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Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain theSarjana PendidikanDegree

in English language Education


Vensiana Parnika Student Number: 041214133







Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain theSarjana PendidikanDegree

in English language Education


Vensiana Parnika Student Number: 041214133






Live in this world in full awareness of the oneness of existence, giving and enjoying, experiencing sorrows and joys, but never

unaware even for a moment that this existence comes from the Almighty

and returns to Him

That experiences of transcendence come from prayer, poetry, happiness, sorrow, courage, and love.

They offer answers to what our lives are about

If you ask, ask the Almighty

If you depend on someone – depend on the Almighty

Whoever follows a path of seeking knowledge. The Almighty will make his path to Paradise easy

The final conclusion of all research : The universe did not just happen;

There is a purpose behind it


Dedicated with love and gratitude to: My beloved parents, my gorgeous brother, and



A. Background of the Study ……….…… B. Objective of the Study ……….………… C. Problem Formulation ……….……….. D. Benefits of the Study ………...………… E. Definition of Terms ……….…


A. Review of Related Theories ……….………... 1. Theory of Character and Characterization ……….………….. B. Critical Approaches ……….……… 1. 1. Psychoanalytic Theory ……… 2. Psychodynamic Theories ……… 3. Phenomenological Theory ……….. 4. Theory of Friendship ………..……….



C. Theoretical Framework ……….……….. D. Criticism ……….………. E. Context of the Novel ……….………...


A. Object of the Study ……….………. B. Approaches of the Study……….………. C. Procedure ……….………


A. Sophie and Natasha’s Characteristics in If I were You …….………..… 1. Sophie’s Characters………...…………..….….

B. Factors that Influence Sophie and Natasha’s Decisions to Search for

Their Self-Identity………...………...



Their Self-Identity……….……….

a. Sophie and Natasha’s Thoughts ……….……….. b. Sophie and Natasha’s Motivation ……….………... c. Sophie and Natasha’s Desires ……….………. d. Sophie and Natasha’s Feelings ……….………...

2. External Factors that Influence Sophie and Natasha’s Searching for

Their Self-Identity………....……….

a. The Environment around Sophie and Natasha ……… b. Sophie and Natasha’s Family and Friends’ Roles ……….………….. c. Problems Faced by Sophie and Natasha ……….………….



A. Conclusion ………...……….. B. Suggestion for Teaching Implementation ……….……….. C. Recommendation of If I were You for Further Researchers ……….…..



APPENDIX I. Summary of the Novel ……… APPENDIX 2. The Biography of Julia Llewellyn ………....………….. APPENDIX 3. Lesson Plan for Extensive Reading I ……….…………. APPENDIX 4. Lesson Plan for Speaking IV ……….………….. APPENDIX 5. The Material for Extensive Reading I ………….……….... APPENDIX 6. The Material for Speaking IV ……….……… APPENDIX 7. The Steps to teach Extensive Reading I and Speaking IV……...



Parnika, Vensiana. (2008).The Two Main Characters’ Searching for Self-Identity as reflected in Llewellyn’s If I were You. Yogyakarta: English Education Study Program, Faculty of Teaching Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University

This study discusses the two main characters, Sophie and Natasha, in their self-identity searching in which their decisions are influenced by some factors around them as seen in Juali Lewellyn’s If I were You. The novel deals with friendship as the topic of the novel and takes London and its society in the modern era as the settings. It tells us about Sophie and Natasha’s life experience during their friendship from the very first time they met when they were only eleven until they were adults and their experiences in their relationship with others within their society and environment. Therefore the story is very close to the human’s life experiences since it may also be experienced by people in the real life.

The objective of this study is to analyze the two main characters’ significant attitudes towards their friendship and their relationship with others within the society. There are two problems discussed in this study. The first is the description of Sophie and Natasha’s characters. And the second is the factors that influence Sophie and Natasha’s decision in searching for their self-identity.

There are two kinds of source used in this study namely, the primary data, which was the novel itself, and other supporting sources taken from books, journals, and articles from the Internet.

The theories used in this study are the theory of character and characterization, psychoanalytic theory, psychodynamic theory, phenomenological theory, and theory of friendship. This study also employs the psychological approach to analyze the two main characters’ self-identity influenced by some factors.

The conclusion taken from the analysis shows that Sophie’s characters are ambitious, dreamer, attentive, compassionate, attractive person, and talkative. Then Natasha is described as an independent, attentive, workaholic, lonely, introvert and dishonest person. And the factors influence Sophie and Natasha’s decision in finding their self-identity are their thoughts, motivations, desires, and feelings, which are classified as the internal factors, then the environment including the society, the family and friends’ roles, and the faced conflicts or problems which are categorized as the external factors.



Parnika, Vensiana. (2008).The Two Main Characters’ Searching for Self-Identity as reflected in Llewellyn’s If I were You.Yogyakarta: Program Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Sanata Dharma Yogyakarta.

Seperti yang tertera dalam judul, jelas bahwa studi ini membahas kedua tokoh utama, Sophie dan Natasha, dalam pencarian jati diri mereka dimana keputusan mereka dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor di sekitar mereka. Novel ini mengangkat persahabatan sebagai topik novel ini dan mengambil London dan masyarakatnya pada jaman modern sebagai setingnya. Novel ini menceritakan pengalaman hidup Sophie dan Natasha selama persahabatan mereka dari pertama kali bertemu ketika mereka masih sebelas tahun sampai dewasa dan juga pengalaman-pengalaman mereka dalam hubungan mereka dengan orang lain dalam masyarakat dan lingkungan. Maka dari itu cerita ini behubungan erat dengan pengalaman hidup manusia karena dapat juga dialami oleh orang-orang dalam kehidupan nyata.

Tujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk mengamati tingkah laku-tingkah laku yang berarti dari kedua tokoh utama terhadap persahabatan dan hubungan mereka dengan masyarakat. Ada dua masalah yang dibahas dalam studi ini. Yang pertama adalah karakter Sophie dan Natasha. Dan yang kedua adalah faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan Sophie dan Natasha dalam mencari jati diri mereka.

Ada dua jenis sumber yang dipakai yaitu data utama yang adalah novel itu sendiri, dan sumber-sumber pendukung yang diambil dari beberapa buku, jurnal, dan artikel dari internet.

