Exotic method effect on the readability of Hercule Poirot`s dialogues in three Agatha Christie`s Indonesian translated novels - USD Repository

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EXOTIC METHOD EFFECT ON THE

READABILITY OF HERCULE POIROT’S DIALOGUES

IN THREE

AGATHA CHRISTIE’S

INDONESIAN TRANSLATED NOVELS

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

YOHANES PASKALIS PAE DALE

Student Number: 104214057

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

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STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been

previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that,

to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material

previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the

text of the undergraduate thesis

Yogyakarta, September 15, 2014

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LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertandatangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma

Nama : Yohanes Paskalis Pae Dale Nomor Mahasiswa : 104214057

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul

EXOTIC METHOD EFFECT ON THE

READABILITY OF

HERCULE POIROT’S

DIALOGUES

IN THREE AGATHA CHRISTIE’S

INDONESIAN TRANSLATED NOVELS

beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Danata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan, dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikannya secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.

Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya.

Dibuat di Yogyakarta

Pada tanggal 15 September 2014

Yang menyatakan,

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“One dies only if he's not anymore in the

hearts and minds of those who know him.”

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank my Jesus Christ for His blessing on me in

the whole process of my undergraduate thesis writing.

My grateful thanks are expressed to my great advisor, Harris Hermansyah

S., S.S., M.Hum., who spent his time to help me finish this undergraduate thesis

with his all bright suggestions. My grateful thanks are also expressed to Dr. B. Ria

Lestari, M.Sc. as my co-advisor and the First Examiner, Adventina Putranti, S.S.,

M.Hum., during the second process of this thesis writing and my thesis defense. I

also want to thank all lecturers of English Letters Department USD for

multifarious knowledge they have given to me during my study period in Sanata

Dharma University. This gratitude is also addressed to staff of Faculty of Letters

for helping me during this process.

Furthermore, I would like to give grateful thanks to my beloved parents

for such great supports, prayers, care, and love; to my mother who always keeps

me remember with this thesis, and to my father who patiently reminds me to pray

for my success. I also want to thank both of my sisters for their time and supports

to me, especially in teaching me how to deal with the MS. Word and other

technical matters. Lastly, my great gratitude is addressed for all my perky friends,

especially those from 2010 year for supporting me and becoming my discussions

field during my thesis writing. May God bless and gives grace to us all. I can say

we are the best in supporting each other.

Inspired by a singer named Jason Mraz, I want to invite you to do what he

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... i

APPROVAL PAGE ... ii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE ... iii

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ... iv

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ... v

MOTTO PAGE ... vi

1. The Accuracy and Readability of Domesticated and Foreignized Translation of Specific Words in Stephenie Meyer‟s Twilght into Indonesian Translation Twilight by Devita Sari ... 8

2. “A Study on The Translation of The Christian-Related Term in The Constitution of The Sisters of Notre Dame” ... 9

3. “Translation Quality Assessment on the Accuracy, Naturleness, and Acceptability of the Translation of Leo Tolstoy‟s „After the Dance‟ into „Setelah Pesta Dansa‟ by Anton Kurnia ... 10

B.Review of Related Theories ... 11

1. Theories of Translation... 11

2. Translation Readability ... 14

3. Translation Methods ... 17

C.Theoretical Frameworks ... 21

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3. Population and Sample ... 33

4. Data Analysis... 35

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS ... 38

A.The Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa ... 39

1. Exotic Method on Christie‟s TL Novels ... 39

2. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Three Agatha Christie‟s TL Novels ... 40

a. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd ... 41

b. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Tirai ... 43

c. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa ... 44

B.The Effect of Exotic Method on the Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Three Christie‟s TL Novels ... 48

1. The Effect of Exotic Method in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd ... 49

2. The Effect of Exotic Method in Tirai ... 58

3. The Effect of Exotic Method in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa ... 63

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ... 70

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 73

APPENDICES ... 76

Appendix 1: Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd ... 76

Appendix 2: Poirot‟s Dialogues in Tirai ... 80

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ABSTRACT

DALE, YOHANES PASKALIS PAE. Exotic Method Effect on the Readability of Hercule Poirot’s Dialogues in Three Agatha Christie’s Indonesian Translated Novels. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014.

This undergraduate thesis focuses on the discussion of a translation method named exotic method which affects the readability of three Indonesian translated novels written by Agatha Christie, titled Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. These three novels are translated by three different translators, but it is indicated that exotic method of translation coined by Hervey and Higgins is applied in translating these three novels. By the application of that method, the French terms in the dialogues of a main character in those novels named Hercule Poirot are not translated. This exotic translation form brings effects on the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues part, especially for the target language reader who are Indonesian who do not speak in foreign language (in this case, the foreign language is French).

There are two problem formulations in this undergraduate thesis. The first

formulated problem is about the readability of Hercule Poirot‟s dialogues in three Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels. The second problem evaluates the effect of applying exotic method in translating three Christie‟s novels from English into

Indonesian that are seen on the readers. These two problem formulations are also dealing with the examination of the selected data on target language readers to

find out the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues and to analyze the effect of applying

exotic method.

The method used in this research is the qualitative method that mostly implicates empirical or field research, although the library research is also done in selecting data for analysis. The empirical research is done to find out the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues and to analyze the effect of applying exotic method. This empirical research includes the process of compiling affective data through questionnaires.

There are two analysis results in this research. The first result of this research is the average scale 1.8 for the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues in three

Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels. Based on readability-rating instrument, it

means Poirot‟s dialogues are in level „quite readable‟. It is concluded in the field

research on the readers using twenty three selected data. The second result reveals

there are two effects seen on target language readers in reading Christie‟s

Indonesian translated novels caused by applying exotic method in translating those novels. The first is the reader‟s misinterpretation in understanding Poirot‟s

purpose, and the second is that the readers skip French terms in reading Poirot‟s

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ABSTRAK

DALE, YOHANES PASKALIS PAE. Exotic Method Effect on the Readability of Hercule Poirot’s Dialogues in Three Agatha Christie’s Indonesian Translated Novels. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2013.

