Behind buck`s decision to go into the wild as seen in Jack London`s the call of the wild.

Teks penuh

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vii ABSTRACT

Purnomo, Carolina. Karisa. 2016. Behind Buck’s Decision to Go into the Wild as seen in Jack London’s The Call of the Wild. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

This study analyzes the novel written by Jack London entitled The Call of the Wild. What attracts the writer to explore the novel is concerned with the conflicts and the motivations of the main character which are reflected from the author’s experiences. The two formulated problems to answer in this study are (1) what types of conflicts are faced by the main character Buck as seen in London’s The Call of the Wild, and (2) what motivates the main character Buck to go into the wild as seen in London’s The Call of the Wild.

The approach adapted is a synthesis of psychological one, particularly by Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman, and Willingham, to explore the psychological conditions of the character by observing the literary aspects, such as, dialogues, conflicts, setting, motivations, and symbol. The theories to deal with the conflicts and the motivations are extracted from the theory of conflicts by Hammond and the theory of motivations by Thompson. The nature of this study is the library research.

Based on the analysis of Buck, the main character, in terms of the conflicts and the motivations, the findings are summarized as follows. There are two types of conflicts, namely the internal conflict and the external conflict. The internal conflict, for example, is when Buck surrender into the Law of Club. The example of the external conflict is the conflicts between Buck and Spitz. In terms of motivations, there are two types of motivations, namely the intrinsic motivation and the extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic motivation is exemplified when Buck wants to be free like the hairy man, while the extrinsic motivation is found when Buck meets a timber wolf.

In conclusion, Buck, the main character in the novel, is an extraordinary dog. He succeeds to overcome both types of conflicts, and becomes a mature and a strong dog. Meanwhile, what motivates Buck to go into the wild are his internal consciousness and the other characters’ encouragement. Therefore, these conflicts and motivations are interconnected to push Buck to decide to go into the wild. The moral value of the story is that Buck’s ability and strength to overcome his conflicts can inspire readers to build their own strong character and moral disposition.

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ABSTRAK

Purnomo, Carolina. Karisa. 2016. Behind Buck’s Decision to Go into the Wild as seen in Jack London’s The Call of the Wild. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Penelitian ini menganalisis novel karya Jack London berjudul The Call of the Wild. Penulis memilih novel ini karena ia tertarik pada konflik dan motivasi yang dialami karakter utama yang merupakan refleksi dari cerita hidup pengarang novel ini sendiri. Studi ini bertujuan menjawab dua rumusan masalah, yaitu (1) apa tipe konflik yang dialami oleh karakter utama Buck dalam novel karya London yang berjudulkan The Call of the Wild, dan (2) apa motivasi yang diperoleh karakter utama Buck yang mendorongnya untuk pergi ke alam liar dalam novel karya London berjudulkan The Call of the Wild.

Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah pendekatan psikologi yang merupakan kutipan dari Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman, dan Willingham. Pendekatan psikologi dalam sebuah karya literatur bertujuan mengeksplorasi keadaan psikologis karakter di dalam novel dengan mengobservasi aspek literatur yang tercermin dalam dialog, konfllik, setting, motivasi, dan symbol. Teori yang digunakan untuk menganalisis konflik dan motivasi adalah teori konflik oleh Hammond, dan teori motivasi oleh Thompson. Metode studi yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah metode penelitian kepustakaan.

Berdasarkan analisis, terdapat dua tipe konflik yang dialami oleh Buck, yaitu konflik internal dan konflik eksternal. Contoh konflik internal adalah Buck memilih tunduk pada Peraturan Cambuk. Sedangkan contoh konflik eksternal adalah pertarungan antara Buck dan Spitz. Terdapat dua tipe motivasi yang diperoleh Buck, yaitu motivasi intern dan motivasi ekstern. Contoh motivasi intern ialah Buck ingin hidup bebas seperti pria dalam imajinasinya. Contoh motivasi ekstern adalah motivasi yang Buck peroleh dari seekor serigala cokelat. Berdasarkan analisis disimpulkan bahwa Buck ialah seekor anjing yang istimewa. Konflik-konflik yang ia hadapi menjadikannya anjing yang dewasa dan kuat. Selanjutnya, yang memotivasi Buck untuk tinggal di alam liar adalah suara hatinya sendiri dan dorongan dari karakter-karakter lain di sekitarnya. Maka dari itu disimpulkan bahwa konflik dan motivasi yang dialami Buck berhubungan satu sama lain mendorongnya untuk pergi menetap di alam liar. Nilai moral dari novel ini yang menunjukkan kemampuan Buck menghadapi konflik-konflik yang ia hadapi dapat menginspirasi pembaca untuk membentuk karakter mereka sendiri dan juga sebagai pengingat akan nilai-nilai moral.