Teori yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah teori karakter dan penokohan, teori psychoanalytic, teori psychodynamic, teori phenomenologi, dan teori persahabatan. Studi ini juga menggunakan pendekatan psikologi untuk manganalisa jati diri kedua tokoh utama yang dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor disekitar mereka.

Kesimpulan menyatakan bahwa karakter Sophie adalah ambisius, pemimpi, perhatian, penuh belas kasih, orang yang menarik, dan suka berbicara. Dan Natasha adalah orang yang mandiri, perhatian, workaholik, kesepian, tertutup, dan tidak jujur. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan Sophie dan Natasha dalam mencari jati diri adalah pikiran-pikiran, motivasi-motivasi, impian-impian, dan perasan mereka yang digolongkan sebagai faktor-faktor internal, dan lingkungan termasuk masyarakat, peran keluarga dan teman-teman, dan masalah-masalah yang dihadapi yang digolongkan sebagai faktor-faktor eksternal.




I would like to give my biggest thank to The Almighty God, Jesus Crhist, who

always gives his blessing to me and to every one, especially that He has led me

passing my difficult time in doing this thesis. I thank God for always accompanying

me through nights and days, good and bad times that He always gives me spirit to

struggle more.

I also thank God for sending me the great persons to help me, pray for me,

encourage and support me to finish this thesis.

I should thank God for sending me the kindest and the most patient advisor,

Mr. Herujiyanto, who always leads and helps me with his suggestions, attention, support, and correction.

My special ”Thank God” is for giving me a kind family, my Father who is

always patient to take and pick me up and teach me to be an independent woman; the

best Mother who gives me unconditional love and cares about me when I get sick or

have to sleep late doing my work; and my brother who is the only sibling in my


I would like to thank God for sending me kind hearted and everlasting friends

like Mbak Yun, and ”other habitants” Beti, Nila, V3, who are always willing to share;

Santi, Bekti, Susan, Alit, Ayux’, Riko, I thank them for the pleasure time we have

ever had; and Dika, I thank him for his kindness of giving wisdom and straight


xiii and sad time together guys!”

I would also like thank to my family and friends in CEC, especially Cie Lan,

Cie Wen, who have inspired me and advised me with the knowledge of life. I thank

Mbak Widdy, my roommate, for always helping, teaching, and even teasing me. I

want to express my gratitude to all my seniors in CEC whom I share my days during

the four days working in every week, Kaka’ Retno, Cie Yani, Ka’ Ima, mbak Santi,

mbak Cecil, mba Vryska, mba Nia, mba Ratih, Ko’ Adi, Yadi, Pak Eko, Cie End, for

accompanying and leading me to be a better person and teacher; the Putra Persada

teachers like Bu Eri and Bu Ari, and all the persons whom I cannot mention one by

one. I also thank the creatures that I never realized of their existence in accompanying

me. I thank them for the tear, blood, and sweat I shed during the process of making



The first chapter of this study mainly discusses four main things about Julia

Llewellyn’s novel, If I were You. They consist of the Background of the Study,

Objectives of the Study, Problem Formulation, the Benefits of the Study, and the

Definition of the Terms.

The background of the study represents the description of the topic of the

study and also represents the personal reasons why this topic is chosen. The

objectives of the study are limited by only dealing with the problems, which are

found in the Problem Formulations. The problem formulation concerns with the

general description of the investigated problems of this thesis. The benefits of this

study identify which parties will benefit from the study. The last part is the definition

of terms that concerns with special words and their explanation used in this study to

avoid the readers’ misunderstanding towards the certain words.

A. Background of the Study

Literature is one of the language branch studies that relates to the arts of

language. Literature is very close to human’s life as a way to express one’s ideas,

feelings, and views related to the human’s real life. From literature the readers are not

only getting pleasure, but the readers can obtain various kinds of knowledge also. The


works, is psychological knowledge that can be explored through the characters of the

novels. The author of a novel usually creates characters that psychologically reflect

the real human characters and implicitly describes their personalities, desires,

feelings, ideas, relationship to others, their motivation of doing something, and their

searching for self-identity. And those above mentioned statements become the

inspiration for the general topic and for choosing a novel to be the subject of this


A novel that attracts the writer’s interest is Julia Llewellyn’s novel, If I Were

You. What makes the story interesting is the story itself in which it is close to the human’s real life experiences. The story leads the readers’ minds and emotions to

imagine and reflect themselves if they were in the situations where they were facing

the situations as the same as faced by the two main characters in the novel. The

author, Julia Llewellyn, has successfully created the marvelous story that can

encourage the readers’ emotion and curiosity as her previous hilarious and enjoyable

novel, The Love Trainer. She also cleverly describes how the settings of place and

situation are and how the characters look like. The readers can easily imagine what

kind of person Natasha or Sophie is and how they look like. Sophie, whose mother

was an artist who had divorced and used to live with different men, is an easy going

person and looks so fashionable. The other character, Natasha, comes from a good

family. She is a hard worker and she rarely thinks about her love life. And as what

has been mentioned above, this study is intended to concern more on the second


In this novel, the author takes a common and popular topic about human

interactions that includes the relationship between the two main characters and their

families, the relationship between the two main characters and their society, and the

relationship within the two main characters itself. By those relationships, Llewellyn

builds the two main characters’ personalities through their progress in searching their


The novel itself contains 57 chapters. In the first chapter, Llewellyn

introduces the two main characters, Sophie and Natasha who were best fiends from

the first day they entered Betterton Ladies’ College Senior Division when they were

eleven years until they were adults. Then when Sophie and Natasha had been adults,

they had different career and style of life. Sophie had to take big efforts to make some

money for herself and shared life with her boy friend; meanwhile Natasha has been a

success career woman who lived in luxury flat, but she felt alone that she hadn’t got

any boyfriend. The author also tells about Sophie and Natasha’s families and people

close to them. Sophie was always influenced by her mother while Natasha was not.

To make the story more interesting and to attract the readers’ emotion and

curiosity, the author creates some conflicts within Sophie and Natasha’s life. Sophie

who worked as a staff in a publisher used to get financial problem, and she also had

problems on her relationship with her boyfriend. But Sophie always looks so

fashionable and attractive that many men are willing to have relationship with her. It

is different from Natasha who rarely had dating, and once she had, she got problems


But Natasha had successful career as a TV show programmer and had many famous

clients. Sometimes, Sophie and Natasha felt jealous to each other because of their life

condition and problems they faced. The two main characters exercised their mentality

trough the conflicts created by Llewellyn so that in the end of the story they became

tough persons by helping each other and finally both of them could be the better


But most of all, the thing that interests the writer at the story of If I Were You

is the two main characters’ searching for self-identity. It is embodied by the two main

characters’ self-development when they faced some problems coming to their life that

made them discover their truly identity or personality.

This study is, therefore, meant to find out the factors that influence Sophie

and Natasha’s decision to search their self-identity. There are some factors that can be

analyzed from the novel. The other things that make this novel special and can be

learnt are the ways Sophie shares her view about life, helps her best friend, Natasha,

by letting her boyfriend marries Natasha, and changes herself to be a more mature

person. And to get the deeper analysis about the two main characters’ self identity, it

is necessary to know Sophie and Natasha’s characteristics and personalities.

Then in conducting a study on literature, it is better to choose library research

that focuses on the primary source as the novel, and secondary sources as the

supporting sources to figure out the ground theory. Here, this study uses the

psychological approach and psychoanalytical criticism to analyze and explore the


as Reflected in Llewellyn’s If I Were You. Psychoanalytical criticism treats the two

main characters as real people who have complex psyches. From it, the characters of

a novel can be perceived as mirrors for their psychological fears, motivation, and

desires (Cirese, 1985: 53). This study also employs some supporting theories, such as

theory of character and characterization, psychoanalytic theory, psychodynamic

theory, phenomenological theory, theory of relationship, theory of friendship, and the

relationship between Psychology and Literature. The depth explanation is clarified

more in chapter two.

B. Objective of the Study

The objective of this study is to look into ones’ significant attitudes on

searching for their identities through their beliefs, thoughts, motivations, feelings,

friendship and relationship with environment or society, and the problems they face

as seen in Sophie and Natasha, the two main characters of Julia Llewellyn’s If I were


C. Problem Formulation

Considering the explanation above, there are two problems that are going to

be discussed deeply in this study. Those two problems are:

1. How are Sophie and Natasha, the two main characters of the novel described?


D. Benefits of the Study

From the conducted study on one of Julia Llewellyn’s master pieces, it

indirectly introduces her novel; If I Were You and her other works to the readers. It

also provides some information for those who may obtain the benefits of this study.

First, the benefits may be obtained by the readers who read this study in which they

can get some knowledge they do not know yet and as well as being entertained also.

Second, for the students who concern on the same study that they can use this study

as the references. Third, for other researchers, this study can be used as the

comparison. And for English teachers, they can use the conclusion and teaching

implementation of this study in the appendixes as the reflection and references in


E. Definition of Terms

In this part, some key words used in this study are going to be elaborated to

avoid misunderstanding. In doing so, some sources from the Encyclopedias,

Hornsby’s Learner’s Dictionary, Cirese’s Quest : A Search for Self, Davidoff’s

Introduction to Psychology, and some websites on the internet are needed. Those

terms are:

1. Character

Character is defined as the personality that is presented or realized in fiction or

drama and also defined as one of the person of drama or novel as said in Merriam


that characters are widely considered as an essential element of fictional works,

especially novels, and plays (accessed on March 15th, 2007). It means that the persons on the novel’s story play big roles to make the story seem real. Characters

are described through their actions, dialects, thoughts, and desires.

2. Characterization

According to Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia (1995), characterization is defined

as “The representation in fictional or drama of human character or personality”.

From it is said that “Characterization is process conveying

information about characters in fictional literary work” (accessed on March 15th, 2007). In characterizing people, it involves the psychological make up of the

characters such as fears, emotion, beliefs, motivation, and desires.

3. Identity

Identity can be defines as “A person’s sense of who she or he is as a unique

individual, whole and separate from others” (Cirese, 1985: 14). A person has to

know and has a feeling about who he or she is, to be who a person believes he or

she is. And one’s identity is more than his or her name or social roles. It

establishes and results from one’s “uniqueness” and “togetherness” in the society.

One’s identity also depends on how society perceives him or her.

4. Personality

According to Davidoff, personality is “Distinct identity formed of relatively

consistent and enduring patterns of perceiving, thinking, feeling, and behaving”


affected by the environment around him or her.

5. Self-identity

“It is the concept of oneself as a person, unique and distinct from all others and as

a whole being, existing as a unity through his or her life time” (Cirese, 1985:

176). It reflects a person’s idea of himself or herself, including the image or

picture of himself or herself. Here, one thinks not only of himself, but also of the

ways he evaluates himself and the ways he presents himself to the society. And it

is a life-long process.

6. Social Role

Social role can be defined as the characteristic and expected behavior pattern

associated with a particular social status (Cirese, 1985: 177). It is an essential part

on one’s searching for identity process that he or she has to struggle to be

accepted in the society.

7. Self-actualization

Maslow said that “Self-actualization is the process of becoming more competent,

of developing capacities that serve to maintain or enhance on self “ (Cirese, 1985:

62). It is the highest of human needs. It includes the development of ones’

interests, skills, and behaviors in harmony with ones sense of self.

8. Self-presentation

It is how one reveals or represents oneself to others; the impression of self ones

endeavor to give to others (Cirese, 1985: 182). It includes the ways ones dress,


charming, intelligent, cool, and other impressions.

9. Influence

As said in Hornby’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, “Influence means

the power to affect somebody’s actions, characters, or beliefs, especially by

providing example for them to follow, winning their admiration or making them

afraid to disagree” (437). Related to this study, influence is defined as something

that brings effect on ones’ life. It is related to Sophie and Natasha’s friendship,

families, beliefs, views, motivation, desires, thoughts, and problems.

11. Internal Factors

From Hornby’s dictionary, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, internal is

defined as thing derived from within the thing itself. Here, the internal factors of

self-searching come up from the inside of an individual itself, such as feelings,

desires, and thoughts.

12. External Factors

From Hornby’s dictionary, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, external is

defined as thing situated on the outside. For self-searching, external factors come

up from the outside of an individual such as the society, family, friends, and the




This following chapter elaborates the five sections namely the Review of

Related Theories, Critical Approaches, Theoretical Framework, Criticism, and

Context of the Novel. In this study, those five sections are used to analyze and

comprehend Llewellyn’s novel, If I were You deeper.

