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Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

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Adrian Hermann

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and the Discourse of Scientific Buddhism

Dwivedi and K. Lochan

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An Axiology of Indic Culture and its

Southeast Asian Interface

Goh Sang Seong

Some Cultural and Buddhism Terms

in the Translation of Chinese Classical

Texts into Malay

Rajeg, Laksminy

Hindu Ritual of Ngotonin in Bali:

and Indrawati

A Discourse Analysis Approach

Simona C.-Ferraro

Iconography of Ambaran¹tha Temple

in Maharashtra, India

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I Made Rajeg, Luh Putu Laksminy and Ni Luh Ketut Mas Indrawati

Abstract

Ngotonin, as one of the Manusia Yadnya rituals shows its uniqueness in every part of Bali and has its own characteristics to symbolize the way of life of Hindu people in Bali through its offering which is full of wonderful ceremonial apparatus and ornaments decorated to their houses and characterized by a unique form of speech (mantra). The aim of this paper is to study the social semiotic aspects of a language used in Ngotonin ritual by looking at the relationship between context of situation of the speech in terms of experiential, interpersonal and textual meaning. The analysis of the data is based on Halliday’s theory on the social semiotics aspects of language. The concept of social semiotics is one aspect of the language that will be related to the social system as a system of meaning. While context of situation is the enviroment where the language is used. Halliday stated that there is a correspondence between the features of context of situation and the function of language. The three features of context of situation (field, tenor, and mode) are systematically related to metafunctions of language (experiential, interpersonal, and textual). Thus, the field is expressed through experiential function, tenor is expressed through interpersonal function and the mode is expressed through the textual function of a language.The choice of words in the ritual shows that field of the language is about religious ceremony of Ngotonin being held to someone in a certain period , tenor of a language is about the relationship between participant involve in the ceremony, while the mode is spoken text (mantra) uttered by o priest or pemangku (assistant of a priest).

Kewords: Ngotonin, Balinese Hinduism, discourse, and context of situation

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Introduction

Background

Balinese culture, in the course of its growth, has been passing a long road of history. It is mirrored by the firm bond of Balinese culture and Hindu since the beginning of the Anno Domini age, and by the integration within the skeleton system of national culture and modern era as well. (Mantra, 1993:11; Geria, 1995:91; Pitana, 1998:28-29).

Hindu, as one element of Balinese cultures, provides paths for Hindus to get closer to their Maker, their God; one of them is through Yadnya. The teachings related to yadnya is named Panca Yadnya, i.e. five kinds of yadnya ceremonies or sacrificing ceremonies. One of the ceremonies is Manusa Yadnya (sacrifice ceremony to humankinds). Ngotonin ritual, one kind of Manusa Yadnya, is carried out to humans in their age of six months, and is regularly held in the interval of the next six months during their lives. Ngotonin has a deeply religious emotion – not only a form of human effort to protect an individual and rinse the darkness of their thoughts out, but also to clean up the way humans think since it is believed only from the holly and purified humans’ thoughts are the positive ideas, which are beneficial for themselves and others, born they mark, with sometimes elaborate purification ceremonies. (Wenten, 1999:1-12, Upadesa (1978:63; Koentjaraningrat, 1985: 40-46; Eiseman, 1988: 84). The prayer produced orally in the process of ngotonin ritual is a language in use, whatever the form it takes and indicates the relationship between language, culture and structure, considering the social structure as one part of the social system. The spoken prayer can be recoded in written text and becomes the reflection of Balinese culture and give the identity symbol of ethnic groups if it is seen from its context of situation in which it is used.

It is very important that a text is characterized by coherence, it hangs together and an important contribution to coherence comes from cohesion as these sets of linguistic resources that every language has (as part of textual meta-function) for linking one part of the text to another. (Halliday and Hasan, 1976: 1). The text consists of some features of the context of situation. It is important for us to know the context of situation of a text. By knowing the context of situation of a text we will be able to predict what are other people going to say and by doing so we understand what he or she does say

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The Nature of Text

A text refers to any passage, spoken or written. It is not a grammatical unit at all but rather a unity of a different kind; a semantic unit. The unity has a unit of meaning in context, a texture expressing the fact that it relates as a whole to the environment in which it is placed. Text is language in operation and the textual components embodies the semantic systems by means of which text is created (Halliday and Hasan, 1976:1). Semantic system is one of this strata of the linguistic system and we will assume that the semantic system consist of four functional components, they are experiential, logical, inteipersonal and textual. In this case, experiential and logical are closely related under the heading of ideational. (Halliday, 1976;128)