Skripsi ini membahas pengaruh penerapan metode penerjemahan bernama exotic method (metode eksotis) terhadap keterbacaan tiga novel karya Agatha Christie yang diterjemahkan ke dalam versi Indonesia, berjudul Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, dan Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. Ketiga novel itu diterjemahkan oleh tiga penerjemah yang berbeda, namun telah diindikasi bahwa metode penerjemahan eksotis yang dicetuskan Hervey dan Higgins telah diterapkan dalam penerjemahan ketiga novel itu. Karena penerapan metode itu, istilah Prancis dalam dialog tokoh bernama Hercule Poirot tidak diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia. Terjemahan eksotis seperti itu mempengaruhi keterbacaan dialog Poirot, khususnya bagi pembaca bahasa sasaran yang tidak memahami istilah asing yang muncul dalam dialog Poirot (yang dalam objek penelitian ini adalah istilah bahasa Prancis).

Ada dua permasalahan yang dibahas dalam skripsi ini. Permasalahan pertama adalah seberapa terbacanya dialog Hercule Poirot dalam ketiga novel terjemahan karya Agatha Christie yang dibahas. Permasalah kedua membahas pengaruh yang ditimbulkan penerapan metode eksotis dalam penerjemahan ketiga novel karya Agatha Christie dari bahasa Inggris ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia yang merupakan bahasa sasaran. Kedua permasalahan ini juga melibatkan pengujian data utama kepada pembaca untuk menemukan tingkat keterbacaan dialog Poirot, serta untuk menganalisa pengaruh penerapan metode terjemahan eksotis.

Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode kualitatif yang menitikberatkan studi lapangan, walau studi pustaka juga dilakukan untuk menyaring data yang akan dianalisis. Studi lapangan ini juga dilakukan untuk menentukan keterbacaan dialog Poirot dan untuk menganalisis pengaruh penerapan metode eksotis. Studi lapangan ini meliputi pengumpulan data afektif melalui kuesioner.

Terdapat dua hasil analisis dalam penelitian ini. Hasil pertama adalah skala rata-rata 1.8 untuk keterbacaan dialog Poirot dalam tiga novel terjemahan

tersebut, yang berdasarkan tabel tingkat keterbacaan berada pada level „cukup terbaca‟. Hal ini disimpulkan dari analisis lapangan terhadap dua puluh tiga data

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1 CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.Background of the Study

Translation has been used commonly as one kind of communication media

to bridge a gap between two different language and cultures. It means that one

language in a text can be replaced by another language as the target so it can be

understood by people who speak in the target language. Until now, translation has

been used in many fields which include writing delivery message. Many kinds of

text like journals, newspaper or magazines, bible, and literary works can be

translated so they can be read not only in one language. Translation, if it seen

from a translator‟s perspective, is not just noted as a result or product of a

language transfer, but more as a process. In terms of translation as a process, it

can cover the method, strategy, technique, procedure, ideology, and some other

aspect of translating a language. It will be explained that translation method is the

main point of this research, on how it relates with a kind of translation problem

found in translated text.

A text is explained as stretch or writing produced in a given language to

make a coherent whole (Hervey & Higgins, 1992; 14). Any kinds of text can be

translated into many languages. Usually it is done to help the particular texts go

abroad. Literary works are one kind of text that always popular among people.

Narrative literary works like novels are usually sold abroad to gain more

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means they have to be translated first. But, literary works are one kind of text that

has own complexity in its translation process. In translating a literary work like

novels, the translator needs to deal not just with the grammatical aspects, but also

the cultural aspect and the essence contained in each language expression on the

source language text. This matter is also found in the process of translating bible,

but this study discusses about the novels as one kind of narrative literary text.

In some English-Indonesian translation novels written by a famous

English crime writer, Agatha Christie (1890-1976), we can find out that some French terms in the dialogues of one main character named Hercule Poirot are not translated into TL (target language) which is Indonesian. The French terms are

written as well as its original form in the SL (source language) version novels

which are written in English. It is found in most of Christie‟s novels which

involve Hercule Poirot as one of the characters in the related story of the novels.

In addition, the French terms appeared in Hercule Poirot‟sdialogues are caused by

the social background of this character. He is created as a former Belgian police

and has problem with his English, it seen in many of his dialogues and it becomes

his particularity that seen in each of his appearance. By how the French terms are

delivered in TL novels, the researcher defines that a translation method named by

Hervey and Higgins (1992) as exotic method is applied in translating the SL

version novels. The following Poirot‟s dialogue found in Agatha Christie‟s novels

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Source Language (English):

“Ah!” cried Poirot, “never will my English be quite perfect. A curious language. I should

then have said disarranged, n’est-ce pas?

Target Language (Indonesian):

“Ah!” keluh Poirot, “bahasa Inggrisku tidak akan pernah beres. Bahasa yang ganjil.

Seharusnya aku mengatakan mengacau, n’est-ce pas?”

(from Agatha Christie‟s The Murder of Roger Ackroyd and Pembunuhan Atas Roger Ackroyd-translated by Maria Regina).

By what are revealed above, the form of Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s

TL novels have strong possibility to cause readability problem among readers

who do not speak French and it may be difficult for them to understand the

context and meaning of the dialogues. Like in the quotation above, the TL

(Indonesian) readers who do not speak French will not understand the meaning of

n‘est-ce pas, butit keeps written without any translation. In this research, that kind

of translation is done with purpose by the translators of related novels. Hervey and

Higgins, in Thinking French Translation, state that all texts are produced for a purpose, and so it becomes a thoughtful consideration and rational reason to

choose the right methods and practices in translating the SL text (1992; 14). It is

considered that the terms are not translated in order to keep the style of the

character and also the story in the novel itself. The story essence is also main

point needed to be delivered clearly, and as the foreign terms exotically appear in

Poirot‟s dialogue, the TL readers will get the same nuance as what SL text

delivers.