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BEHIND BUCK’S DECISION TO GO INTO THE WILD

AS SEEN IN JACK LONDON’S THE CALL OF THE WILD

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Carolina Karisa Purnomo

Student Number: 121214053

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

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BEHIND BUCK’S DECISION TO GO INTO THE WILD

AS SEEN IN JACK LONDON’S

THE CALL OF THE WILD

A

SARJANA PENDIDIKAN

THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the

Sarjana Pendidikan

Degree

in English Language Education

By

Carolina Karisa Purnomo

Student Number: 121214053

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

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iv

“He was a killer, a thing that preyed, living on the things that lived, unaided, alone, by virtue of his own strength and prowess, surviving triumphantly in a hostile environment where only the strong survive.” - The Call of the Wild

“A man with a club is a law-maker, a man to be obeyed, but not necessarily conciliated.”

- The Call of the Wild

“In vague ways he remembered back to the youth of the breed, to the time wild dogs ranged in packs through the primeval forest, and killed their meat as they ran it down.”

- The Call of the Wild

I dedicate this thesis to:

God

The universe

My big family

My beloved people around me

&

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ABSTRACT

Purnomo, Carolina. Karisa. 2016. Behind Buck’s Decision to Go into the Wild as

seen in Jack London’s The Call of the Wild. Yogyakarta: English Language

Education Study Program, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

This study analyzes the novel written by Jack London entitled The Call of the Wild. What attracts the writer to explore the novel is concerned with the conflicts and the motivations of the main character which are reflected from the author’s experiences. The two formulated problems to answer in this study are (1) what types of conflicts are faced by the main character Buck as seen in London’s

The Call of the Wild, and (2) what motivates the main character Buck to go into the wild as seen in London’s The Call of the Wild.

The approach adapted is a synthesis of psychological one, particularly by Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman, and Willingham, to explore the psychological conditions of the character by observing the literary aspects, such as, dialogues, conflicts, setting, motivations, and symbol. The theories to deal with the conflicts and the motivations are extracted from the theory of conflicts by Hammond and the theory of motivations by Thompson. The nature of this study is the library research.

Based on the analysis of Buck, the main character, in terms of the conflicts and the motivations, the findings are summarized as follows. There are two types of conflicts, namely the internal conflict and the external conflict. The internal conflict, for example, is when Buck surrender into the Law of Club. The example of the external conflict is the conflicts between Buck and Spitz. In terms of motivations, there are two types of motivations, namely the intrinsic motivation and the extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic motivation is exemplified when Buck wants to be free like the hairy man, while the extrinsic motivation is found when Buck meets a timber wolf.

In conclusion, Buck, the main character in the novel, is an extraordinary dog. He succeeds to overcome both types of conflicts, and becomes a mature and a strong dog. Meanwhile, what motivates Buck to go into the wild are his internal consciousness and the other characters’ encouragement. Therefore, these conflicts and motivations are interconnected to push Buck to decide to go into the wild. The moral value of the story is that Buck’s ability and strength to overcome his conflicts can inspire readers to build their own strong character and moral disposition.

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viii ABSTRAK

Purnomo, Carolina. Karisa. 2016. Behind Buck’s Decision to Go into the Wild as

seen in Jack London’s The Call of the Wild. Yogyakarta: Program Studi

Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Penelitian ini menganalisis novel karya Jack London berjudul The Call of the Wild. Penulis memilih novel ini karena ia tertarik pada konflik dan motivasi yang dialami karakter utama yang merupakan refleksi dari cerita hidup pengarang novel ini sendiri. Studi ini bertujuan menjawab dua rumusan masalah, yaitu (1) apa tipe konflik yang dialami oleh karakter utama Buck dalam novel karya London yang berjudulkan The Call of the Wild, dan (2) apa motivasi yang

diperoleh karakter utama Buck yang mendorongnya untuk pergi ke alam liar

dalam novel karya London berjudulkan The Call of the Wild.

Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah pendekatan psikologi yang merupakan kutipan dari Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman, dan Willingham. Pendekatan psikologi dalam sebuah karya literatur bertujuan mengeksplorasi keadaan psikologis karakter di dalam novel dengan mengobservasi aspek literatur yang tercermin dalam dialog, konfllik, setting, motivasi, dan symbol. Teori yang digunakan untuk menganalisis konflik dan motivasi adalah teori konflik oleh Hammond, dan teori motivasi oleh Thompson. Metode studi yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah metode penelitian kepustakaan.

Berdasarkan analisis, terdapat dua tipe konflik yang dialami oleh Buck, yaitu konflik internal dan konflik eksternal. Contoh konflik internal adalah Buck memilih tunduk pada Peraturan Cambuk. Sedangkan contoh konflik eksternal

adalah pertarungan antara Buck dan Spitz. Terdapat dua tipe motivasi yang

diperoleh Buck, yaitu motivasi intern dan motivasi ekstern. Contoh motivasi intern ialah Buck ingin hidup bebas seperti pria dalam imajinasinya. Contoh motivasi ekstern adalah motivasi yang Buck peroleh dari seekor serigala cokelat.

Berdasarkan analisis disimpulkan bahwa Buck ialah seekor anjing yang istimewa. Konflik-konflik yang ia hadapi menjadikannya anjing yang dewasa dan kuat. Selanjutnya, yang memotivasi Buck untuk tinggal di alam liar adalah suara hatinya sendiri dan dorongan dari karakter-karakter lain di sekitarnya. Maka dari itu disimpulkan bahwa konflik dan motivasi yang dialami Buck berhubungan satu sama lain mendorongnya untuk pergi menetap di alam liar. Nilai moral dari novel ini yang menunjukkan kemampuan Buck menghadapi konflik-konflik yang ia hadapi dapat menginspirasi pembaca untuk membentuk karakter mereka sendiri dan juga sebagai pengingat akan nilai-nilai moral.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, my gratitude goes to God for His abundantly blessings. This thesis is done for the most part because of His never ending love for me. There were times when I doubted myself, yet He succeeded to make me believe I could do the impossible.

My next gratitude goes to Agustinus Hardi Prasetyo, S.Pd., M.A. as my beloved advisor, for his advice, his patience, his time, and his jokes which really help me during the time I wrote this thesis. I would like to express my gratitude to my family, my mother, my father, my sister, and my brother, for their endless support. I would like to address my special gratitude to my twin sister, Marselina Karina Purnomo, for her wise words, her advice, and her guidance. She is

always there to make sure I walk on the right track and not lost.

Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to all of my friends of English Language Education Study Program batch 2012, for giving me so many colors during our togetherness. I also would like to address my special gratitude to Kasih Ratnaningtyas and my senior Nikolas Diego Caristra, who gave their advice and consolation. My endless gratitude is also addressed to Uli, Ocak, Ucrit, Flo, Rosi, Galih, Kak Erlin, and my favorite cafe Sessanta, for

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x

to my beloved people, whose names cannot be mentioned one by one, all of you had been my rocks through the difficult times I had and my heart will always be glad for all the things you did for me.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE... i

APPROVAL PAGES ... ii

DEDICATION PAGE... iv

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... v

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ... vi

ABSTRACT ... vii

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ... 7

A.Review of Related Theories ... 7

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xii

CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS ... 15

A.The Conflicts Faced by the Main Character ... 15

1. The Internal Conflicts Faced by the Main Character ... 15

a. Surrender into the Law of Club... 16

b. Survive the Law of Fang ... 17

2. The External Conflicts Faced by the Main Character ... 18

a. The Conflict between Buck and Manuel’s Friend…………18

b. The Conflict between Buck and the Four Men in A Saloon ... 20

c. The Conflict between Buck and the Man in the Red Sweater………..20

d. The Conflict between Buck and Spitz ... 22

e. The Conflict between Buck and Hal ... 30

f. The Conflict between Buck and Black Burton ... 33

g. The Conflict between Buck and the Yeehats ... 34

B.The Motivations of the Main Character... 36

1. The Intrinsic Motivation of the Main Character ... 36

a. Buck Wants to be Free like the Hairy Man ... 37

2. The Extrinsic Motivations of the Main Character ... 38

a. Extrinsic Motivation of Buck from A Timber Wolf ... 38

b. