Setyolestanti, Ovik. 2017. Nick’s Perception toward his Wife’s Disappearance in Gillian Flynn’s Gone Girl. Thesis. English Department. Faculty of Arts and Humanities. Islamic State University of Sunan Ampel Surabaya.
The advisor: Itsna Syahadatud Dinurryiah, M.A.
This thesis analyzes Nick’s perception into his wife’s disappearance in the novel of Gillian Flynn’s Gone Girl. Nick is Amy’s husband who faces a problem in
his household by his wife’s disappearance right on their fifth wedding anniversary. Amy’s disappearance makes Nick confused and he tries to understand the reality of what actually happens. This thesis focuses on Nick’s perception toward his wife’s disappearance based on his marriage experience. The thesis aims to uncover the reality of Amy’s disappearance and what factors are causing her disappears. Based on Nick’s experience, he knows his wife’s behavior so, he can solve his wife’s clues from the facts found by him. To solve that cases, it uses theory of phenomenology to know Nick’s perception toward his wife’s disappearance based on his experience without being influenced by another person. To know Nick’s marriage experience with his wife in their household, it uses theory of new criticism to know the events that make up a story. Furthermore, Nick’s perception toward his wife’s disappearance makes him have a decision about what he should do when his wife returns to him.
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Setyolestanti, Ovik. 2017. Nick’s Perception toward his Wife’s Disappearance in Gillian Flynn’s Gone Girl. Tesis. Program Studi Sastra Inggris. Fakultas Sastra dan Humaniora. Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya.
Dosen Pembimbing: Itsna Syahadatud Dinurryiah, M.A.
Tesis ini menganalisa persepsi tokoh Nick pada istrinya yang hilang dalam novel Gone Girl karya Gillian Flynn. Nick adalah seorang suami dari Amy yang sedang mengalami permasalahan dalam rumah tangganya yaitu istrinya menghilang secara tiba-tiba tepat pada hari ulang tahun pernikahan mereka yang ke lima. Menghilangnya Amy membuat Nick bingung dan dia berusaha untuk memahami realita apa yang sebenarnya terjadi. Tesis ini berfokus pada persepsinya Nick terhadap menghilangnya istrinya berdasarkan pengalaman pernikahannya Nick. Tujuan dari tesis ini adalah untuk mengungkap realita menghilangnya Amy dan faktor apa yang menyebabkan dia menghilang. Berdasarkan pengalamannya, Nick bisa memahami bagaimana kebiasaan istrinya sehingga dia bisa menebak petunjuk istrinya dari fakta-fakta yang ditemukan. Untuk memecahkan kasus tersebut, tesis ini menggunakan teori fenomenologi untuk mengetahui persepsinya Nick terhadap kasus menghilangnya istrinya berdasarkan pengalamannya tanpa dipengaruhi oleh orang lain. Untuk mengetahui pengalaman pernikahan Nick dan istrinya yang terjadi dalam rumah tangga mereka, kajian ini menggunakan teori new criticism untuk mengetahui alur cerita dalam kasus tersebut. Selanjutnya, persepsi Nick terhadap menghilangnya istrinya membuat dia memiliki keputusan apa yang harus dia lakukan saat istrinya kembali padanya.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Inside title page………... i
Approval Sheet... iii
Thesis Examiner’s Approval Sheet... iv
Table of Contents... x
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study………..…… 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem………... 5
1.3 Objective of the Study………... 6
1.4 Significant of the Study……… 6
1.5 Scope and Limitation………...…... 7
1.6 Method of the Study………... 7
1.6.1 Research Design………... 7
1.6.2 Data Source……….……… 8
1.6.3 Method of Collecting Data……….. 8
1.6.4 Method of Data Analysis………... 9
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xi CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework………. 10
2.1.1 Phenomenology…………... 10
a. Noema and Noesis………... 15
2.1.2 New Criticism………. 18
a. Plot………... 19
1. Lowest left –Exposition……….... 20
2. Left middle - Rising action……….... 20
3. Highest – Climax………... 21
4. Right middle - Falling action………... 21
5. Right lowest – Resolution or Denouement……….… 22
2.2 Review of Related Studies……… 22
CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS 3.1 Nick’s marriage experience with his wife before her disappearance…………. 26
a. Gone Girl’sExposition; start from Amy’s diary…………..……… 27
b. Gone Girl’s Rising Action; Nick’s life with Amy after married... 31
c. Gone Girl’s Climax: Nick finds clues of treasure hunt game; Nick knows the causes of his wife’s disappearance... 38
d. Gone Girl’s Falling Action: Nick’s effort; his hope that Amy come back to home... 42
3.2 Nick’s perception toward his wife’s disappearance... 45
a. Nick loses his job and irresponsibility... 45
b. Irresponsive; Nick’s behavior changes to Amy... 47
c. Lie and infidelity; Nick has an affair with Andie... 48
d. Ignorantly; Nick gets a treasure hunt’s clue which leads to infidelity... 50
3.3 They re-unite after his wife returned... 56
a. Amy’s intrigue; valuable things and false diary is made by Amy... 57
b. Amy’s intrigue; False pregnant... 58
c. Amy’s threat to Nick... 58
d. Nick’s desire to be better... 60
e. Have a child; Amy is really pregnant... 61
CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION... 63
Work Cited... 66
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S e t y o l e s t a n t i | 1
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study
“Experience is not what happens to someone, but the experience is what
someone does with what happens to him”(Aldous Huxley).
Huxley’s statement shows that experience is the whole response of human
when his consciousness faces reality. It called whole response because it is not only consciousness of mind or reason, but also activities of feeling and
imagination. It can be anything comes to people that is enjoyed, felt, lived, thought, initiated, and views. It means that all of something that exists,
irrespective of whether or not but it can be observed or understood (Yacobi 202). Everything that happens in life can stimulate or touch human consciousness to do what he should do as he faces. They can express his thoughts, feelings, ideas, passion, or belief in a form of picture of life, which can evoke fascination with language as tools and described in writing as an article artistically.