The exotic translated Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s TL novels certainly

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the lack of the TT (target text) which has been translated from the SL text, this

research considers it as a part of the translation process, furthermore as an effect

of a translation. It can be seen that Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s TL novels are

translated using the exotic method. The readability problem for the readers in

reading the TL novels is caused by the application of this method, and it is the

basic concern of this study.

Based on the idea that the difficulty for TL readers in reading Christie‟s

TL novels is to understand the context of Poirot‟s dialogues containing French

terms (or what we can call Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues), this study is

purposed to learn the impact of applying exotic method in translating text. In

which, it is revealed by studying the readability of the translated text. In

reader-oriented scope, this study gathers affective data which will be used to support this

thesis. Eventually, by this study, people can learn more about how observable the

problems of readability that are found in TT as the result of applying exotic

method in translating ST (source text). Translators can have more consideration

on deciding a translation method to translate text, such as novels.

The topic is not studied from all of Agatha Christie‟s novels. Hercule

Poirot appears in more than thirty of Christie‟s novels, but this study is narrowed

only on three of Christie‟s translated novels, which are; Pembunuhan atas Roger

Akcroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. This study takes those three novels as objects by the consideration that the French terms in Poirot‟s

dialogues in those three translated novels are appeared in various word forms like

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leads readability problems among TL readers in understanding Poirot‟s dialogues.

Besides, the data taken from those three novels are enough in order to answer the

formulated problems and conclude this study.

B.Problem Formulation

From the background of the study, this study formulates the problems as

follows:

1. How is the readability of Hercule Poirot‘s dialogues in TL (Indonesian)

version of three Agatha Christie‟s novels?

2. What is the effect of applying exotic method in translating three Agatha

Christie‟s novels on TL readers?

C.Objectives of the Study

As shown above, this study has two objectives. First is to find out the

readability of Hercule Poirot‟s dialogues in three Agatha Christie‟s Indonesian

translated novels. The result of the first objective is used to identify and recognize

the readability problem on those novels, specifically for the TL readers in reading

Poirot‟s dialogues, and so to measure the application of exotic methods in

translating those three novels. The second objective is to evaluate what effect of

applying exotic method in translating those three Agatha Christie‟s novels that are

seen on the TL readers, relating to the application of the method of translation

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D.Definition of Terms

The following explanations are the definition of some particular terms that

used by the writer:

Translation Method: Molina and Albir (2002: 507) described a

translation method as the way of how a translation process can be done related to

the purpose of the translation itself. Translation method affects the whole text.

Exotic method: By Hervey and Higgins (1992), exotic method defined as

the signaling cultural foreignness, where TT marked by exoticism is consistent to

use grammatical and cultural features imported from ST with very minimal

adaptation (1992: 34). It is also called exoticism. The method itself related to the

way or system of how the defined exotic feature applied in a translation process

on a text.

Readability: By the definition stated by Richards (1985: 238) in Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris by Nababan (1999: 62), readability is how easily written materials can be read and understood.

Target Language (TL): Hervey and Higgins describe target language

(TL) as the language into which the original text is to be translated (1992: 15). In

this research, the Christie‟s translated novels as the target text are written in

Indonesian, therefore the TL is Indonesian.

Source Language (SL): In Dictionary of Translation Studies

(Shuttleworth & Cowie, 1997: 157), source language (SL) is described as the

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The SL novels are the original version of TL novels used as the objects of this

research. The original novels are written in English.

Source text (ST): By Hervey & Higgins (1992: 15), it is described as the

text requiring translation. In this research, the source text is not used as object of

study because the readability problem is only found in non-foreigner readers, who

are Indonesian as the TL readers, with no further translation aspect, like accuracy.

The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, Curtain, and HickoryDickory Dock are the ST of

TL novels used for the objects. Those three of Christie‟s novels as ST are used for

supporting contents.

Target text (TT): TT is the text which is a translation of the ST (Hervey

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8 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A. Review of Related Studies

Some studies below support the analysis and methodology of this

research, particularly in investigating translation methods applied in TT and

also about its readability.

1. The Accuracy and Readability of Domesticated and

Foreignized Translation of Specific Words in Stephenie Meyer‟s

Twilight into Indonesian Translation Twilight by Devita Sari.

In that thesis, Maria Agatha Rina Widiastuti discusses about the

accuracy and readability of domesticated and foreignized translation of

specific words found in Stephenie Meyer‟sTwilight in its original version and

its Indonesian translation version (2011: xi). The related specific words are

chosen based on the balance of the number of domesticated and foreignized

words. Her thesis also reveals about two ideologies and strategies in

translating cultural words that studied from Venuti‟s Translator Invisibility

Theory (1995). The accuracy and readability of certain specific terms in the

translation of Meyer‟s Twilight are displayed as the problem formulations of

that thesis (2011: 3).

Widiastuti‟s thesis is circumstantially related with this research by

the point of the second problem formulation in her study discussing about how

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specific words in related novel and about the translation method that also

being discussed in this research. The different focus between the this study

and Widiastuti‟s is that this study focuses only on readability problem on TL

readers and the translation method identified in certain TL novels, while

Widiastuti‟s study focuses on accuracy and readability of translation

ideologies, which by Widiastuti are learned as translation strategies

(domestication and foreignization) on specific terms in her object of study

(2011: 9).