Generic structure, textual structure (thematic and information) and cohesion are three factors that can distinguish text from non text (Halliday, 1976:135). Thematic term are not optional stylistic variants, they are integral part of the meaning of a language. Texture is not something that is achieved by superimposing an appropriate text form on a preexisting ideational content. The textual component is a component of meaning along with the ideational and interpersonal components. Hence, a linguistic description not a progressive specification of asset of structure one after the other, ideational then interpersonal then textual, the systems act and finally recode it as a text as some writing in philosophical linguistic seems to imply. The generic structure is outside the linguistic system. It is language as the projection of a higher-level semiotic structure. The concept of generic structure can be brought within the general framework of the concept of register. While cohesion is a semantic one; it refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text, and that defines it as a text.

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The context of situation may be totally remote from what is going on round about during the act of speaking or of writing. The situation type, in the sense of what Berstein refers to as a social context, this is essentially a semiotic structure, (Halliday, 1976:109). It is a constellation of meanings deriving from the semiotic system that constitute the structure and culture. The situations consist of, the social action; the roles structures; and the symbolic organization. We refer to these by the terms "field, tenor and mode". Field, the selection of the options in experiential system; Tenor, the selection of interpersonal options; Mode, the selection of options in the textual system such as those of theme, information and voice and also the selection of cohesive pattern. (Halliday, 1976;143 )

Ngotonin Ritual in Bali

Ngotonin ritual can be classified into three levels of extravagance, utama ceremonies are the largest, nista ceremonies, the smallest, madia being the medium variety. Ngotonin ritual in this study belongs to madia level. There are great piles of offering characterized this ritual including : Banten byakala or prayascita, Banten dapetan, Sodaan, Janganan aruan (aru-aru), Pengambean ali, Sambutan lebeng matah, Canang Daksina, Banten kurana, Petebasan. It is very unique and firmly tied to Hindu society because during the process of ritual it is accompanied by deeply meaningful ceremonial stuffs and witnessed by the family and relatives as well. One of the important rituals is generally the officiatory natab and ngayab wafting. In this natab ritual there must be prayers produced by the officiator who leads the ritual. Before commencing the ritual, the officiator puts an offering as sodaan in Padma shrine as dedicated to God accompanied by prayer as stated in (D1) 1, 2 below; then she/he puts an offering as sodaan in Kemulan shrine for the deified ancestors accompanied by prayers as in (D2); The last prayer that will be taken as the data is natab prayer (D3)

(D1) Prayer in Padma shrine

Cls 1. nggih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ wetuan ipun Cls. 2. titiyang ngaturang sodaan alit ring Ida Betara Padma

(D2) Prayer in kemulan shrine

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(D3) Prayer in the natab wafting rites

Cls 1b. nggih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ wetuan ipun Cls.2b titiyang ngaturang banten sorohan ring Ida sane numadi Cls 3. Titiyang nunas sinampura kirang langkung aturan titiyang ring ida sane numadi

Cls.4. Luas metalang, Cls 5. mulih /matentengan. Cls.6. Wat kawat balung besi

Cls.7. ayab sari, kobok ombak, kobok pasih , kobok danu, sarin danu, sarin perahu,

Text Structure

By this term we will find clauses as messages. According to Halliday (1985: 38), the one which gives the clause its character as a message is known as thematic structure. He states that theme is the element which serves as the point of departure of the message; that with which the clause is concerned; and what the clause is going to be about. The theme is not necessary for nominal group, it may also be adverbial group or prepositional phrase. The reminder of the message, the part in which the theme is developed, is called rheme.

Cls 1.1a,1b singgih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ (rahina) wetuan ipun

Well today Monday pon matal (is) his birth

Circunstance: time Identifier Process: relational Identified Adjunct Predicate Complement

____________________ _____________________________________

Theme Rheme.

Cls.2 : Titiyang ngaturang sodaan alit ring Ida Betara Padma

I give a small offering to Hyang Widhi (The God) Actor Process: material Goal Beneficiary

Subject Predicate Complement (DO) Complement (IO)

____________________ _____________________________________

Theme Rheme.