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social life based on direct experience of the authors who described into their literary work. As what Dani and Mohen said that the world presented and represented in literature are adopted from the writer’s experience of a social and
historical reality (276), for example in 1957 Jack Kerouac from America who has written On the Road. Others, in 1952 Heinrich Harrer fom German who has written Seven Years in Tibet. Meanwhile, in 2012, the author who has written a literary work in the form of novel based on the reality of author’s life and she tries
to share the public of the reality that happened is Gillian Schieber Flynn. She is an American author, who has born on February 27th, 1971, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S. Flynn's three published novels are the thrillers Sharp Objects, Dark Places, and Gone Girl.
This research is particularly interested to discuss a novel from one of the Flynn’s work , Gone Girl. In Gone Girl, there is a character namely Nick Dunne who has described by Flynn’s experience as the same as when she loses her job.
Flynn is laid off from her job as a writer and TV critic at Entertainment Weekly after she finishes Dark Places, but before the novel came out. Losing her job allowed her the chance to turn into a full-time novelist. It also provided her inspiration for Nick in Gone Girl who loses his job as writer, too.
“I certainly wove that experience, that sense of having something that you were going to do for the rest of your life and seeing that possibility taken away .. . I definitely wove that sense of unrest and nervousness into Nick’s character.”
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(https://www.psychologytoday.com). It is also twenty-six weeks on National Public Radio's hardcover fiction bestseller list. Dave Itzkoff also wrote in his article that the novel in the end of its first year in publication, Gone Girl, had sold over two million copies in print and digital editions, according to the book's publisher (http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/15/new-two-book-deal-for-gone-girl-author-gillian-flynn/?_r=0).
Gone Girl tells the story of intrigue in the household of a young couple, Nick and Amy. A background of the New York City, the economic recession around 2007 makes Nick and Amy lay off from their job as the writers. The story begins by describing the background of Nick and Amy before marriage and sweet years as befits a young couple. Amy is described as an intelligent girl comes from an educated family. Her parents were a psychologist couple and the famous writer where one of their famous book is Amazing Amy. Amazing Amy is on illustration of the only ideal child. Amy, who later becomes the Nick’s wife and the problems
arise from a fight inside of Amy who feel compelled that her life is falsehood. She wants to make her parents proud who have described her in their best seller as
Amazing Amy is a perfect girl. Correspondingly, there is another part of Amy. She is beautiful, smart, professional writers but whose personality is weird for normal people perspective. She seems wearing a mask in order to show that her life after married is happy, but in the reality, is not. She does not want to damage the image of Amazing Amy which is already known and loved by her fans.
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father. Nick’s days of his young, so satiety of his mother’s suffering as a result of Nick's father abusive and does not appreciate as a wife. Nick's father as a husband sees his wife only as his supplement of living man. His father’s behaviour is
adopted by Nick later in his own household but Nick feels that he is an educated man, who will not treat his wife in that way. Nick also works as a writer, but the economic recession has put an end to the profession as a writer and becomes the lecturer and then meet Nick’s student, Andie.
Right on the fifth anniversary of their marriage Amy disappears from her home when Nick is not at home. Then, Nick goes to his home and finds the door opened, iron is still hot, and the water heater is still on. Moreover, the police gets trace of blood had been cleaned in the kitchen floor of their home. Whether Nick kills Amy or the loses of Amy related with a game “treasure hunt” which always
played by them in every time when they celebrate their wedding anniversary. The whole town is shocked by the news of the loss of Amy and asked where Amy is. The event which is faced by Nick on his wife’s disappearance is Nick’s
experience. It is dealing with the case of the household is a phenomenon that forms the essence of consciousness and the ideal of objects as a correlate of
consciousness and how about Nick’s perception toward his wife’s disappearance. Based on the description above, Nick’s experience is related to the
phenomenology. David W. Smith in his book entitled Husserl said that
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first-person point of view. The tendency of Husserl’s phenomenology pioneered emphasizes the role of understanding of the meaning (189). In the research on literature, phenomenology does not encourage the involvement of a purely subjective, but there is an attempt to enter the literary texts in accordance researcher’s consciousness (Endraswara 38). From this description means, the
researcher’s authority to give meaning a phenomenology in literary work have an
important role. It does not appear to the world as a tuft of meaning is finished and wrapped neatly. Therefore, researcher’s consciousness is needed to reveal a shape
of phenomenology that appears in literary work.
Based on background of the study above, this study is really interested to be analyzed deeply of Nick’s household which full of traps and his wife’s case on her disappearance in the literary work written by Gillian Flynn’s, Gone Girl,
about the experience faced by Nick as subject toward his wife’s dissappearance as object using the phenomenology theory and new criticism as a supporting theory.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Based on the literary background of study above, the problems of this study raise the following questions:
1. How is Nick’s marriage experience with his wife before her disappearance?
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1.3 Objective of the Study
Based on the statement of the problems stated before, the objective of this study are formulated as follows:
1. To know how is Nick’s marriage experience with his wife before her disappearance.
2. To know how is Nick’s perception toward his wife’s disappearance. 3. To know a reason why they are re-unite after his wife back.
1.4 Significant of the Study
This research is expected to provide a valuable contribution both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, it is expected that this study can be useful for the reader in understanding some of the novel with phenomenology theory. Phenomena of Nick as the subject who faces his wife’s disappearance as an object also can give the knowledge of life to readers who have an interest in the study of literature and to understand the phenomenology.
Practically, it is expected that this study can be used as a reference, especially for students of UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya who analyze this novel or other novels using the phenomenology theory. For literary scholars or people who are mostly interested in literature, this study becomes a comparison to other studies, even this could be debatable to be more perfect by using the
phenomenology or other theories. Nick’s experience as the subject who faces his wife’s disappearance as an object to be an event that occurrs in his household. It
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or still let his wife disappears. It is expected that this study will be useful for the public to understand the phenomena they experience in consciousness to grasp a thing or an action in its value-aspect (Dhar 188).
