” describes,

“…Tyler did changeovers if the theatre was old enough. With changeover, you have two projectors in the booth and one projector is running…Most movies are six or seven small reels of film played in a certain order…This way, you…have to run two projector and do changeovers, switch back and forth, reel one, switch, reel two on the other projector, switch, reel three on the first projector…Old theatre, new theatre, to ship movie to next theatre, Tyler has to break the movie back down to the original six or seven rolls” (1997: 26).

Such a job, is not only monotonous but also meaningless in the way that this job

consists various simple tasks such as, arranging reels of film into a certain order,

doing changeovers, serving food to a party or a gala dinner, clearing the dirty

plates, and rinsing the dishes.

Tyler lives at a rented house at the Paper Street. The house is very awful

that no one would be willing to live in except one who lives with limited income

or who has a certain purpose, like those drug dealers who prefer to stay in a

remote environment.

“[In] the house that Tyler rents,…[t]he rain trickles down through the house, and everything wooden swells and shrinks, and the nails…inch out and rust…There are no neihgbors. There are nothing else on Paper Street except the warehouse and the pulp mill. The fart smell of steam from the paper mill and hamster cage smell of woodchips in orange pyramids around the mill…a bah-zillion trucks drive down Paper Street everyday, but at night, Tyler…alone for a half-mill in every direction ” (1997: 57-58).

The terrible condition of his house, thus, may serve to explain Tyler’s economic


From the personal description of Tyler previously, the way he is

characterized may serve to present a particularity impression on his character. The

way he possesses certain quality of strength may seem exaggerating. But, such

exaggeration is appropriate or necessary if such particularity impression is ever

intended. Possessing such quality of strength, thus, Tyler’s image stands to

represent the few people for the fact that such strength is solely inherent in some

people. Together with the strange condition of the place he lives and the kind of

occupation that is not common, the way he is described to possess extra-ordinary

strength may served to articulate and emphasis the particularity image of Tyler. In

a way, such particularity image may signify a kind of anti-herd characteristic. In

regard to the way the character “I” is characterized as an anti-hero or, simply,

common man, as it has been discussed previous part, therefore, Tyler Durden

whom the character “I” has his interest upon shall reasonably be supposed to bear

the quality of a special person who is admired by other people or, to say simply, a

heroas the character “I” may have seen him so.

The character “I” often seems to describe Tyler Durden in amazement.

Such amazement may be clearly seen in the chapter three of the novel in which

while he is describing himself, he is, at the same moment, describing Tyler

Durden. This way, the character “I” seemingly intends to compare his life with

Tyler Durden life. In such intention, he recognizes that his life is uninteresting

while Tyler’s life seems amusing.


Tac…[I] wake up at Willow Run…Cigarette burns, they’re called in the business. The first white dot, this is the two-minute warning,…the second projector started so it will be running up to speed. The second white dot is the five-second warning. Excitement…[I]wake up at Krissy Field…[I] wake up at Meigs Field…[I] wake up at Logan, again. This is terrible way to travel. I go to mettings my boss doesn’t want to attend. I take notes. I’ll get back to you…What I am is a recall campaign coordinator…but I’m working toward a career as a dishwasher” (1997: 25-31).

In the description quoted above, the way the character “I” describes his life is

different from the way he describes Tyler’s life. The way he describes his life

seems flat, sad and sometimes ironic while the way he describes Tyler’s seems so

detail, ardent and full of excitement. In fact, the way Tyler has inspired the

character “I” is revealed at the end of chapter three in which he expresses his

curiosity on Tyler.

There are some aspects of Tyler’s personality that have caused our

narrator to conceive Tyler as an impressive person. The character “I” sees Tyler

as a man who has certain quality of cunningness and possesses vast knowledge.

The character “I” shows Tyler’s cleverness in an occasion in which he describes

the way Tyler is to deal with boredom in his work as a movie projectionist by the

use of frames of pornographic movies. Tyler inserts some of these frames of

pornographic movies into a feature or family movie. Using these frames of

pornographic movies also, Tyler bargains the threat of rationalization the

projectionist union puts on him. One of the most interesting cunningness the

character “I” sees in Tyler Durden is the way Tyler satirizes an urban trend, fat


product to the place where these people, who had just have their fat sucked out,

buy their soap.

“…[F]or the first time since I’ve known him, Tyler had some real play money. Tyler was making real bucks. Nordstrom’s called and left order for two hundred bars of Tyler’s brown sugar facial soap before Christmas. At twenty bucks a bar, suggested retail price, we had maney to go out on Saturday night…to fix the leak in the gas line…without money to worry about, maybe I could quit my job. Tyler calls himself the Paper Street Soap Company. People are saying it’s the best soap ever” (1997: 83).

These people, who have their fat sucked outbecause extra fat means

imperfectionuse Tyler’s facial soap that was produced from their own sucked

out fat, which costs them twenty dollars for each and then, they claimed that it is

the best soap ever that they had ever use and they like it. In this, Tyler says, “how

you always kill the one you love, well, look, it works both ways” (1997 : 13).

Closely related to the way the character “I” sees Tyler as a cunning

person is the impression of Tyler for him as a person who possesses amazingly

vast knowledge. Tyler’s ability to produce soap is a part of his knowledge. In the

case of soap, Tyler knows its detail ingredients, its history, its culture. He knows

the knowledge about gun, about bomb, about explosive materials. He knows the

knowledge about some dangerous tiny animals. He knows something about

Buddhist monastery. In short, Tyler knows many things or, in the character “I’s”

words, “…Tyler is full of information”, which he repeats many times.

However, the way the other character see Tyler is not quite different

with the character “I”. Bob, a patient of testicular cancer support group, for

example, although he has never met with Tyler, seems enthusiastically to know