A. Review of Related Theories

Here, the theories related to the study are going to be identified. To analyze

the work of literature, such as novels, and short stories, this study needs to employ

theory of literature including Theory of Character and Characterization. The theory

will be explained as follows:

1. Theory of Character and Characterization

According to Holman and Harmon, character is “The idea of moral or

constitution of human personality, the presence the moral value of the creature in the

art in the form of human being. The character is also the description of a person who

has some definite qualities.” (18)

from reading a book of Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature (1995),

there are found some definitions of the word of character. The first definition is

defining character as a descriptive, often satiric analysis (usually in the form of short


literary sketch) of a human virtue or vice or of a general type of human character. The

second is character as the personality that is presented or realized in fiction or drama.

The third one is character is defining as one of the person of drama or novel. From

those definitions, it can be assumed that characters may be widely considered as an

essential element of fictional works, especially novels and plays. Characters make the

story of a literary work seems to be real. The readers can enjoy and follow the story

through the characters actions and speeches. So, it is necessary for the authors who

write novels or other literary works that they have enough skills in order to present

their ideas into the story through the characters’ descriptions.

From (accessed on March 15th, 2007), there are written several types of fictional characters. Those are Iconic characters that are well known

outside of the work from which they come, for examples Superman, James Bond,

Conan, etc. Dynamic characters are characters that change significantly during the

course of the story including changes insight or understanding, changes in

commitment, and changes in value. Static characters do not undertake significant

changes. Whether round or flat, their personalities remain essentially stable

throughout the story. This is commonly done with the secondary characters in order

to let them serve as thematic or plot elements. The other two popular kinds of

character are protagonists and antagonists. Protagonist characters are considered as

the driver of the story, the one who forces the action that is defined as “Pursue and

Consideration” characteristic. Antagonist characters are the characters directly


In their book, Barnet, Berman, and Burto (71-72) classify four things to figure

out what the characteristics of the character in the novel are, those are;

a. From What the Characters Say

From what the characters say or from the way they speak, the readers are able

to predict what the author creates the personality of the speaker or character. It

provides the readers the clue whether the actor is protagonist or antagonist. The

readers can determine the characteristics from the statements the characters utter.

b. From What the Character Do

This classification relates to the characters’ action. By analyzing what the

character does, the readers are able to know whether the character is from upper or

lower class, educated or not, good or bad person. The readers will understand through

the characters’ attitude. The readers will be able to predict the personality from the

characters actions in the novel. It can be the reflection of the character.

c. From What Other Characters Say about the Main Character

What other characters say or comment can be used to analyze the main

character’s personality. What other characters say about the main character can be

used as additional information and clear description about the main character or

others in the story. The author may give the descriptions of the main character’s

personality through the other characters’ opinion or judgment. It can be from others


enemy. Therefore, the readers may get different opinions of the character’s


d. From What Other Characters Do

What other characters do toward a certain character also can determine the

analysis of the character. It is very important to know the characterization of the main

character such as whether the main character is a lazy, clever, happy, kind, wicked, or

careless person. Other characters’ responses in specific events in the story can be

used as the reflection and can help the readers to understand the character’s


As quoted by Larver and Schiever in their book, Perspective on Personality,

Allport says that “The characteristic of a character is related to his or her behavior,

thoughts, and feelings” (5). Here is clear that the way of thinking, feeling, and

behavior will influence one’s character. Therefore it is important for the readers to

analyze the characters and the main character’ thought, feelings, and actions to figure

out the characters’ personalities.

Meanwhile, characterization is the process of creating and developing

characters in a work of fiction. According to Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of

Literature (1995), characterization is also defined as the representation in fictional or

drama of human character personality. Characters are usually presented through their

actions, dialects, thoughts, as well as description. Characterization can consider a


occupation, financial status, marital status, social status, cultural background, beliefs,

ambitions, motivation, personalities, and many more else.

Basically, there are two general ways in identifying information about a

character. Those areDirect orExplicit Characterization that the author directly tells what the character looks like through the narrator, another character, or by the

character himself. The second way is Indirect or Implicit Characterization that the readers have to guess what the character looks like through the character’s thoughts,

actions, speech, and interactions.

However from the explanation above, this study only chooses five ways that

are included in Indirect Characterization to analyze the two main characters of If I

were You, Sophie and Natasha. They are;

1. Characters as Seen by Another: The author of the novel describes the

characters through other characters’ words, views, and opinions.

2. From What the Characters Say: The author can give the readers overview

into the characterization of the character in the novel through what the

character says and the way he or she speaks.

3. From What the Characters Do: The author can give clues to the

character’s characteristic by letting the readers know how the character

reacts to various situations or events.

4. Thoughts: The author gives the readers information from what a character

thinks. How and what a character thinks of a situation or problems can


5. Direct Comment: The author of the novel may describe or give comment

on one’s character directly. Here, the author usually has a role of the

narrator of the story.

B. Critical Approaches

There are several approaches that can be used to analyze literature works.

Critical approaches provide methods for the readers to obtain deeper understanding of

literature works. According to Rohrberger and Woods, Jr, there are five approaches

that can be used to analyze literature works. The first approach is the Formalist

Approach. It analyzes literature without reference to facts of the author’s life, without

reference to the genre and in which the literary object takes place. The second is the

Biographical approach. It emphasizes on the importance of acknowledging the

author’s personal life for the deeper understanding to his or her work. The author’s

life and personality are considered to be important elements. Then the writer knows

Sociocultural-Historical Approach. It includes the social, cultural, and historical

backgrounds in which the literary works created and influences the literary object.

The fourth is Mythopoeic Approach. It concerns on finding particular recurrent

patterns of human thought, which are considered as the same sharing of universal

beliefs to certain community mind. It generally involves death and rebirth, sacrifices

and guilt, and patterns of basic behavior to Christian theology. And the last is

Psychological Approach. Davidoff in his book (1987: 6) states that:


human personality, motivation, and behavior patterns within the literary work. And psychology itself focuses on behavior and mental processes that include cognition (knowing, perceiving, attending, remembering, reasoning, solving problems, dreaming, fantasizing, wishing, anticipating, and etc.)”

Therefore, this study employs the psychological approach since it can identify how a

character influences one another, how a character develops or changes in behavior

with his or her age, how and why a character differs from one another and how those

differences can be analyzed. For instance, a person has different reactions to jokes,

conflicts, and under stress.