1.5 Scope and Limitation
To avoid such a vast subject, this study will be limited in Gillian Flynn’s
Gone Girl. This research focuses on Nick’s perception toward his wife’s
disappearance in the novel. To get answers the event in the novel, it uses Nick’s
experiences as the important subject and his perception to what happened toward his wife’s disappearance.
1.6 Method of the Study
In this part of thesis is discussed Gone Girl to conduct this research. In this research there are several steps used, they are research design, sources of research data, the data collection and analysis of data.
1.6.1 Research Design
To answer some of the issues that will be discussed in statement of the problem, this research uses literary research using some books and other
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symbols) and quantitative research the data collection from hard data in the form of numbers (167). Therefore, method of this writing to analyze the data is
describing and explaining the results which are not numeral data but they are taken from words and sentences.
1.6.2 Data Source
In this research, there are two sources of data, primary and secondary data. The primary data source comes from a novel Gone Girl written by Gillian Flyn. The secondary data comes from several important works, journals, websites and several books related to novel and an explanation of the theory of
1.6.3 Method of Collecting Data
Because the data becomes the most important aspect in this research, so it must be collected effectively and orderly. Methods of data collection is one of the research methods sections that will explain how data collected to support the research. In gathering the data collection measures are:
a. Preparing and reading a novel entitled Gone Girl as the main data. b. Re-reading the novel many times to get a good grasp on the whole
c. Selecting and collecting novel’s narration and conversation related to statement of problem and to obtain accurate data.
S e t y o l e s t a n t i | 9
1.6.4 Method of Data Analysis
The data collected will be analyzed related to the literary theory. This research is taken based on some references from a library. To analyze it, this research uses qualitative research methods. The data analysis will involve several steps, namely:
a. Connecting Gone Girls’s narration or conversation with the theory. b. Analyzing Gone Girls’s narration or conversation that have been
collected use descriptive qualitative based on the theoretical framework. c. Making conclusion based on the result of data analysis.
1.7 Definition of Key Term
Fact : everything that was caught by human senses or real state data that is proven and has become a reality. (Vardiansyah 3)
Reality : all that exists, irrespective of whether or not it can be observed or understood. (Yacobi 202)
Experience : in its essence most unique and subjective the way in which experiences “come to life” is a social
phenomenon. (Battarbee 16)
Perception : the process whereby people select, organise, and interpret sensory stimulations into meaningful information about
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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Theoretical Framework
This research will be analyzed using Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Need in
humanistic psychology approach. The researcher will explain five hierarchy of need coined by Abraham Maslow. In order to support the analysis, the writer also uses New Criticism as supporting theory. Those theories are explained as follows:
2.1.1 New Criticism
New Criticism is clearly characterized in premise and practice: it is not concerned with context – historical, biographical, intellectual and so on; it is not interested in the ‗fallacies‘ of ‗intention‘ or ‗affect‘; it is
concerned solely with the ‗text in itself‘ (Selden, et al 19). Tyson asserted
in New Criticism ―The text itself‖ became as sole source of evidenced for interpreting literary work. (136). Knowing an author‘s intention,
therefore, tells us nothing about the text itself, which is why New Critics coined the term intentional fallacy to refer to the mistaken belief that the author‘s intention is the same as the text‘s meaning ( Tyson 136). For
New Criticism, a literary work is a timeless autonomous (self-sufficient) verbal object. Readers and readings may change, but the literary text stays the same.(Tyson 137).
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language of the text itself: its images, symbols, metaphors, rhyme, meter, point of view, setting, characterization and plot (Tyson 137). Henceforth, based on the element above, the study will focus on character and
characterization to support the analysis.
184.108.40.206 Character and Characterization
Characters are the persons represented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with particular moral, intellectual, and emotional qualities (Abrams 32). It means that, the existence of character in literary is significantly important to bring the messages to the reader through ―moral, intellectual and emotional
qualities‖ of the character‘s manifestation. Thus, Brown and Tomlinson
also asserted character as an ―Actors‖ in a story who are another elements of fictional vital to the enjoyment of story (29). According to Abrams there are three distinctive ways to infrence the characters ; ―the
dialogue and from what they do—the action. In this case, to determine the character, the reader may interpret the characters by their behavior and personality in the story and it is reflected to their statement in dialogue and their deed . Hence, the grounds in the characters'
temperament, desires, and moral nature for their speech and actions are called their motivation. A character may remain essentially "stable," or unchanged in outlook and disposition, from beginning to end of a work‖
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E. M. Forster, in Aspects of the Novel (1927), introduced popular new terms for an old distinction by discriminating between flat and round characters (in Abrams 33). This classification is divided through the complexity and alteration of the character in text. Foster stated that flat character is built in ―single idea or quality‖ which is adequately tended to
describe by a single traits. The flat character—one without mystery, simple, palpable, and self-contained—reassures us of our efficient grasp of reality. Obligingly fitting our understanding, flat characters dwindle into the emblematic, the typical (Mikics 70). In contras round character is more complex and undergo development. It is usually able to surprise the reader in a convincing way (33).
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As the result, the characterization may give information to the reader deep understanding about the character and also provide the author‘s depiction of the character that builds the story. Then, by using
characterization, the researcher is expected to know and to understand the character in the novel, precisely to reveal George‘s character and the
other character that is included in the analysis.
2.1.2 The Hierarchy of Human Need by Abraham Maslow
According to Maslow‘s hierarchy of need theory there are four
needs that must be satisfied before someone can act unselfishly (Self Actualization). The needs are arranged in hierarchical order. The upward climb is made by satisfying one set of needs at a time (Griffin 125). The five needs composing this hierarchy are conative needs, meaning that they have a striving or motivational character. These needs, which Maslow often referred to as basic needs, can be arranged on a hierarchy or staircase, with each ascending step representing a higher need but one less basic to survival (Feist 287). Maslow listed the following needs in order of their prepotency: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization (qtd in Feist 287).
220.127.116.11 Physiological Needs
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physiological needs are the highest priority because until they are reasonably satisfied, other higher-level needs will not emerge to motivate behavior (Francis and Kritsonis 2). Griffin gives an addition that losing any short supply of these need is caused the distressing tension of hunger, thirst, fatigue, shortness of breath, sexual frustration, confinement, or the discomfort of being too hot or cold (127). Hence, satisfying of physiological need is enormously important as the most basic need.