2. A Study on The Translation of The Christian-Related Term in

The Constitution of The Sisters of Notre Dame

Fransisca Margareta Kuil, in her thesis, discusses about how the

Christian terms in the Constitution of the Sisters of Notre Dame are translated

into Indonesian according to the theory of SL-emphasis and TL-emphasis and

how the methods of translation in the translation of Christian related terms

according to Hervey and Higgins‟s theory. In her thesis, she uses the Christian

terms in the Constitution as the object of study and data source of her

qualitative research. She is also comparing the Christian terms with its

translation in the Indonesian version of the Constitution to find out more about

the types and how the translation methods are applied in the translation of

Christian terms (2010: x).

This research relates its theory with Kuil‟s thesis by the point of

how her study discusses about the translation methods and in what way they

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translation product). The translation theory, in its common and concerning to

the method by Hervey and Higgins used in her study is also reviewed in this

research. But somehow this research is different with Kuil‟s by the main point

that this research focuses on the readability problem caused by the French

expressions found in Poirot‟s TL dialogues, in three Agatha Christie‟s

translated novels; Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, while Kuil is studying the translation of Christian Terms in the Constitution of the Sisters of Notre Dame (2010: x).

3. Translation Quality Assessment on the Accuracy, Naturalness, and

the Acceptability of the Translation of Leo Tolstoy‟s “After the Dance”

Into “Setelah Pesta Dansa” by Anton Kurnia.

Mostly in her study, Diah Puspitaratri reveals how her study

assesses the quality of an Indonesian translation comparing to its English text.

It is done to evaluate the accuracy, naturalness, and acceptability of

Indonesian translation in the perspective of target language. The point is to

find the quality assessment of Setelah Pesta Dansa by Anton Kurnia as the Indonesian translation text studied as the main object.

What is adapted from Puspitaratri‟s study for this research is the

method of collecting data and how Puspitaratri analyzed that affective data to

assess the quality of the TL version of Tolystoy‟s After the Dance, which is

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translation quality assessment, but more about the analysis of applying

translation method in translating ST and its effect on readers.

B. Review of Related Theories

The theories used to support the analysis of this study are divided

into theories on translation, translation readability, and translation methods.

This chapter is then also taking detail on exotic method of translation which

is the main topic of this research.

1. Theories of Translation

Along its history, translation itself has been variously defined.

From all kinds of defined understanding on translation, one used to support

this research is Roger T. Bell‟s definition of translation(1991: 23), which is

related with the perspective on translation:

Translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences.

As what is defined above, translation is purely defined by its

common appearance. Once a SL text is translated, the expression and other

semantic forms in it will have another form that is equivalent to the TL. This

research takes one point by Hervey and Higgins (1992) in seeing translation as

a process, which closely relates with the translation method discussed in this

study. They state that what involve in translating are not just two different

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Beside those main ideas, a translation text can possibly bring

expressions in one language into another, with some impact on those

expressions. Mona Baker gives some points about expressions and foreign

words found in a TT which can be seen as a translation product. The points are

used to support the main idea in defining what translation is. As what taken

from In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation, Baker is discussing about cultural terms, state:

Once a word of expression is borrowed into a language, we cannot predict or control its development or the additional meanings it might or might not take on (1992).

It means some terms or expression in a text can possibly have

additional meaning if it translated, or otherwise, some meanings or values of

the terms probably are missed in the TT. It is about how an expression or

cultural term is used in target language. This study sees the consistent use of

French expressions on Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s novel as one of the

translator‟s manner (in base of reader-oriented translation) to keep the essence

of the messages and nuance that delivered in the expressions. Even though the

idea is about translation strategies, we have more discussion on translation

method. The strategy is put as supporting idea to learn a translation method.

Strategy will refers to how the translator encounter the problems in translating

process, but method stands on how the process itself will be, as what

technically applied to translated ST (Molina & Albir: 2002: 507-508). By

different point of view, the form seen in Poirot‟s dialogues has some

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translation strategy in which the translators will keep the cultural terms be

untranslatable (2011: 4). This research agrees with one statement in

Widiastuti‟s work that the consistent use of the foreign semantic form in TT is

purposed to keep the sense of the literary style and bring the TL readers

abroad to understand the idea of the expression.

To understand more about the circumstances of foreign words in a

translated text, this study reviews Andre Lefevere‟s translating studies (1992),

which states:

To „regularize‟ foreign words, to translate them as if they were not

foreign words in the original, may therefore be to detract from the complexity of the original (1992:29).

Some foreign words (and phrases) may no longer sound foreign for the readers of the target-language, in which case they will have lost the effect intended by the author (1992: 29).

If the French terms are translated to the closest equivalence in TL,

Poirot‟s dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Akcroyd, Tirai, and

Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, the word style and several effects of characterization created by the author of the novels (Agatha Christie) will

somehow disappear. These three TL novels are translated by different persons,

but by the form studied on them, the method in translating the novels is

similar.

To find the possible reason of why the foreign expressions are not

translated is not the main focus of this research. That point is beyond the

scope of this research which only learns the aspect of method use relating to

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translators have reasonable decision to put the French terms delivered in TL

novels as well as its original form in the SL novels. By the theories above, the

researcher finds out that the translation language in TL novel is a result of

translator‟s consideration on the reader‟s understandings. If the foreign terms

are translated into TL, it is highly possible that the readers will not get the

effect intended by the novels author, the context, content, style, and nuance of

the terms and so the related character speech will not be appeared as well as

SL.

2. Translation Readability

This research involves readability as one of three important aspects

in assessing translation text, which is accuracy, readability, and acceptability.

It means the researcher learns how the TT as a translation product can be

readable for TL readers. Better translation product should be one which highly

readable and understandable, and so the sense of the TL text can be highly

similar with the original one (ST). To support the study of TL text readability

related to the TL readers, this research uses points discussed in the theory and

practice of translation by Nida and Taber, reviewed in the second chapter of

their book, about reproducing the message (1972: 12):

Translating must aim primarily at “reproducing the message”.