The study also employs some supporting theories come from the knowledge

of psychology to analyze and investigate the problems. Those theories are

Psychoanalytic Theory, Psychodynamic Theory, Phenomenological Theory, Theory

of Friendship, and Theory of the Relationship between Psychology and Literature.

1. Psychoanalytic Theory

There are psychological view points that try to understand and explain people

in general, to apply to all or most human beings rather than to the individual. And

psychoanalytic, one of psychological view points is a body of theory originated by

Sigmund Freud that stresses the influence of unconscious motivation and drives on all

human behavior (Cirese, 1985: 53).

According to Freud, one’s experiences in early childhood, especially those

with sexual significance, have a lasting influence on one’s personality, and are often

the basis for one’s adult emotional problems. “Psychoanalysis contains views of the


2005: 74). Here it concerns with consciousness, which is the contents of mind,

something that we are aware of or not (unconscious). Flahive in his book has an

opinion on the psychoanalytic theory of personality (2005: 77) suggests that:

“Much of our behavior, perhaps the majority of it, is determined by the unconscious forces, and that much of our psychic energy is devoted either to finding acceptable expression of unconscious ideas or to keeping them unconscious.”

And in using psychoanalytic view to analyze one’s personality, it is found

some important terms such as ID (the most primitive part of the personality,

containing unconsciousness and aggressive impulses), Superego (the conscience part

including the internalization of moral standards set by one’s parents), Ego (part of the

personality that mediates between ID and the Superego, as well as responding to the

environment, the rational, reality-oriented component of personality), Ego defense

that is the ego’s unconscious mechanisms distorting feelings or perceptions that make

some people turn aside feelings of anxiety, guilt, and conflict (Cirese, 1985: 53-55).

According to Freud, ID represents the source of all drive energy. It pursues

pleasure and avoids pain. In the other word, it is the basis of personality, the energy

source for the whole system, and the foundation from which the Ego and Superego

later become differentiated (Mischel, 1976: 31). ID functions according to primary

process and the pleasure principle, unconsciously seeks immediate satisfaction of

biologically based drives, and is the source of psychic energy (libido).

Then Ego functions according to secondary process and the reality principle;

it refers to processes whereby the individual becomes aware of eternal reality and


(Lindgren, 1969: 189). Freud describes it in this way:

The Ego is in direct contact with the external world. It is governed by considerations of safety, and its task is preservation of the organism. The Ego wages its battle for survival against both the external world and the internal instinctual demands of the id. It has to continuously differentiate between the mental representations of wish-fulfilling images and the actual perceptual characteristics of the outer world of reality (Mischel, 1976: 31-32).

In another word, it can be said that Ego mediates between the instinctual demands of

the ID and the outer world of reality.

But Superego represents society’s restrictions and produces guilt and ego

ideal (Cloninger, 2004: 63). As said by Freud, “Whereas the ID seeks pleasure and

the Ego tests reality, the Superego seeks perfection or the ideal” (Mischel, 1976: 32).

Superego involves the morals and standards of society that have become part of the

internal world of the individual in the course of the development of one’s personality.

It is the conscience, the judge of right and wrong, of good and bad related to the

internalized standards of the parents and indirectly of the society. In another word,

Superego represents the internalized moral standards of the society, achieved through

the internalization of parental control and characteristics in the course of

socialization. It is more related to the conscious part of human mind.

This theory of psychoanalytic is crucial to study further the literary work in

this study because the writer can use this theory to analyze the personal character

including the character’s actions, motivation, personality, feelings, and desires.

Psychoanalytic also describes the developmental stages in early life as a period of

great significance in determining one’s personality from birth through adolescence.


crucial in the development of a personality. The oral stage characterizes the first year

of life, which occurs at time when an infant is totally dependent upon others for

satisfaction of his needs. The anal stage occurs in the second year of life in which a

child has experience with imposed control of an instinctual impulse through trainings

that can later affect traits and values and show character traits of obstinacy,

stinginess, precision, and orderliness. Next the phallic stage occurs after the age of

five which remains a vital force in later personality. It is characterized by

masturbatory stimulation and the observation of the anatomical distinction between

the sexes. For example, as Freud said “Both boys and girls love their mother as the

satisfier of their basic needs and resent their father as a rival for their mother’s

affection” (Mischel, 1976: 41). The genital stage is the final phase of maturity and in

it; the individual is capable of genuine love and adult sexual satisfaction. “The love

objects of the pregenital period are essentially selfish or narcissistic: that is, others are

loved only because they provide additional forms of body pleasure to the person”


According to Freud early personality development occurs in the setting of the

family. In that context, Freud strongly emphasized the child’s attachment to the

mother and the rivalry between son and father (43).

2. Psychodynamic Theories

Theories play prominent roles in personality psychology. In analyzing one’s


there are many branches of theory that can be used to analyze one’s personality and

identity, and one of it is psychodynamic theories.

Psychodynamic theories of personality stress the importance of motives,

emotions, and other internal forces as consequences of one’s interaction towards his

or her environment (Davidoff, 1987: 443). These theories include the ideas of

Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, and other psychologists. And

those ideas are based on the assumption that an individual’s personality and reactions

at any given time are the product of the interaction between the

conscious-unconscious mind and environment. Erikson stresses social implications in

psychodynamic theories. In Erikson’s view (1963: 266), people who lack a sense of

personal identity have difficulty establishing close relationships. Both of Freud and

Erikson cover their theories with personality development described in some

developmental stages of the five stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

stages) as described in psychoanalytical theory (Davidoff, 1987: 451). From another

source taken from (accessed on 22

November 2007), psychodynamics, also known as dynamic psychology, is defining

as the study of the interrelationship of various parts of the mind, personality, or

psyche as they relate to mental, emotional, or motivational forces especially at the

unconscious level. It is the study of human behavior from the point of view of

motivation and drives, depending largely on the functional significance of emotion,

and based on the assumption that an individual's total personality and reactions at any


mind, genetic constitution and their environment

In conducting this study, psychodynamic theories are used to analyze the two

main characters’ personalities deeply. Factors involved in psychodynamic are usually

divided into two types. First, Interaction of Emotional Forces: the interaction of the

emotional and motivational forces that affect behavior and mental states, especially

on a subconscious level. Second, Inner Forces Affecting Behavior: the study of the

emotional and motivational forces that affect behavior and states of mind. And there

is relationship between psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theory. A focus in

psychodynamic theory is the connection among the emotional experiences,

motivation, and desires in the Id, Ego, and Superego. On the other words,

psychodynamic focuses on the dynamic interaction between the Id, Ego, and

Superego that analyzed in psychoanalytic theory also. And psychoanalytic theory also

assumes that personality development is as dynamic psychological conflicts that are

resolved (Davidoff, 1987: 444).