If the physiological needs are relatively well gratified, there then emerges a new set of need, which we may categorize roughly as the safety need (security; stability; dependency; protection; freedom from fear; anxiety and chaos; need for structure; order law and limits; strength in protector and so on) (Maslow 39). Safety needs differ from physiological needs in that they cannot be overly satiated; people can never be
completely protected from meteorites, fires, floods, or the dangerous acts of others (Feist 288).
18.104.22.168Love and Belongingness Needs
The love or belongingness needs come into play after the
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pangs of loneliness and rejection (Griffin 128). Maslow did not equate love with sex, which is a physiological need, but he recognized that sex is one way of expressing the love need. He suggested that the failure to satisfy the need for love is a fundamental cause of emotional
maladjustment (Schultz 314).
All people in our society (with a few pathological exceptions) have a need or desire for a stable, firmly based, (usually) high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect, or self-esteem, and for the esteem of others (Maslow 45). Maslow identified two levels of esteem needs-reputation and self-esteem. Reputation is the perception of the prestige, recognition, or fame a person has achieved in the eyes of others, whereas self-esteem is a person's own feelings of worth and confidence (Feist 290). Satisfaction of the need for self-esteem allows us to feel confident of our strength, worth, and adequacy, which will help us become more competent and productive in all aspects of our life (Schultz 314).
22.214.171.124Self Actualization: The Ultimate Goal
Self actualization refers to people‘s desire for self fulfillment, namely, the tendency for them to become actualize in what they are potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is capable of becoming (Maslow 46).
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self-fulfillment, meaning in life, or beauty (Griffin 130).
Self-actualization is not limited to creative and intellectual superstars such as musicians, artists, and astrophysicists. What is important is to fulfill one‘s own potentials at the highest level possible, whatever one‘s chosen
endeavor (Feist 315).
Maslow‘s research on emotionally healthy people formed the
basis of his personality theory. He did not find many examples of self-actualizers; he estimated that they constitute one percent or less of the population. However, he concluded that they share certain characteristics (Schultz 317). Maslow listed fifteen tentative qualities that characterize self-actualizing people to at least some degree (Feist 289). It will be explained as follows:
126.96.36.199.1 More Eficient Perception of Reality
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Self actualizer can tolerate weaknesses in others and are not threatened by others' strengths (Feist 298). Self-actualizers accept their strengths and weaknesses. They do not try to distort or falsify their self-image and they do not feel guilty about their failings. They also accept the weaknesses of other people and of society in general (Schultz 317). Thus, self actualizer are not feels inferior of the others strength and also feels superior of the other weakness.
188.8.131.52.3 Spontaneity, Simplicity, and Naturalness
The behavior of self-actualizers is open direct, and natural. They rarely hide their feelings or emotions or play a role to satisfy society, (Schultz 317). They are unpretentious and not afraid or ashamed to express joy, awe, elation, sorrow, anger, or other deeply felt emotions (Feist 299).
184.108.40.206.4 Problem Centering
A fourth characteristic of self-actualizing people is their interest in problems outside themselves. This interest allows selfactualizers to develop a mission in life, a purpose for living that spreads beyond self aggrandizement. Their occupation is not merely a means to earning a living but a vocation, a calling, an end in itself (Feist 290).
220.127.116.11.5 The Need for Privacy
Self-actualizing people have a quality of detachment that allows them to be alone without being lonely. Because they have already
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to be surrounded by other people. They can find enjoyment in solitude and privacy. They have a global concern for the welfare of others without becoming entangled in minute and insignificant problems (Feist 290)
18.104.22.168.6 Autonomy (Independence of Environment)
Self-actualizing people are autonomous and depend on themselves for growth even though at some time in their past they had to have received love and security from others (Feist 290).
22.214.171.124.7 Continued Freshness of Appreciation
Maslow (1970) wrote that "self-actualizing people have the
wonderful capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively, the basic goods of life, with awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy" (Feist 291). An experience may grow stale for someone who is not
self-actualizing, but self-actualizers will enjoy each recurrence as though it was the first. Whether a sunset, a painting, or a symphony, a baseball game or a birthday gift—all can be seen with delight. Self-actualizers appreciate what they have and take little for granted (Schultz 320).
126.96.36.199.8 Peak Experience
Self-actualizers know moments of intense ecstasy, not unlike deep religious experiences, that can occur with virtually any activity. Maslow called these events peak experiences, during which the self is transcended and the person feels supremely powerful, confident, and decisive
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evil or undesirable".Maslow also believed that the peak experience often has a lasting effect on a person's life (Feist 291).
Self-actualizers may become angry, impatient, or disgusted with others; but they retain a feeling of affection for human beings in general. More specifically, Maslow (1970) stated that self-actualizing people are "often saddened, exasperated, and even enraged by the shortcomings of the average person (Feist 292).
188.8.131.52.10 Profound Interpersonal Relations
Although their circle of friends is not large, selfactualizers have deep, lasting friendships. They tend to select as friends those with
personal qualities similar to their own, just as we all choose as friends the people we find compatible (Schultz 320) Self-actualizers are often
misunderstood and sometimes despised by others. On the other hand, many are greatly loved and attract a large group of admirers and even worshipers, especially if they have made a notable contribution to their business or professional field (Feist 292)
184.108.40.206.11 Democratic Character Structure
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exploitation of others (Robert 227). Beyond this democratic attitude, self-actualizers have a desire and an ability to learn from anyone. In a
learning situation, they recognize how little they know in relation to what they could know (Feist 292).
220.127.116.11.12 Discrimination Between Means and Ends
Self-actualizing people have a clear sense of right and wrong conduct and have little conflict about basic values. They set their sights on ends rather than means and have an unusual ability to distinguish between the two. What other people consider to be a means (e.g., eating or exercising), self-actualizing people often see as an end in itself. (Feist 293).