A meaningful equivalent is “tender compassion”, and it is precisely in this manner that many translation attempts to reproduce the significance of this source-language expression.

The nature of translating is what they discussed about. The text message is

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translation text. They stated that it is precisely that a meaningful equivalent is

described as „tender compassion‟, that many translations attempt to reproduce

the significance source-language expression.

Nida and Taber are also conducting that style is secondary to the

content of the text, but indeed, it is important (1972: 14). Novel is a written

literary form. It has content on its narration. The style and essence of its

characters‟ are seen from many points of views according how reader deal on

it, but the strongest are seen on the dialogues. In Christie‟s novels involving

Hercule Poirot as the character, the nuance of Poirot himself is alive by his

dialogues in the story. It is more than just simply described in the narration.

The dialogues identify the characterization of Hercule Poirot. That is one point

considered as how the method applied on the TL novels, but it definitely also

cause a lack in reading for the TL readers who are mostly familiar with local

language. It is defined as readability problem.

This research also uses this theory to support the study because it

has strong connection with the focus of the study which discusses the

understanding of the TL readers on Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues. Based

on the theory used in this research, the primary aim of translation is

„reproducing the message‟, to get the most equivalent content of the text (or

specifically, of the conversations and dialogues in the text) in the translation

result in TL novel the foreign expressions should be delivered as its original

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reflected the same concept and context so the expressions can be understood

well by the TL readers and TT (target text) can be readable.

The first formulated problem discussed in this research examines

the readability problem among TL readers of Christie‟s novels. We can

assume that the TL readers who do not speak French will surely not

understand about the French terms on Poirot‟s dialogues, but it is considered

that the idea of Poirot‟s dialogues itself can still be understood even after

exotic method is applied. This research reveals that there is weakness on using

exotic method in translating three Christie‟s SL novels into the TL version.

The application of this method affects the readability of TT, especially on

reading Poirot‟s dialogues part. As to examine the readability of TL readers,

this research uses „readability rating-instrument‟, one modification of

Nababan‘s „accuracy rating-instrument‟. The researcher adapts the table form

from one of this study‟s related studies, the one from Widiastuti‟s study

(2011), which also learns about accuracy and readability on translation with

modifications on it.

This research uses the „readability rating-instrument‟ only, with the

scale (1) up to (3), with indicator level; readable, quite readable, and not

readable. The specific scale that then accumulates the readability rank of each

data while studying the TL readers on the field will be displayed later in the

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The following table is the form of „readability-rating instrument are at least two terms that cannot be understood by the TL readers.

3 not readable

The TT term is hard to read. All of the terms of translation cannot be understood by the TL readers.

The „readable‟ rating refers to the text which is easy to read in

terms of the meaning of the whole terms and also its context. The „quite

readable‟ rating refers to the text that is still can be read with such condition,

that there are at least two terms in the text that cannot be understood by the

readers. The context of quite readable text can still be understood. The „not

readable‟ rating refers to the text which is hard to read because all of terms in

the text cannot be understood by readers. The context involved in the text is

not understood

3. Translation Methods

This research relates the exotic method of translation with the readability

aspect on Christie‟s TL novels. While reviewing the methods of the

translation, this research also takes some points of translation strategies

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done on a process of translation, besides the translation technique and

procedures.

In their journal, Molina and Albir put some points about literal translation, which occurs when there is an exact structural, lexical, and morphological equivalence between two languages. It is described that there

are kinds of lead strategy of translating a text, which are: borrowing, calque

and literal word- for-word translation (2002: 499). The „borrowing‟ is

mentioned as one of the translation strategy, when a word taken directly from

another language that is applied in translating ST. It somehow has same

appearance like Hervey & Higgins‟ exotic method. But while the „borrowing‟

is applied on a text as result of finding suitable solution for the translation

unit, the exotic method is more functioned as the technical manner to reach the

aim of the translation itself, it affects the whole text.

Logically, method and functions should function harmoniously in the text. For example, if the aim of a translation method is to produce a foreignizing version, then borrowing will be one of the most frequently used (Molina & Albir: 2002: 508).

Foreignizing version there means how the ST filled by the foreign

features in languages or illustration of the text is translated into the TT along

with those foreign features, with less adaptation. The term itself is also

reviewed in other studies with different name, like what called as

Foreignization by Venuti (1995) which reviewed by Munday in Introducing Translation Studies (2001:146-148).

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Foreignization, as the review of Venuti in Munday‟s Introducing Translation

Studies (2001: 147);

Foreignization, on the other hand, „entails choosing a foreign text and

developing a translation method along lines which are excluded by dominant cultural values in the target language‟.

By what is seen on the text, the terms in TT brings the readers

abroad with SL terms, which the cultural terms in SL will be left as what it

formed in SL text without being translated.

Mainly in this research, theories of translation methods are taken

from Hervey and Higgins‘ Thinking Translation; A Course on Translation

Methods: French to English (1992), in its third chapter, about cultural issues in translation. In that part, Hervey and Higgins mention some various type of

cultural transposition to analyze SL which the writer defines it as the way

chosen by the translator to transfer or to translate the SL text into TL text, the

methods are explained as follows:

a) Exoticism

This type is what the researcher defines as exotic method. It is also

simply one form of „borrowing‟, but specifically Hervey & Higgins (1992)

name it exoticism, or exotic method. This is a kind of cultural transposition

which has the extreme options in signaling cultural foreignness in a TT. An

ST marked by exoticism is consistent in using grammatical and cultural

features imported from ST with minimal adaptation. This method brings the

ST‟s features exotically on TT. It constantly signals the exotic source culture

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A TL text which exoticism applies has an impact on the TL public.