In psychodynamic analysis, the dynamics of the personality is the main object

which relates to conflict, anxiety, mechanisms of defense, and psychic energy

(Mischel, 1976: 33). In conflict which exists between people and environment, a

person comes to incorporate the societal code by which he is raised through a process

of internalizing parental characteristics. Anxiety is a state of painful tension and

people seek to reduce it. And there are three types of anxiety: Neurotic anxiety (a

person fears that his instinct will get out of control and cause a punishment), Moral


anxiety (the fear of real dangers in the external world). Then Mechanisms of defense

are developed to avoid anxiety and to come to terms with the instinctual impulse or

reaction serving as disguises through which a person hides his motives and conflicts

from himself as well as from others (Mischel, 1976: 34). And according to Mischel’s

view, Psychic energy is the essence of motives transformation, the objects at which a

person directs and expresses the manner in form of energy or libido attached onto

aspects of the internal and external environment (36). Thus, the character’s

personality development can be analyzed through the character’s reactions in facing

conflict that involve emotional experience.

3. Phenomenological Theory

This theory is another branch of personality theories. It comes from the ideas

of some psychologists. Phenomenology can be defined as the study of structures of

consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view

( accessed on 22 November 2007).

As Mischel said in his book, Introduction to Personality, one perceives the

interpretation of the self as a result of interaction with the environment that can

influence his perception and behavior – as strong or weak, and then may affect how

he perceives the rest of his world. Therefore, the experiences of the self become

invested with values which may become the result of direct experience with the

environment or may be taken from others. According to Husserl (Lauer, 1958: 17),


discover in each its essence. They may be things or thoughts, persons or events,

categories or states of affairs, or they may be mental constructs such as numbers or

geometrical figures.

The central structure of an experience is its intentionality (the directedness of

experience toward things in the world, the property of consciousness that it is a

consciousness of or about something), which is directed toward something, as it is an

experience of or about some object. The most popular idea comes from Carl R.

Rogers who assumes that the best vantage point for understanding behavior is from

the internal frame of reference of the individual itself (Rogers, 1951: 494). And

behavior depends on how one perceives the world, that behavior is the result of

events as they are perceived and interpreted by the individual.

According to Husserl (

accessed on 22 November 2007), phenomenology studies the structure of various

types of experience ranging from perception, thought, memory, imagination, emotion,

desire, and volition to bodily awareness, embodied action, and social activity,

including linguistic activity. In recent philosophy of mind, the term "phenomenology"

is often restricted to the characterization of sensory qualities of seeing, hearing, etc.:

what it is like to have sensations of various kinds. It is addressing the meaning things

have in people’s experiences, notably, the significance of objects, events, tools, the

flow of time, the self, and others, as these things arise and are experienced in people’s

"life-world”. And there is a tendency of people to develop all their capacities in ways


primary motive in the people’s lives is to actualize, maintain, and enhance their selves

through their direct experiences with the environment or society and may also

incorporate their perceptions of others.

According to Rogers, actualizing tendency comes from the experiences that

someone perceived from the world around them, in this case is the environment or the

society. For example actualizing tendency of a person are wanting to achieve good

status, obtain a good job, enrich and satisfy himself as the ways the person tries to

adapt himself in the condition of the society around him. Here the relationship

between the person and his environment or the society is also important. The

objective situation in which a person is involved needs to be considered. It means that

a person has to know his society, how the society perceives him as an individual, and

how the society responds to his behavior and his self-actualization. Therefore, one

needs to interact to others and build relationship within the society in order to assure

that the society perceive and give positive responses.

And the way people actualize themselves can be identified as the way of

self-searching in which a person tries to search his identity or personality within the

society where he is involved. Here, phenomenological theory can be used to analyze

the external factors such as their relationship and their roles in society affecting the

two main characters searching for their self identity.

4. Theory of Friendship


book, Inter Personal Communication Relating to Other , Beebe explains the nature

about friendship. “A friend is someone we trust, the one whom we share a good and

bad time with. Someone who will always be there for you, even in the worst time,

holds your hand when you are lonely and wipe your tears when you cry” (412).

According to Beebe, there are three reasons why people need to build friendship with

others, they are:

a. The Need of Inclusion

Everyone has a need to be included in events, activities, and beliefs. And to be

included in events, activities, and beliefs, everyone needs human contact and

fellowship. One needs to be invited by others to join with or vise versa, one probably

need to invite others to join in. And since humans are unique, that everyone has

different personality, it will be different to treat one to another. Besides that, the types

and the qualities of the relationship can also be different from one and another. For

example, the friendship among girls is different from boys; the friendship among

children is different from teens or even adults.

b. The Need for Control

Everyone also needs some degrees of dominion over the relationship they

build with others. Every person has to keep their control in the way they behave,

speak, and think toward their relationship in order to predict how others will respond.


and harmony in their relationship and interactions with others.

c. The Need of Affection

Inevitably, according to Beebe, everyone needs to get and give love,

encourage and motivate each other, support warmth and intimacy each other, even

though the quality and the amount are different from each other. From the love,

support of warmth and intimacy, people know that they are accepted in one

community especially in their closer relationship with others, and people also can fell

that they are worth enough for others.

From those needs, Beebe concludes and states that the meaning of friendship

is dealing with one’s physical and mental needs. In his book (413), Beebe says

“Besides helping us enjoying a healthy life, friends help us to cope with the stress,

take care of physical needs even help us in the development of our personality.

Friends help us with uncertainty and have a profound influence on our behavior”.

As said by Beebe about friendship (413), it can be concluded that friendship

can influence someone’s personality and self-identity. A friend can give love,

support, views of life, and can help in deciding whether something are good or bad.