18.104.22.168.13 Philosophical Sense of Humor
Another distinguishing characteristic of self-actualizing people is their philosophical, nonhostile sense of humor. They make fewer tries at humor than others, but their attempts serve a purpose beyond making people laugh. They amuse, inform, point out ambiguities, provoke a smile rather than a guffaw (Feist 293).
Self-actualizing people are highly creative and exhibit
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had no special talents as a writer or artist, she was truly creative in preparing homemade3w soup. Maslow remarked that first-rate soup was more creative than second-rate poetry (Feist 302).
22.214.171.124.15 Resistance to Enculturation
Self-actualizers are autonomous, independent, and self-sufficient. They feel free to resist social and cultural pressures to think or behave in a certain way. They do not openly rebel against cultural norms or social codes, but they are governed by their own nature rather than the strictures of society (Schultz 321). A final characteristic identified by Maslow was resistance to enculturation. Self actualizing people have a sense of
detachment from their surroundings and are able to transcend a particular culture (Feist 293).
Furthermore, based on explanation above are noticed that there are certain characteristics which are shaped people as self actualizer. From fifteen
tentative qualities of self actualizing people that have mentioned at least some degrees of the characteristics are included in self actualizing people.
2.2 Review of Related Studies
In order to enlarge the knowledge about this research, the researcher reviewed the previous study which has relation with this research in some aspects. First is thesis which is written by Estefanía Ons Paz from Goteborgs University entitled The moral value of slavery as represented in Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The aim of this essay is to show
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morality of slavery and the conflict between the institution and Christianity. It is necessary to talk about the main characters to explain the value of slaves and see how they were treated. Therefore, it also describes the power of Christian characters as well as the role that women play in the novel.
The second is the thesis entitled Racial Stereotypes in Fictions of Slavery:Uncle Tom´s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe and O Escravo by José Evaristo D‘ Almeida written by Isanilda Conceicao Ferreira. This thesis
describes and compares the different characteristic from the context from those novels. Because Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s Uncle Tom’s Cabin and José Evaristo D‘Almeida O Escravo both denounced the evils of slavery which
happened in the United States of America. However, they are both ambivalent towards slaves and blacks, being unable to envisage social equality for the two races. Both authors construct their black characters as stereotypical others, but they depict the light-skin characters as superior both culturally and physically.
The third is the Thesis entitled an analysis of Uncle Tom‘s Religiousity in Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s Novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Roida M Saragih
from University of North Sumatera Medan. This thesis talks about Uncle Tom‘s religiosity which cast about his obstinacy to face the life around of his master‘s violence. Based on the explanation above which three studies had
| 21 S H A R R A H
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CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS
In the previous chapter, it has been explained that experience can happen and come into everyone’s life. It can stimulate or touch human consciousness to
do what he should do as he faces. In Gone Girl, Nick is a main character and he is a husband who has problems in his household. It is an experience for Nick that his wife disappears in their fifth wedding anniversary. In Nick’s reality, Amy’s
disappearance makes Nick confused, his thought is chaotic because he fears of his wife’s disappearance. He also asks in his mind what the cause of Amy’s
disappearance is. Then, he does a search for the loss to know the chronology and his perception toward it.
This chapter contains the analysis of the data used to answer the statement of the problems raise in this study. To determine the chronology of Amy’s
disappearance, this study analyzes plot, because plot is an event that builds the story itself. In the plot, we will know the marriage experience between Nick and Amy that makes Amy disappears in the fifth anniversary of their marriage, and how Nick’s perceptions toward his wife’s disappearance that makes Nick’s
choices to accept his wife when she returns to him till they re-unite.
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point of view. It is used to know some of their marriage experience as causes the problem in their household.
a. Gone Girl’sExposition; start from Amy’s diary
The start, or exposition, is where the characters and setting are established (Macewan 116). In this part, we know from Amy’s diary, she tells about the first
time she meets a boy, Nick. Amy is invited by her friend, Carmen, to go to the Brooklyn and comes to Carmen’s party with some writers. Amy likes this party,
because she is a writer, like her parents also writers (Flynn 23).
“Please don’t eat anything in that area,’ he says. It is him (bum bum
BUMMM!), but I don’t yet know it’s him (bum-bum-bummm). I know it’s a guy who will talk to me, he wears his cockiness like an ironic T-shirt, but it fits him better. He is the kind of guy who carries himself like he gets laid a lot, a guy who likes women, a guy who would actually fuck me properly.” (Flynn 26)
Nick’s meeting Amy occurs when Amy wants to eat something from the dinner party. Suddenly there is a man who forbids Amy to eat. At first, Amy assumes that he is a philanderer, but after they are talking for a few moments and know that his name is Nick, Amy becomes interested to him. Amy increasingly is attracted to Nick who has a sweet smile. During the party, they are talking about something funny. Moreover, Nick gives attention to Amy without asking. Nick indicates that Amy really like him. Their meeting is not fluent, because after meeting at a party they lose communication for several months. Nick’s reason that Amy’s phone number in which has been written in paper damaged by the washing
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walking followed her stride. She realizes that is the man who disappeared along eight months ago, Nick.
“The boy in ‘I met a boy!’
I didn’t break my stride, just turned to him and said: a) ‘Do I know you?’ (manipulative, challenging)
b) ‘Oh, wow, I’m so happy to see you!’ (eager, doormatlike) c) ‘Go fuck yourself.’ (aggressive, bitter)
d) ‘Well, you certainly take your time about it, don’t you,Nick?’ (light, playful, laid-back)
And now we’re together. Together, together. It was that easy. It’s
interesting, the timing. Propitious, if you will. (And I will) ….” (Flynn 45) Amy’s statement above indicates that Amy is very pleased to meet Nick.
Her question for Nick is an insinuation that Amy really hopes Nick to contact her after getting her phone number. Amy is happy after a long time waiting for news of Nick and they meet again at the right time. Amy likes Nick at the first glance, as well as Nick also likes Amy at the beginning of the meeting. So, they are very happy when they meet again. Amy invites Nick at night of Amazing Amy and the Big Day a series book party. She is also introducing Nick to Amy’s parents, Rand and Marybeth. They are as a child psychologist and well-known writer. Amazing Amyis a literary work written by Amy’s parents. Amy explains that her character has been set up by her parents in accordance with the character of Amy in
Amazing Amy. In the story of Amazing Amy and the Big Day, Amy is married to Andy.