Cls.2a : Titiyang ngaturang sodaan alit ring Ida Betara Hyang Guru

I give a small offering to Hyang Guru (deified ancestor) Actor Process: material Goal Beneficiary

Subject Predicate Complement (DO) Complement (IO)

____________________ _____________________________________

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Cls 2b: Titiyang ngaturang banten sorohan ring Ida sane numadi

I give a pile of offering to reincarnated ancestor Actor Process: material Goal Beneficiary

Subject Predicate Complement (DO) Complement (IO)

____________________ _____________________________________

Theme Rheme.

Cls 3 Titiyang nunas sinampura kirang langkung aturan titiyang ring Ida sanenumadi

I apologise less more offering my to reincarnated ancestor Actor Process: material Circumstance :resultative Beneficiary Subject Predicate Complement (DO) Complement (IO)

____________________ _____________________________________

Theme Rheme.

Cls.4. Luas metalang,

Leave home empty-handed

Process :material Goal

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

Cls. 5.mulih matengtengan.

Return home full-handed

Process : material Goal

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

Cls.6. wat (aji) kawat

Nerve (made of) wire

Goal Process : material Goal

Subject Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

balung (aji) besi

bone made of iron

Goal Process : material Goal

Subject Predicate Complement

____________________ __________________________

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Cls7 ayab sari

wafting essence

Process: material Goal

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

kobok ombak

cross wave

Process: action location

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

kobok pasih

cross sea

Process: action location

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

kobok danu,

cross lake

Process: action location

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

(alih) sarin danu,

(get) essence lake

Process: action Goal

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

(alih) Sarin perahu,

(get) essence boat

Process: action Goal

Predicate Complement

____________________ Rheme.

Functional Component of Semantic

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language. Each of the main areas of language function tends to be determined or activated by one particular aspect of the situation. In other words, the three features of the situation (field, tenor and mode) are systematically related to the functions of language (ideational, interpersonal and textual function). Field related to ideational function and reflected in the experiential Meaning; tenor related to interpersonal function and reflected in interpersonal meaning; mode related to textual function and reflected in the textual meaning. Each of the three functions of language will be discussed in the following sections.

Field is Reflected in the Experiential Meaning

Field is related to the ideational function of language that is the function of language to understand the environment, the aspect of meaning of the clause as representation or a way of representing patterns of experience. Halliday (1994) states that Language enables human beings to build a mental picture of reality, to make sense of what goes on around them and inside them so the clause plays a central role, since it embodies a general principle for modelling experience that is the principle that reality is made up of processes. Experiences consist of “goings-on”- happening, doing, sensing, meaning and becoming. All these goings-on are selected in the grammar of the clause. The grammatical by which this is achieved is transitivity. The transitivity system construes the world of experience into a manageable set of process types. A process consists of three principle components, they are: (i) the process itself; (ii) the participants in the process and (iii) the circumstances associated with the process. The transitivity of the “Ngotonin Text” can be seen in 2.2.

The type of process in clause 1 is relational process which is unmarked in Balinese. It relates circumstance of time as participants that is sane mangkin rahina Soma, Pon, Matal as identifier and wetuan ipun, as identified token. The circumstance of time in this clause refers to specific type of time used in Bali Hindu rituals. In Balinese calender, a day is specified into “sapta wara” , “Panca wara”, and “Wuku” in terms of this specification otonan comes every 210 days.

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Ida betara Hyang Guru, deified ancestor, in clause 2a, and reincarnated ancestor in clause 2b. .

Clause 3 shows that the process nunas sinampura (apologise) belongs to verbal process, titiyang as the sayer in this context is the officiator who leads the ritual and Ida sane numadi ) as the beneficiery, kirang langkung aturan titiyang as circumstance of resultative

The process in clause 4 is luas. It belongs to material process and requires an Actor as a participant in this case the one who has the “otonan”. Clause 5 shows that the process is mulih. It also belongs to material process and requires an Actor as a participant in this case the one who has the “otonan”. Clauses 4 and 5 belong to metaphors because the meaning intended by the speaker is not similar to the meaning of the lexical choices. The meaning intended is that the officiator hopes that the one who has the otonan be successful in his life.