5. Theory of the Relationship between Psychology and Literature

Psychology is a science that has many branches of case study and can be

correlated with many other fields of knowledge, one of them is literary work.


such as feelings, desires, cognitions, reasoning, decisions, etc, and their conditions”

(15). Meanwhile, literature is the work that is related with imagination and creativity

in writing representing human expressions and feelings. Readers can look into the

fictional characters as the real characters and consider they look alive. The author of

literary work can use the understanding from psychology side to enrich his or her

fictional characters and vice versa, a psychologist can enlarge their understanding of

human behavior by analyzing the deep sensitivity of a good author in creating a

person’s character in a literary work.

There is other supporting opinion from Wellek and Warren in their book,

Theory of Literature. They argue that psychology has four possibilities of

understanding related to literature or literary work (90). First, psychology in literature

means the psychological study of the author as a person. Second is the process study

of creativity. Third is the study of the type and the application of psychological

conditions applied in literary work. The fourth, psychology in literature means the

study of the effect of literature towards the readers.

Wellek and Warren also argue that the readers of a literary work may look at

the psychological motivations of the character and of the author itself in order to

build psychological criticism of the work. Basically, literature represents the life and

a realistic human motivation and behavior, while psychological criticism may give

focus on the creativity of the art or the analysis of the character’s behavior and

feelings. From what explained above, it is clear that literature and psychology can


Literature may include the application of the psychology rules in the work (93).

C. Theoretical Framework

Here, this part of this study is written to explain briefly the contribution of the

theories in analyzing and solving the problems of the study, why the theories are

needed and applied in this study.

This study uses the theory of literature, including Theory of Character and

Characterization, to answer the first problem that is “How are Sophie and Natasha,

the two main characters of the novel described in the story of If I Were You?” Those

theories mentioned above are used to analyze the characterization of the two main

characters deeply. Using the theories, the characteristics of the two main characters

can be explored and revealed through the way they speak, act, think, and express their


Besides, this study also uses some theories of psychology to answer the

second problem that is “What can influence Sophie and Natasha to find their

self-identity?” Some theories that are going to be used are Psychoanalytic Theory,

Psychodynamic Theory to analyze the internal factors of self-searching, and

Phenomenological Theory, Theory of Friendship, and Theory of the Relationship

between Literature and Psychology.

The use of Psychoanalytic Theory is to give a brief explanation about one’s

personality development. According to Freud, it is related to the unconsciousness and


content of thought that can influence one’s attitude and personality (Cloninger, 2004:

34). Thus the main character’s thought can be used to figure out their personality.

Psychodynamic Theory is used to reveal one’s personality. This theory

concerns with one’s behavior or reaction toward some situation or problems related to

one’s mind in which ID, Ego, and Superego are involved. This way will make it easy

to find out how the characters’ reaction and attitude towards problems or certain

situation can influence their personality. The way a person perceives self and

experiences his world in their society probably different from one another. It depends

on the environment or the society around him or her, the way others treat or judge

him or her. Therefore one may have subjective experiences and feelings. For the

deeper understanding of one’s subjective experiences caused by environment and

others, Phenomenological Theory is preferred to use.

Talking about one’s personality, it will be also related to the relationship an

individual builds with. In another word, friendship will also influence one’s

personality. The Theory of Friendship is used to analyze what kind relationship that

the two main characters have. It has motivated them to find their identity and to solve

their problems.

The relationship between psychology and literature is used to give a brief

explanation about the connection between those two fields in order to help the readers

perceive the characters as the real human who have real personalities and experience

the real life so that it can be proved that psychology and literature can complete each


D. Criticism.

Julia Llewellyn is the author of The Love Trainer, If I Were You and Amy's

Honeymoon. Julia lives in London. Besides writing novels, she also writes regularly

for The Sunday Telegraph, The Sunday Times and many other publications.

If I were You is her second novel which is a non-fiction story wrote in 2006.

It is such a kind of popular novel, which is written for entertaining the readers. The

novel has 487 pages and divided into 57 chapters. It is published by the Penguin

Group in London, England. And it has published and sold into many countries. This

novel is based on a subject very close to Llewellyn’s heart – a subject she realized the

readers never hear anyone talking about: Friend Envy. “My girl friends have always

been the most important constant in my life yet at the same time I am ashamed to

admit I have often harbored deep feelings of envy for them” said Julia Lewellyn.

Like every kind of literary work, the novel of If I were You by Julia

Llewellyn also gets many reactions from publics. In one side, there are readers who

admire and enjoy reading the novel. But in the other side, there are also readers who

criticize this work. As quoted in an articles entitled If I were You by Julia Llewellyn

( accessed on 23

August 2008),there are some critics directed to the novel:

“As soon as I read the title of Julia's second novel I was already hooked. I can't think of a single woman who hasn't contemplated what it would be like to live someone else's life, particularly their best friends. I read a lot of women's fiction and more often than not, I find myself quite disengaged from the main female characters largely because I cannot relate to them in any way.”


Natasha and Sophie and I constantly found myself remarking out loud 'I do that!' or 'I've so been there before!'. Her writing is refreshingly witty, playful and honest and you find yourself completely entangled in the lives of her characters.”

”Make sure you set aside a whole day to read this book because you wont want to put it down, not even for a minute.”

Rabbi Eliyahu Dessler in his book (Mitchtav M’Eliyahu, volume 5, page 123)

suggests that “Whenever someone wishes to criticize others, he or she should project

the criticism upon himself or herself. It is impossible to detect anything around them

unless he or she is sensitive to it. It is only for talented artist who can see the beauty

of something that would otherwise go unnoticed to a layman. It is only he or she who

has experienced some levels of pride and arrogance within himself or herself will

notice pride and arrogance in others.”

E. Context of the Novel

The novel of If I were You takes place in London in around 2006. It was

created in the background of British society in the new era or in the modern era where

people are used to live in work-life-world. The British society is determined in a

traditional class system. There are the upper class, the upper-middle class, lower-middle class, the working class, and lower class. Factors which are important for the

determination: birth, education, occupation, income, housing, life-style, language.

And as what can be read from an article of Fact about British Society,



1. Upper class: mainly aristocracy and landowners, politically represented in the

house of Lords, owning and administrating land.

2. Upper-Middle class: usually work as managers, civil servants, businessmen,

become very important stratum in society, has a lot of influence in politic,

administration and civil service.

3. Lower-Middle class: usually become the owner of small businesses, office

workers, skilled workers, became the biggest stratum of British society, and

they are the most expanding group in Britain.

4. Working class: usually become factory workers, waiters, shop assistants, the

so called semi-skilled, cleaners, he unskilled, having close family and

community ties.