The ST could have had on an SL public, from whom the text has fewer

features of a different culture (1992: 34).

b)Cultural Transplantation

Cultural transplantation, whose extreme forms are hardly

translations at all, but it is more like adaptation, that the wholesale

transplanting of the ST setting, resulting in the entire text being rewritten in a

target culture setting (1992: 34).

c) Calque

A calque is an expression which consists of TL words and is

acceptable as TL syntax, but is unidiomatic in the TL because it is modeled on

the structure of an SL expression. This lack of idiomaticity may be purely

lexical and relatively harmless, or it may be more generally grammatical

(1992: 34-35).

d)Cultural borrowing

Cultural borrowing is different with the other types because it does

not involve adaptation of the SL expression into TL forms. Translators often

turn to cultural borrowing when it is impossible to find a suitable indigenous

TL expression. Cultural borrowing only presents the translator with a true

choice in cases where previous translation practice has not already firmly

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e) Communicative translation

Simply explained, communicative translation is usually adopted for

all cliches, idioms, proverbs, etc. which have readily identifiable

communicative equivalents in the TL. Communicative translation is somehow

appropriate in the context because it renders the situational impact with TL

expressions (1992: 32, 36)

C. Theoretical Framework

All theories that are previously explained help the analysis of this

research. They are also needed to answer the formulated problems before the

researcher can conclude this study.

Some theories in Hervey and Higgins‟ Thinking Translation; second

edition, in its third chapter about cultural issues, show a clear point of how we see translation as a process, which then can be related with the methods and

strategies of translation used in translating a SL text into TL text. Mostly, the

discussion of exotic method is also strongly related to their theories (1992:

34). The researcher studies Foreignizationfrom Venuti‟s theory (1995), in its

relation with the exotic method as how they are involved in a translation

process, but still Hervey and Higgins‟ exotic method is the main point in this

study. Some points about foreign words by Mona Baker become a review of

the appearance of foreign words such as expressions in TL text.

Methodology reviewed in Widiastuti‟s thesis, in assessing translation

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answering the first problem formulation, especially in gathering the affective

data. Hervey and Higgins‟s exotic method is also reviewed more to analyze

the second formulated problems, as well as the other point about foreign

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23

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

D. Areas of Research

The area of research in this study involves the analysis on a

translation effect, oriented on the TL readers as the client of the translation

product. Although it is still in the part of quality assessment, this research

narrows the focus on translation readability, which relates with the study of

translation effect caused by the application of certain translation method in

translating text. The translation effect is evaluated by studying the TT and

how it is read by TL readers, it is still seen as a part or at least a result of a

translation process. A translation process, in overcoming the cultural

equivalence between SL and TL, includes two types of activity, which are;

understanding ST and formulating the TT (Hervey & Higgins: 1992: 15). The

process itself lead translator to decide what method will be applied in

translating ST into TT. Based on the specific problem discussed as the topic of

this research, exotic method is the applied method which brings effect to the

readability of related TT. This research is concerned on studying the TT

(target text) and TT readers.

E. Object of the Study

Objects of the study used for this research are the specific

dialogues of Hercule Poirot in three Agatha Christie‟s TL novels titled;

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Mahasiswa. The specific dialogues mentioned above are the Poirot‟s exotic

translated dialogue (in which exotic method is applied) in those three

Christie‟s translated novels. In which the French terms appear without any

translation in those TL dialogues.

The first formulated problem in this research is concerned with a

readability study, so it mostly focuses on a text which has been translated from

the ST to learn how readable it is. The ST (source text), which in this study are

the three of Agatha Christie‟s SL novels; The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (ST

of Pembunuhan atas Roger Akcroyd), Curtain (ST of Tirai), and Hickory Dickory Death (ST of Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa)were not used as the object of the study because they are not read by TL readers. Problem

formulations are based on TT learning.

F. Method of the Study

In collecting theories and data in order to answer the problem

formulations, two kinds of method are used in this research; library research

and empirical research.

On library research which in term of translation studies is defined

as a method of collecting data in form of written materials, all supporting

ideas and also the data were collected from the theory books, journals, articles,

and academic papers that were relevant and can be used to support this

research. The supporting information used for this research was also taken by

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It gave more comprehension on the research object. However, the main data

for analysis were taken only from the TL novels. Related to this study, the

library research particularly used to gather the base theories of translation

itself, theories of readability in translation, the theories of translation methods

and strategies. Some academic papers from graduated students and printing

sources were also used as the related studies for a help to consider the research

method in collecting and delivering data, especially in analysis.

The empirical or field research put more attention on how to

collect data on the field to seek evidence, which include the direct observation

on TT readers by distributing questionnaires. Affective data that has been

collected were then also been studied to get readers‟ preferences to support the

thesis in answering the formulated problems and conclude the study. By this

field study, this research can get some responses from TL readers related to

readability aspect of Christie‟s TL novels.

The data which was collected by these methods are primary data

because they are directly collected from the related sources and studied on the

field by the researcher. It includes data selecting and processing.

G. Research Procedure

1. Types of Data

In the analysis process, the collected data were divided into two

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first one is called as objective data, that are taken from texts and the second is

affective data taken from the field research.

a. Objective Data

The elaboration of the data source is defined as objective data.

Objective data of this research were taken from three translated novels written

by a famous English crime writer, Agatha Christie, and each of the novels was

translated into Bahasa Indonesia by different translators. These three novels

titled; Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa were all published by PT Gramedia Pustaka in Jakarta

Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd was translated from Murder of Roger Ackroyd by Maria Regina. It has been published by PT Gramedia Pustaka for three times. Firstly it published in July 1979, secondly in February

1984, thirdly in November 1990. The novel was divided into 27 chapters and

consists of 447 pages. It was famously told as the most controversial

Christie‟s masterpiece which includes Hercule Poirot by its story twist.