“where my parents are in full hosting mode, their faces flushed – Rand with his toothy prehistoric-monster-fish smile, Marybeth with her
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fucking lonely. I go home and cry for a while. I am almost thirty-two.” (Flynn 49)
In a series book party of Amazing Amy, it looks that Amy’s parents are
very happy because their book was sold out. Amazing Amy tells a fictional character who starts life as a precocious moppet of sixth and is now a thirty-two-year-old who become the bride. Amy’s parents really enjoy the party on the
success of Amazing Amy without thinking about what is being perceived by Amy. From the quote above, it shows that in the life of Amy she feels lonely and sad because she has become a person who perfectly fit in the Amazing Amy. The girl is thirty-two-year-old and unmarried, Amy fears because she sees many of her friends who are married, they are unhappy, so she wants the perfect person to be happy. Thirty-two, that is not old, especially not, in New York.
AMY ELLIOTT DUNNE, JULY 5, 2008: Diary entry
“I have found my match. It’s Nick, laid-back and calm, smart and fun and uncomplicated. Untortured, happy. Nice.... All the stuff I don’t like about myself has been pushed to the back of my brain. Maybe that is what I like best about him, the way he makes me.” (Flynn 63)
Amy meets Nick, it makes her no longer feels alone and sad. Love at first sight makes Amy and Nick are married. Statement above shows that Amy
becomes a wife. In the 2008 is the first wedding anniversary of Nick and Amy. Amy shows happiness, at first, she does not like to work such as taking care of the household, know she does it. Amy’s happiness makes her passionate about
something that is not preferred. She starts with a routine activity as a wife and happy. It has been said by Nick also:
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collection of metal pots and iron pans (ruzzshuzz!). A culinary orchestra tuning up, clattering vigorously Toward the finale, a cake pan drumrolling along the floor, hitting the wall with a cymballic crash. Something
impressive was being created, probably a crepe, because crepes are special, and today Amy would want to cook something special.” (Flynn 18)
Nick’s explanation shows that Amy is really happy being a wife and
pleased with her activities as a housewife. Their marriage happens because they love each other. Their marriage is not compulsion. The quote above shows that they are as new young couple, are very happy. Their marriage in phase of flowers are blooming. All, they are doing homework together, like ranging from painting the house, choosing and arranging home accessories. After marriage, they live in a Brooklyn Brownstone Apartment on Manhattan which is bought by Amy’s
parents to them from Amazing Amy. They are, especially Amy is really happy, all of Nick’s treatments really make her happy, at the first.
“Marriage is compromise and hard work, and then more hard work and
communication and compromise. And then work. Abandon all hope, ye
whoenter.” (Flynn 176)
They will start a genuine life to construct a household. The condition of their happiness of a wedding trip that makes them have to work hard. For Nick, working hard in any case to face and solve problems in a relationship, his
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b. Gone Girl’sRising Action; Nick’s life with Amy after married
“not that hard to find someone to marry, they say. No relationship is perfect, they say.” (Flynn 50)
Statement above is said by Amy’s parent, it means a lot that someone is
busy to search for the perfect partner when married, whereas, no relationship is perfect. It is same as with marriage of Nick and Amy. Although at the beginning of the meeting, Nick assumes that Amy is the perfect girl and also Amy assesses Nick is a perfect boy, and they are equally perfect, but it is still in their
relationship will be un-perfect. Their marriage will meet up a little problem up to the bigger problem in which becomes experience in their life to teach each other and make it perfect.
“Nick and I, we sometimes laugh, laugh out loud, at the horrible things women make their husbands do to prove their love. The pointless tasks, the myriad sacrifices, the endless small surrenders. We call these men the dancing monkeys”. (Flynn 84)
They often laugh if any husband who is forced by his wife to prove his love in various way for example always pick up his wife. Amy and Nick call the husband who always obey her without meaning is dancing monkeys who always do what their boss wants. Hence, either Amy or Nick tries to calm themselves and not to force each other to obey what they want.
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In their first anniversary, Amy is angry to Nick because he cannot answer the treasure hunt’s clue for their first anniversary. Nick shows his annoyed to
Amy because he does not get why he needs to prove his love to Amy by
remembering the exact same things, same way as she does. For Nick, it does not mean that he does not love his life with Amy if he cannot remember all their moments as the same as Amy remembers. In that time, Nick does not get what Amy’s mind.
“Economic recession, the rumors were true: Sixteen writers have been laid off at Nick’s magazine. A third of the staff. Nick has been spared, for now, but of course he feels obliged to take the others out to get drunk…… (My
friend here just got laid off, he could use a hug) …….I know we had plans but…” (Flynn 99)
As a woman and a wife, Amy really wants more attention from her spouse. On the night of their third wedding anniversary in July 5th, 2010, she wants to celebrate with Nick. On the day that they should be happy to celebrate their wedding anniversary, Nick prefers to join with his friends than choosing to accompany his wife to celebrate a third wedding anniversary. Some of his friends has been fired from the company because of economic recession. In mid-2007, the United States subprime mortgage crisis and peaked in September 2008, which is marked by the announcement of the bankruptcy of several financial institutions. Beginning of the problems occurred in the period 2000-2001, when the
company’s stock shares dotcom. Dotcom is the company that runs most of its
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friends who has been laid off Nick will spend the night of their third-anniversary to buy his friends drinks.
“We sit silent for a minute, my stomach knotting. I don’t want to be the bad guy here. I don’t deserve that. Nick stands up.
‘Well, how was it?’ I ask dully.
‘How was it? It was fucking awful. Sixteen of my friends now have no jobs. It was miserable. I’ll probably be gone too, another few months.’ Friends. He doesn’t even like half the guys he was out
with, but I say nothing.