Clause 6 ,Wat kawat balung besi is a metaphor since there is incongruence between the meaning and the form that is wat ’nerve” is never made of kawat ’wire’ and balung ‘bone’ is never made of besi ’ iron’. The participant in this clause is the one who has the “otonan”, he or she never has nerve made of wire and bone made of iron. What is meant here is that the officiator hopes that he or she be strong , healthy, and has long life. Clause 7 /ayab sari/, kebek ombak/, kebek pasih/, sarinjong/, sarin perahu, kebek danu/ is a metaphor as well. This clause is uttered by the officiator hoping that the one who has the otonan gain lots of luck in his/her life. Most of the types of processes involved in the text are material processes. They are the process of doing which requires actors and goals as participants. The verbal interaction among the participants are the social action as a whole. In the data, Ngotonin Ritual Systems are materialised in the form activities and actions of human being in carrying out their devotions to the Supreme God, gods, ancestors’ spirits or other invisible beings, and in their efforts to have contacts with God and the citizens of the mystical, invisible places. The rituals and ceremonies are continuously held. It can be daily, seasonally, or infrequently being related with other activities such as doing prayer, bowing and kneeling down, serving, sacrificing, eating together, chanting the praise, etc.

Tenor is Reflected in The Interpersonal Meaning

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and temporary relationships of one kind or another, both types of speech role that they are taking on in the dialogue and the whole cluster of socially significant relationship in which they are involved. Since the process mostly involved is material process with actor, goal and beneficiery as the participants, the participants who are taking part in this ngotonin ritual are : Officiator – Ida Betara Padma God and Ida Betara Hyang Guru ‘deified ancestor relationship and Officiator – person / anyone to whom the ritual is given and implisitly the reincarnated ancestor in that person.

It is the component of the text that tends to activate the interpersonal function in the semantic, representing the ‘participation’ function of language, the speaker as intruder in other word. It functions to express the interrelationship between the participants. Thus, tenor connected with the role relationship that determine the selections in the system of mood (statement/command/interogative); the system of modality and the system of person (the choice of 1st

person, 2nd person, 3rd person). These roles in a communication may

include: questioner, informer, responder, contradictor. The semantic features of the text can be explained as the following:

1. Officiator leads the ritual, first dedicates the offering to God, inform the ritual is being held to the God and the God supposed to receive the offering and information about ngotonin ritual. In this case the officiator is the leader of the ritual and act as the informer. The information that will be identified by circumstances of the process is wetuan ipun and related with circumstances of time as identifier is sane mangkin rahina Soma, Pon, Matal ( See Cls 1,1a,1b below).

Cls 1.1a,1b singgih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ (rahina) wetuan ipun

Well this time Monday pon matal (is) his birth

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The officiator express his idea through the H language of 1st person ‘titiyang’ ‘I’ to show that the officiatoris subpower position and Hyang Widhi God and deified ancestor are superpower. He is the one who knows the situation and inform the Hyang Widhi God and deified ancestor in H language, epressed in the mood of declarative as given in the folowing clauses :

Cls 1.1a,1b singgih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ (rahina) wetuan ipun

Well this time Monday pon matal (is) his birth

Cls.2 : titiyang ngaturang sodaan alit ring Ida Betara Padma

I give a small gift to Hyang Widhi God

Cls.2a : titiyang ngaturang sodaan alit ring Ida Betara Hyang Guru

I give a small gift to Hyang Guru(deified ancestor)

Cls 2b

: titiyang ngaturang banten sorohan ring Ida sane numadi I give a pile of offering to reincarnated ancestor

Cls 3 Titiyang / nunas sinampura / antuk kirang langkung aturan titiyang / ring Ida sane numadi

I apologize more or less of my offering to reincarnated ancestor

Hyang Widhi God, Hyang Guru (deified ancestor) and the family reincarnated ancestors, is the recipient of the information and the gift in the form of offering. The offering is valuable things to show great appreciation to God. This religious emotion brings people to possessing religious attitude, i.e. a religious emotion manifested in ‘fears, amazement, and belief’ towards ‘magical or mystical and sacred things’ and believes in God. Logically, this attitude is hardly explained for it is out of humans’ capability, and for it makes difference with the other societies’ social system of culture

2. The relationship between the officiator– person / anyone to whom the ritual is given is expressed by low language in the mood of imperative.

Cls7 : ayab sari

wafting essence

kobok ombak

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kobok pasih

cross sea

kobok danu

cross lake

(alih) sarin danu,

(get) essence lake

(alih) sarin perahu,

(get) essence boat

This relationship shows the belief system of a religion is shaped into humans’ thoughts and ideas covering the God’s attitude, the form of mystical life and place, the creation of the world, the world hereafter, and the appearance of the soul, invisible creatures, ancestors, gods, etc. Additionally, belief cannot be untied from the religious values and norms systems, ethics teachings, and the other doctrines organizing humans’ life.