Hercule Poirot character was mostly appeared in the whole part of the story,

so his dialogue quantity were high, with the result on what seen in

Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, French terms were plentiful found in his dialogues.

Tirai was translated from Curtain by Dra. Gianny Buditjahja. It was published in 1982, divided into 20 chapters and consists of 320 pages.

Tirai or Curtain was the last novel of Agatha Christie appearing Hercule

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was dead in the end of the story of this novel. It was told as the last case for

Hercule Poirot.

Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa was translated from Hickory Dickory Dock by Julanda Tantani. It was published in 1993 by PT Gramedia Pustaka, consists of 23 chapters and 312 pages. The title of its ST novel;

Hickory Dickory Dock was also titled as Hickory Dickory Death by other

publishers. The words „Hickory Dickory Dock‟ itself was adapted from a

popular English nursery rhyme.

b. Affective Data

As mentioned in the method of the study,this study is described as

a qualitative study. Miles and Huberman in Qualitative Data Analysis: an expended sourcebook stated that qualitative data is mostly performed in the form of words, not in form of number (1994:1). So, as a qualitative study, the

data and result of the study are performed as explanations and descriptive

review.

The data used for this study were taken from the related TL novels

(as known as TT), they are three of Agatha Christie‟s Indonesian translated

novels involving Hercule Poirot character, titled Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. The analysis unit taken from TL novels as the data are Poirot‟s dialogues which contain French

terms, it is then be used to identify the translation method in TL texts.

To study the readability aspect, the researcher did a survey on TL

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foundation of this research was based on the observation on the readability

aspect of TT (Christie‟s TL novels). Qualitative approach was done on the TT

to study its readability.

This research involves TL readers as one of the fields and areas to

gather data. The readability rank of Pembunuhan Atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai,

and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa was examined by distributing the questionnaires to twenty five respondents who were selected after considering

the reader‟s profile of translated fiction readers. The reader‟s profile was used

as qualification in selecting proper respondents for this research.

The proper respondent for this research are described as follows;

the respondents were 18-25 aged university students (from any study

programs), men and women are allowed. They should at least have read more

than three different fiction stories in any genres and forms (such as short

stories, novels, or texts from internet source which officially published),

whether those are the popular reading or not. That point was needed for the

qualification to reach the right respondent with good capability on reading

narrative reading, like novels, whether in understanding the language aspect

and also the story content.

The respondents were those who do not speak French. This last

point was aimed at fitting the respondent as the right TL readers who were the

field of this study. It has been considered that the readability problem in

reading TL novels is only possibly happen among the TL readers who do not

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became affective data. The function of the data for this study itself was

explained in data collection.

2. Data Collection

It has been revealed in method of the study that all the data were

collected through the library research and the empirical research which focus

on the field of data colleting process. This part explains more detailed form of

data collecting itself. The data collection was conducted through the TL text

analysis and the survey on TL readers by the questionnaire.

a. TL Texts Analysis

Before constructing the questionnaire to collect the affective data,

TL novels (Pembunuhan Atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa) have been read and analyzed to get better understanding on the background language used in Hercule Poirot‘s

dialogues. It then helped the researcher identifying what translation method

and strategy applied in the TL texts (TL novels). Understanding on the whole

story of TL texts was also needed. It was very useful to find the foreign

cultural terms (which in this research is French) that become one main aspect

of readability problem found in related TL texts. Reading the TL novels was

also done to split the specific part in the novels which then used as data. They

are Poirot‟s dialogues containing French terms. The dialogues were then split

again according to the research needs, then they were used as samples or we

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b.Questionnaire

To examine the readability of TT, especially for Hercule Poirot‘s

dialogues which include French terms, this research used questionnaire in

gathering data.

The main data were taken from specific Poirot‟s dialogues which

then were listed in then questionnaires and distributed to the respondents.

Some direct interviews with the respondents were also done to get preferences

which then helped this study to answer the second problem formulation. In

terms of readability, the questionnaires were functionalized to measure the TL

readers understanding on Poirot‟s dialogues that contain French terms related

to the topic of this study, also to affirm the readability problem of the text

itself.

In the questionnaire, the scoring system was adapted from

Nababan‟s‗readability rating-instrument‘. Scale (1) up to (3) is given to score

the readability rank of Poirot‟s dialogues in related novels; Pembunuhan Atas

Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa with indicator (1) for readable, (2) for quite readable, (3) for not readable. The

related dialogues need to be learned as it is called TL text analysis. It then

resulted as the list of quotations of TL text in questionnaires which the

respondents give score on. By the questionnaires, this study found out the

readability scale of the TT which exotic method is applied.

As to answer the second problem formulation, in the

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translation in each French term was given. It named as table 2, while Table 1

was the list of original quotations of Poirot‘s dialogues in the TL novels

where the French terms are not translated at all. The TT quality as a

translation text and the applying method were analyzed by its readability to

help analyzing the effect of the applying exotic method on the readability of

the text. The additional translations of French terms given on Poirot‟s

dialogues in table 2 were obtained from some credible sources, including dictionaries and French speakers.

The questionnaires used Indonesian because they were distributed

among the TL readers who are Indonesian, and this research analyzes the

applied exotic method on TL novels which the TL itself is Indonesia. The

example below shows how the data was placed on the questionnaires.

Example (1.1) delivers the data view of table 1 of the questionnaire, while example (1.2) delivers the data view of table 2.

Example 1.1 Data View on Questionnaire (table 1)

No Tsa1 Skala

1 2 3 1. “Voila ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot.

“Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” (A/7)

No : Data Number

Tsa : „Teks Sasaran‟, it refers to TT (Target Text)

Skala : Scale

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Example 1.2 Data View on Questionnaire (table 2)

No Tsa2 Skala

1 2 3 1. “Voila ce qui est curieux—itulah yang

janggal,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada

orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti

itu.” (A/7)

The data is in form of Poirot‟s dialogue in Christie‟s TL novels. Its

readability is then be examined by the respondents by giving scale on that

quotation‟s readability. The readability rating indicator for each of the scale

was also displayed in the questionnaires to supply better understanding for the

respondents on how to do the questionnaires.

Data code was not displayed on the questionnaire to make it

simpler for the respondents. It was displayed on data elaboration in the next

chapter. The information of the data in the questionnaire was showed in

simpler code, which was Novel/Chapter (see on example 1.1: A/7) and it has also been explained in the questionnaire. The alphabet indicates from what

novel the data was taken. A represents Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, B represents Tirai, C represents Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. The number indicates the chapter where the data was taken from.

Data code was mentioned in the analysis result. The view of data

result was different with data view on questionnaires, it had completed with

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Example 1.3 Data Result

No Code TT Scale

1. 05/TT/A/7/132 “Voilá ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot.

“Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.”

1.8

In which,

Code : Data code

TT : Target Text

Scale : Score/Scale result (based on readability-rating indicator)

05 : Data number in Appendix

A : Indicator code; to show the data source. In which, A represents Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd B represents Tirai

C represents Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa

7 : Novel Chapter

132 : Novel Page

3. Population and Sample

By reading and collecting data from TL novels as the objects, the

researcher concluded the population and sample of data that then were used in

the analysis. All Poirot‟s dialogues appearing French terms in all part of

Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa are the population, the wider field to be narrowed then as the main data. There are a hundred and thirty six (136) data in the population The data

population of this research were the Poirot‟s dialogues in three Christie‟s TL

novels only, in spite of the fact that French terms are also found on several

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narrator speech, but in very slight number. The samples were the twenty three

(23) data selected out of the population. It was then used as the main data for

the analysis. For further information, all Poirot‟s dialogues with French terms

in it were counted in population, whether the terms are pronouns, phrases,

idioms, expressions.

The twenty three samples were taken from whole data population

found from three Christie‟s TL novels. This research only took twenty three

data because the number of whole data would be too much to be analyzed.

The small number of data would simplify the questionnaires building and

analysis process. In selecting the main data, random sampling was used, but it

was used by these considerations; First, exotic translation form in Poirot‟s

dialogues were not appeared in the whole chapters in the novels that if the

sample is taken by kind of category like part of speech, the number of each

would be far different from each other, and so main data were better to be

taken randomly. Second point is that many of the data have the same form,

which means many of the French terms in that Poirot‟s dialogues were exactly

similar and repeatedly appeared in Poirot‟s dialogues. So then the researcher

only took one of them that were similar to be part of the main data.

Beside those points, in sampling the main data from population, the

researcher selected out Poirot‟s dialogues with most rarely-heard French terms

for TL readers (Indonesian), especially for the dialogues appearing French

expressions, and the rest were the dialogues appearing simple French terms

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point above). Some discussions with French speakers were also done to help

the researcher selected twenty three main data to ensure that those selected

data have certain quality to be analyzed.

4. Data Analysis

In analyzing the data, some steps were done. First of all, the

researcher read the related TL novels to find the specific problems (in terms of

topic of this research) and selected out certain parts that were then used as

data. The next step, to analyze the related data in the field, it is needed to form

questionnaire which then was assessed by respondents to collect affective

data. In analyzing the affective data that has been collected, the scale scores

given by the respondents were then been calculated.

The affective data (as the result of respondents‟ assessment) were

analyzed as follows: the researcher calculated the scale assessed by

respondents of each related data (Poirot‟s certain dialogues) given in the

questionnaire, it was used to find the scale of each data and average scale of

entire twenty three main data. That scale was rated as the readability rank of

Poirot‟s dialogues in TL novels which then affirmed the answer of the first

problems formulation. For example, if the final scale of the whole data is (1),

it means the specific dialogues in TT are „readable‟. And so the other

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Table 2. Readability-rating

Scale Readability Rating 1 - 1.6

Readable

1.7 - 2.3

Quite Readable

2.4 - 3

Not Readable

By the assessment on the result of collected data, this research had

an understanding on the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues on the TL novels.

The effect of applying exotic method on a translation text discussed as the

second formulation was also confirmed by the result of questionnaires‟ TT-2

as supporting data. It was compared with the result of the TT-1. The final

results were analyzed and observed then to draw the answer of second

problem formulation.

The discussions of the effect caused by the application of exotic

method in translating Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s novels were included in

data elaboration. The conclusion of this research was revealed after all phases

above been done. Below are the examples of analyzed data view.

Example 2.1TT-1 Data Result

No Code TT-1 Scale

1.1 05/TT/A/7/132 “Voilá ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot.

“Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.”

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Example 2.2TT-2 Data Result

No Code TT-2 Scale

1.2 05/TT/A/7/132 “Voilá ce qui est curieux—itulah yang

janggal,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak

ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan

posisi seperti itu.”

1.2

It has been explained that ST are not analyzed because this

research focuses only on the readability aspect of translation. The scale result

was the result of accumulated scale on the data in questionnaires assessed by

the respondents. TT-2 was only made for the twenty three main data to be

Figur

Table 1. „Readability Rating Instrument‟

Table 1.

Readability Rating Instrument . View in document p.28
Table 2. Readability-rating

Table 2.

Readability rating . View in document p.47
Table 3. Readability Indicator

Table 3.

Readability Indicator . View in document p.52
Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Three Chritie‟s TL NovelsTable 3
Readability of Poirot s Dialogues in Three Chritie s TL NovelsTable 3 . View in document p.57
Table 4.  Readability Scale Result (TT-1 & TT-2)

Table 4.

Readability Scale Result TT 1 TT 2 . View in document p.79

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