‘I know it feels dire right now, Nick. But—’
‘It’s not dire for you, Amy. Not for you, it never will be
dire. But for the rest of us? It’s very different.’ (Flynn 101-102)
That conversation happens when Nick arrives at home after hanging out with his friends. Amy succumbs to Nick because she wishes to be obedient to her husband. Amy does not want to aggravate situation. Those conversations between Nick and Amy, illustrate the serious problems that arise in their household. Nick and his friends as a husband and also the head of the family is very distressed if they lose their jobs and do not work. They think of responsibility as a head of household who is obliged to provide for family, but they do not have a job. In that conversation, Nick is really distressed on the discharge because he knows that the next round he will be loses his job.
Right on August 23th, 2010, a month after their third wedding anniversary, it is time for Nick, he is laid off from his job as a writer. The effects of the
economic recession it makes most workers losing their jobs.
“A few weeks in, the bustling stopped, the usefulness stopped, as if he woke up one morning under a decrepit, dusty sign that read, Why Fucking Bother? He went dull-eyed ….
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“That’s awful, I’m sorry,” he says. “At least you have your money to fall back on.” (Flynn 124)
Although he is fired, Nick initially is not too worry because Amy still has a job. Thus, Amy can survive to get what her need is. However, it cannot be planned, no longer after a few weeks Nick looks stress to know that Amy also loses her job. They are in a sad conditions, husband and wife as a couple who do not have a job but must be survive. Their household problems really make Nick depressed.
“I know we are luckier than most: I go online and check my trust fund whenever I get nervous. I never called it a trust fund before Nick did; it’s actually not that grand. I mean, it’s nice, it’s great – $785,404 that I have in savings thanks to my parents. But it’s not the kind of money that allows you to stop working forever, especially not in New York.” (Flynn 127)
Quote above indicates that Amy is grateful because her households can survive as long as they are waiting for a new job. Amy has savings from the sale of her parent’s Amazing Amy. Saving it, it is localized for Amy from her parents
as saving money when they need. Nick and Amy are safe because they have savings proficiency level while waiting for the call to work, they can still survive on the trust fund. However, it is despite allegations, Nick and Amy do not feel safe when Amy’s parents come home to borrow the trust fund.
“Marybeth starts the pitch: ‘We wanted to ask if we could borrow some money from your trust while we figure out what to do with the rest of our lives…….
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comfortable for a while?” My father looks at his shoes. My mother takes a deep breath. “Six hundred and fifty thousand,” she says.
“Oh.” It is all I can say. It is almost everything we have. “Amy, maybe you and I should discuss—” Nick begins.
“No, no, we can do this,” I say. “I’ll just go grab my checkbook.”
“Actually,” Marybeth says, “if you could wire it to our account tomorrow, that would be best. Otherwise there’s a ten-day waiting period.”
That’s when I know they are in serious trouble.” (Flynn 128-129)
From the conversation above, Nick and Amy are in a tense situation, emotion, but not the heart. The amount of money that will be borrowed by Amy’s
parents is almost of the whole Amy has, it is a $ 785.404 and will be borrowed amounted to $ 650,000. Nick seems to mind if Amy loans her money to her parents because it is almost from the amount of money that they have but it is impossible if she does not loan the money. Amy’s parents are bankrupt, selling of
Amazing Amy is no longer skyrocketing. They fail to invest so they borrow Amy’s
money to pay bank. As part of a filial daughter, Amy takes her checkbook and give the money. In that time, Nick is indisposed if Amy does it.
Some weeks Nick and Amy bore to do the routine as the same couple who do not have jobs, they survive depend on Amy’s trust funds. Their household
circumstances are so complicated, the problem continues come to them. When they are relaxing, suddenly Nick receives a call from his twin sister, Margo. Nick enters the room and leaves Amy alone.
“Nick’s cell phone rings at ten a.m., and I can tell by his voice that it is Go.
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Apparently, the conversation is so serious, so Nick has to conceal his talks with Go. After a few minutes, Nick talks the news to Amy. Nick has a serious problem. Go cannot care for her parents alone. Nick’s mother’s cancer in stage
four and her father gets Alzheimer suffered. They are equally need serious care. Then, Nick makes the decision that he must help Go to care for their two parents. One way is to bring Amy moved from his New York goes to Missouri, residence of Nick’s childhood. A month on October 16th, 2010 Amy moves to Missouri.
That day is a day of celebration of Nick and Amy new home. Actually, they hired a house in Missouri, they do not live with Nick’s mother (Flynn 146). A year later after becoming to Missouri, Nick’s behavior to his wife changes.
“But I only know that from the glimpses of him coming home or going back out, always in a pretend hurry. You wouldn’t like it, his standard response any time I ask to come with him, wherever it is he goes.” (Flynn 203)
Nick, who should to take care of his mother, is actually enjoying himself. At one point Amy wants to be with Nick out, but Nick refuses. From Nick’s word,
You wouldn’t like it, it means Nick considers that Amy does not like his activities so he forbids Amy to accompany him. Again, Nick’s attitude seems that he does not care his wife, he chooses to have fun with his friends rather than his wife.
“Well, now might be the right time. To start a family. Try to get pregnant.”I know it’s crazy even as I say it, but I can’t help myself – I have become the crazy woman who wants to get pregnant because it will save her marriage.
He jerks away from me. “Now? Now is about the worst time to start a family, Amy. You have no job—.” (Flynn 267)...
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In Nick’s marriage, he does not have a child. At first, originally Nick
wants to have children, however, they do not get it until they try into fertility treatments in order to get a child soon, and have not succeeded. So then, Amy decides does not want to have children. This time, Amy changes her mind because she wants to save her household by means of having a child might be better for her wedding. Amy desire to get pregnant is rejected by Nick. He does not want to have a child. He feels that it is not the right time to have a child. Nick and Amy do not have a job. Nick is afraid if he cannot provide to his wife and children because he has no income. Nick is furious. The desire to have children who should be greeted happily by married couples, do not occur in their marriage. Nick, as a husband, who is really stress because of the pressure of household problems. Before the death of Maureen, in September 2011, Amy wants to fight for her marriage. She believes that her husband can change, Nick will love Amy as before and their relationship is going back. In April 2011, Amy has the idea to give him a surprise but in the same time Nick is cheating with Andie. In The Bar, Nick meets Andie and he accompanies her goes to Andie’s apartment (Flynn 213). Unaware, Nick does not know if his wife follows himself with Andie.