Mode is Reflected in the Textual Meaning

The third feature of context of situation is what is called mode. By this term we will find the symbolic organization: what role language is playing refers; to what part the language is playing. What it is that the participants are expecting the language to do for them, in that situation; the symbolic organization of the text, the status that it has and its function in the context; including the channel [ it is spoken or written or some combination of the two ] and also the rhetorical mode, what is being achieved by the text in terms of such categories as persuasive, expository, didactic and the like.

When the officiator is making an offer and giving information that there will be ngotonin ritual given to anyone (the person that is given the ritual) indicated by material process ngaturang ‘give’, then the theme is talking about the the officiator of the ritual –that is identified by unmarked theme ‘titiyang’ and talking about the related time when the ritual take place, indicated by “ sane mangkin, rahina soma Pon Matal.(See 2.1, clause 1, 2, and 3). Those clauses have participants, the person (the implicit officiator characterised by Pronoun ‘titiyang’), the believable God and deified ancestor, Ipun ( the person who is given the Ngotonin ritual).

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Halliday ( 1985: 72). The cohesion relation found in this study is as the following:

References

Cls.2 : titiyang ngaturang sodaan alit ring Ida Betara Padma

I give a small offering to Ida Betara Padma (God)

I offer a small offering to Ida Betara Padma (God).

Ida (He)‘honorific‘(cataforic ) refers to Betara Padma (God) Titiyang (I) refers to the officiator

Cls.2a : titiyang ngaturang sodaan alit ring Ida Betara Hyang Guru

I give a small offering to Ida Betara Hyang Guru (deified ancestor)

I offer a small offering to Ida Betara Hyang Guru (deified ancestor).

Ida (He) ‘honourific (cataforic) refers to Betara Hyang Guru (deified ancestor)

Titiyang (He) refers to the officiator(officiator)

Cls 2b: titiyang ngaturang banten sorohan ring Ida sane numadi

I give a pile of offering to reincarnated ancestor

I offer a pile of offering to reincarnated ancestor.

Ida (He) ‘honorific (cataforic) refers to sane numadi (the reincarnated person)

Titiyang (He) refers to the officiator

Cls 1.1a,1b singgih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ wetuan ipun

Well this time (now) Monday pon matal (is) his birth

Well, today is Monday pon metal, his/ her birthday

Ipun (He/She) ‘humble’ (cataforic) refers to .anyone being given the otonan ritual

(2) Demonstrative reference

Cls 1.1a,1b singgih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ wetuan ipun

Well this time (now) Monday pon matal (is) his birth

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sane Mangkin ‘this time’( now) refers to ‘soma pon matal’(Monday pon Matal)

(3) Comparative reference

Cls 3 Titiyang nunas sinampura kirang langkung aturan titiyang ring Ida sane numadi

I apologise more or less of my offering to reincarnated ancestor

I apologise for my approximate offering to reincarnated ancestor

Kirang ‘less’ refers to aturan titiyang (my offering)

Langkung ‘more’ refers to aturan titiyang (my offering)

(4) Ellipsis and Substitution

(a) Nominal ellipsis

Cls 1.1a,1b singgih sane mangkin rahina ‘soma pon matal’ (rahina) wetuan ipun

Well this time Monday pon matal (is) (day) birth his

Well, today is Monday pon metal, his/ her birthday.

(rahina) ‘day’ is deleted

Cls.4. (Ipun) Luas metalang,

(He/she) leave home empty-handed

He/She leaves home empty handed.

Cls. 5. (Ipun) mulih matentengan.

He/She return home full-handed

He/ She returns home full-handed.

Cls.6. wat (Ipun) (aji) kawat

Nerve (his/her) (made of) iron

His/Her nerves are made of iron.

balung (Ipun) (aji) besi

bone (his/her) (made of) iron

His/ner bones are made of iron.

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He/She is wafting the essence.

(Ipun) kobok ombak

(He/She) cross wave He/She crosses the wave. (Ipun) kobok danu, (He/She) cross lake

He/She crosses the lake.

(Ipun) kobok pasih (He /She) cross sea He/She crosses the sea. (Ipun) (ngalih) sarin danu, He/She (get) essence lake He/She gets many fish. (Ipun) (ngalih) Sarin perahu,

He/She (Get) essence boat

He/She gets many fish.