5. Lower class: usually unemployed, the elderly, the disabled, unsupported

mothers, casual labors, low paid, living below the poverty line, depending in

state benefits.

The lifestyle also shows the class differences. There are three groups which

can be distinguished: The Rich and The Upper class lifestyle, The Well-to-do and

The Middle Class lifestyle, and The poor and The Working Class lifestyle. Britain is

also a multi-racial society. For Rich and the upper class lifestyle, many of them live in big country houses, they have double barrel names, play cricket, rugby, do horse

riding and skiing. They are used to going to elite public schools and universities,

all in all luxury. The Well – to – do and the middle class life style is the second


abroad. This group is also very ambitious about the education of their children.

Sometimes they make enormous financial sacrifices to send their child to public

school. They prefer to live in modern suburbs and avoid contact with colored

immigrants. The third group is the poor and the working class lifestyle. They live in

terraced houses, often a council house close to their neighbors and mix easily with

colored people. They spend their holidays, if they can afford any, in cheap holiday

camps in Britain or in Mallorca. They separate themselves from the other groups.

There is another social problem in London in 2006 era. “The growing problem of

binge drinking among young women is one that must be dealt with at a societal

level”, says Ian Gilmore ( accessed on 19 August

2008). As women quite rightly seek greater opportunities for equality in the

workplace and in other aspects of life, we see signs of them falling prey more and

more to so called lifestyle diseases. Young women are all too commonly seen

huddling outside enjoying a cigarette; and while lung cancer rates fall overall, they

continue to rise in women. Women are also conspicuously heading for equality in

their drinking habits.

The United Kingdom has the heaviest drinking young women in Europe,

nearly 40% of who admit to having drunk six or more units in one session in the

previous week. But those who do not escape harm may have their life changed

fundamentally under the influence of alcohol. Most first consensual sexual

experiences and unwanted pregnancies occur in this way, and the distinction between


young women will be scarred for life through drunken brawls and arguments.

Scotland about 30% of women committing violent crime are drunk

( accessed on 19 August 2008).

Those situations of London’s society in 2006 era are revealed in Llewellyn’s

novel, If I were You. Sophie, one of the main characters, is described as a smoking

woman and she is used to drinking alcohol. She is also used to hanging out with her

friends or boy friends and they usually have drinking. Meanwhile Natasha, the other

main character, gets her habit of drinking since she has problems in her relationship

with a man whom she loves. For the lifestyle, Sophie tends to be included in The

Rich and The Upper class lifestyle. People in that class live in the town in modern

houses and live in luxury ways, and they are accustomed to go to parties or hang out

after work. But Sophie and Natasha have different social class. Natasha comes from

higher class, Upper-Middle class. But Sophie comes from lower class, which is

Lower-Middle class. Because of those differences, Sophie sometimes feels jealous

with Natasha’s life. And vise versa, Natasha sometimes also gets jealous with Sophie



For this chapter, there will be three sections. Those are, Object of the Study,

Approach of the study, and Procedures. Object of the study gives brief discussion of

the subject on which this study is conducted. Approach of the study gives

clarification on particular approach and theories used to investigate the study. The

Procedures contains the steps conducted in this study. .

A. Object of the Study

This study discusses one of literary works, thus this study focuses on the

novel If I were You. Llewellyn’s If I Were You novel is kind of modern literature and

written for entertaining the readers. It is one of Julia Llewellyn’s master pieces after

her first work, The Love Trainer. If I were You novel was published in 2006 by

Penguin Books in 495 pages and was illustrated by Bill Brown. The novel is not only

read for adults, but also it is suit enough for teenagers even though the story of the

novel is more about adulthood. It is proved by the author’s bright mind in creating the

story and in describing the characters and the settings that are close to the real life.

The settings are so clear that the readers can easily imagine the distinctive settings of

places and situations described in the novel as if they were involved and witnessed in

every incident in the story.

For the novel, Llewellyn chooses a big issue in friendship that she has ever


experienced in her life. The novel is about the jealously had by Sophie and Natasha as

a close friend. The author can easily bring the story to the readers’ attention since it

reflects her own experiences in having friendship with her girl friends, getting jealous

each other, helping each other passing their problems they have and in actualizing

their views about them selves and others.

And there are distinctive versions of the way people search for their

self-identity that are showed through the two main characters’ life experiences, actions,

desires, thoughts, and feelings. There is Natasha who is more intelligent, has a

successful career, a gorgeous penthouse flat, but she has trouble by loving a man who

already has a girlfriend. On the other hand, there is Sophie who has a man she loves,

and who is more attractive and beautiful. But she has trouble with her relationship

with her boyfriend.

After Sophie and Natasha graduated from college, they have different way of

life. Natasha continued her study into a well-known university, but Sophie could not

continue her study because of her family financial problem. Sophie decided to attend

short courses and got a job. Then finally Natasha graduated from her university and

got a job as a manager of popular company, while Sophie only worked at a fair

publisher in town. The different ways Sophie and Natasha passed their lives lead

them to find their self identity in different process too. Both of them not only

experienced uneasy time by being unmarried when their age was not young enough


B. Approach of the Study

This second section discusses the approach used in analyzing the novel of If I

were You. From the novel and the topic that has been chosen about the two main

characters’ searching for self-identity, it is clear that this study focuses on the

Psychology point of view. Therefore, the psychological approach is used to analyze

the two conducted problems in this study and to achieve the objectives of this study.

Besides that, psychological approach is used here to explain the human motivation,

personality, and behavior patterns in the literary works as knowledge of psychology

concerned with behavior and mental processes insight of an individual.

To get the complete analysis, it needs to explore the characteristics of the two

main characters, Sophie and Natasha. Here, this analyzes the exploration of the

characters’ personality using the Theory of Character and Characterization. For

deeper discussion, this study also uses Psychoanalytic Theory developed by Sigmund

Freud to explore the two main characters, Sophie and Natasha. And there are other

supporting theories such as Psychodynamic Theories, Phenomenological theories,

Theory Friendship, and Theory of the Relationship between Literature and

Psychology. Those theories are used to analyze the characters’ searching for

self-identity and self-actualization within the story of the novel including the internal and

external factors. To get the understanding of Psychological implication, it needs to

use the Theory of Friendship to look into Sophie and Natasha’s relationship. The

theory of the Relationship between Psychology and Literature is employed to make