In this part seems that the problems are arise in Nick’s marriage. Nick and
Amy do not have a job beside, Amy’s parents come to borrow the money. Nick is
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The Bar, he borrows Amy’s money at $ 80,000. Inside The Bar, Nick talks to Go right on his fifth-wedding anniversary, he thinks what a treasure hunt is presented by Amy into Nick to find a gift of wedding anniversary. Treasure hunt, a game between Nick and Amy. Amy always doing a treasure hunt in every wedding anniversary to give a gift. That game, Amy give clues that lead to the next clue until he comes to the end user, Nick getting the gift. A few minutes later, Nick gets a call from Carl, his front neighbor. Carl reports that Nick’s house conditions
unusually occur in his house, his pet Bleecker is outside the house with the door open. Carl intends to examine, but his condition cannot to do it. Soon, Nick left
The Bar to the home to check the state of his house. For a few minutes, Nick comes to his house (Flynn 40).
When Nick arrives at home, he is filled with fear. He calls his wife’s name
while looking at all parts of the condition of the house. The conditions are messed up, he finds the door opened, iron is still hot, and the water heater is still on, and the living room is also all over the floor. The state of a living room cluttered as happened a dispute at Nick’s home. Nick runs to the river, because he has met his wife there but for the moment she is not there. In fact, when he wakes up in the morning he sees his wife making crepe for special breakfast (Flynn 18). Now, his wife is disappeared, he loses his wife (Flynn 42-43).
c. Gone Girl’s Climax: Nick finds clues of treasure hunt game; Nick knows the causes of his wife’s disappearance.
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Amy’s disappearance in Gone Girl makes Nick suppress, where his wife
disappeared is. Immediately, Nick calls the police to conduct an investigation into his wife’s disappearance. As a form Nick’s effort to find the whereabouts of his
While waiting for the police comes, anxiously, Nick tries to call his wife hopely she calls him back if there is no answer because it has always done by Amy. Right on the fifth-anniversary of their marriage in July 2012, Nick gets an experience that he loses his wife. Nick worries about his wife when he sees the condition of his house a mess because Amy is never un-completing the job when she will go on. For Nick, that conditions unusuall done by his wife, Amy always finishes her job (Flynn 52-53). Arriving at home, the police immediately check the condition of the Nick’s house and Nick directs into some parts of the house
are messed up, such as pointing to the living room, one of them. The police do not do the job alone. Soon will come the two detectives to investigate the case
because of Nick’s problems to be taken seriously so it takes detectives to analyze
and find evidence of a crime if it happens. Shortly thereafter, come the two detectives, Rhonda Boney and Gilpin. They are looking around the house and asking for an explanation as well as some statements from Nick.
“The news reports would show Nick Dunne, husband of the missing woman, standing metallically next to his father-in-law, arms crossed, eyes glazed, looking almost bored as Amy’s parents wept.” (Flynn 97)
Media immediately, makes the news of Amy’s disappearance. Nick is
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reunited back with the family. This conference is the first Nick Dunne’s attempt to find his wife. The day after the loss of Amy, a detective Gilpin finds the envelope, FIRST CLUE. The first clue discovery makes Nick think hard, what really
happened to his wife because Amy does treasure hunt game in every wedding anniversary, they always lead to the important experience anything that has occurred in their household for a year and the incidence of what makes her happy.
At the first hint, Amy portray herself as a student of a handsome teacher, Nick (Flynn 110). Nick knows where the place is. Post-fired, Nick works as a lecturer in a college. Nick teaches journalism magazine. Viewing the contents of first clue, quickly Nick could guess that the first clue leading to the office where Nick works. Nick thinks that the treasure hunt this year quite easily because Nick quickly to guess it. The two detectives are soon ushered Nick lead to the office where he works as a lecturer. Arriving at the office, Nick finds the envelope on his desk. A clues for the envelope lead to the next place and Nick will finding the next clue until he finds a gift.
In the last clue, he can guess that the prize is wood, it can be an antique cradle from the keywords Store goodies for anniversary five, the prize is made of wood and wood stored in the warehouse and the word punished, he recalled that punishing someone likened to bring someone to the woodshed (Flynn 305). Nick convinces his own self that the prize is in the woodshed, the location is behind of Go’s house. Nick quickly rushed to go to the woodshed to find a prize of the treasure hunt.
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I collapsed on the couch, my body a dull throb. Go played secretary. ‘Oh my God. Duh! They’re Punch andJudy dolls. Nick! We’re idiots. That line, that’s Punch’s trademark. That’s the way to do it!” (Flynn 321)
Nick finds a gift, it is a couple dolls, Punch and Judy. The story, Mr. Punch kills his child, then murders Judy when she discovers the crime. Then, he goes on to encounter other obstacles, including a police officer, a doctor, a hangman, and even the devil, and similarly beats all of them to death with a club. The tagline for the story is. That's the way to do it, which Punch utters every time he literally gets away with murder and overpowers even law enforcement and death. The person getting away with murder in Gone Girl, though, is Amy—or
Judy, instead of Punch. Besides, the obvious similarities with the story she crafts though, Amy has other reasons for picking Punch and Judy as a metaphor. Throughout his life, Nick has gotten away with a lot just because he is good looking and a mama’s boy. While he does not attempt to murder Amy or abuse
her in any way, by dragging her to Missouri, distancing himself from her, and having an affair, he might as well have as far as Amy’s concerned.
On the eight-day after Amy’s disappearance, Tanner meets Nick and Go.
Nick disclose all the clues of treasure hunt, he puts on the kitchen table and it is like awful tarot-card reader for Nick. Tanner asks him to tell all the fact and reality that he experienced. Nick must convince to Tanner that of all the stories he does not lie. Before he starts, Nick tries to calm himself to collect all the