Ipun ‘His/her’ in clause 1, 1a, 1b, and 6 is the person to whom the ritual is dedicated is deleted from the sentence

Ipun ‘ He/She’ in clause 4, 5, 7 is the person to whom the ritual is dedicated is deleted from the sentence

(b) Verbal Ellipsis

Cls.6. wat (Ipun) (aji) kawat

Nerve (his/her) (made of) iron His/Her nerve is made of iron. balung (Ipun) (aji) besi

bone (his/her) (made of) iron His/ner bones are made of iron.

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He/She (get) essence lake He/She gets many fish.

(Ipun) (ngalih) sarin perahu,

He/She (Get) essence boat

He/She gets many fish.

Verb aji and ngalih in clause 6 are delated from the sentence. (c) Substitution

Cls 7: ngayab sari

(sane mangkin ipun natab) sari

In the sentence above clause (sane mangkin ipun natab) deleted and substituted with ngayab ‘wafting’ .

5. Lexical Cohesion

a. same referent : sane mangkin and rahina soma pon matal and

wetuan

banten sorohan and aturan and sodaan Ida and Betara Padma

Ida and Betara Hyang Guru Ida and sane numadi

b. repetition:

singgih – singgih

mangkin – mangkin

soma pon matal - soma pon matal

ngaturang – ngaturang

ring – ring

ida - ida

ipun – ipun

rahina – rahina - rahina

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sari-sarin-sarin

danu – danu

kobok – kobok

The text texture is manifested by certain kinds of semantic relation between its individual message. The property of texture is related to the listener’s perception of coherence (Hasan, 1985:72). The

ngotonin

ritual which is not only informed through the material process

ngaturang

‘give’, participants and theme but the texture also have semantic relation between individual message through Personal reference (cataforic) clause 2; Demonstrative reference in clause 1.1a,1b; Comparative reference in clause 3; Nominal ellipsis in clause 1.1a,1b clause 4,clause 5, and clause 6; Verbal Ellipsis in clause 6; Substitution in clause 7; Lexical Cohesion : a. same referent, b. repetition.

The officiator is the one who masters and leads the ritual and gives information to the God and Ida Betara Hyang Guru (deified ancestor) that there is a ngotonin ritual taking place at the moment. The language expressed in the mood of declarative implisitely informs the God, Ida betara Hyang Guru ‘deified ancestor’ and reincarnated ancestors in H language to witness the ritual (see clause 1, 1a, 1b, 2, 2a, 2b, in 2.1) . The declarative form in clause 3 used to apologise for being mistaken in the process of ngotonin ritual . The use of persuasive language in the form of metaphorical expression to show a great expectation for anyone (being given the otonan ritual) blessing , prosperity, protection, as well as strength. ( see clause 4, 5, 6, and 7 in 2.1).

Conclusion

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Process types indicated by process material show that there must be an offering dedicated to activities and actions of human being in carrying out their devotions to the Supreme God, gods, ancestors’ spirits or other invisible beings, and in their efforts to have contacts with God and the citizens of the mystical, invisible places. The rituals and ceremonies are continuously held every six months being related to other activities such as praying, bowing and kneeling down, and natab wafting rites.

Participants in the ritual are the officiator - Ida betara Padma (God), Ida betara Hyang Guru ‘deified’ God and reincarnated ancestor in the person having has otonan ritual, can be seen from their role as an actor that is the officiator who informs Ida betara Padma (God), Ida betara Hyang Guru ‘deified’ God and the reincarnated, is the recipient of the information (indicated by material process, ngaturang, the gift in the form of offering. The offering is valuable things to show great appreciation to God. This religious emotion that brings people to possessing religious attitude, i.e. a religious emotion manifested in ‘fears, amazement, and belief’ towards ‘magical or mystical and sacred things’ and believes in God.

Text texture prayers manifested by certain kinds of semantic relation between its individual message. The property of texture is related to the listener’s perception of coherence (Hasan, 1985:72). The ngotonin ritual which is not only informed through the material process, ngaturang ‘give’, participants and theme but the texture also has a semantic relation between individual message through Personal reference (cataforic) clause 2; Demonstrative reference in clause 1.1a,1b; Comparative reference in clause 3; Nominal ellipsis in clause 1.1a,1b clause 4, clause 5, clause 6; Verbal Ellipsis clause 6; Substitution in clause 7; Lexical Cohesion : (a). same referent, (b). repetition.

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Refrences

Artadi, I Ketut. 1993. Manusia Bali. Denpasar: Bali Post

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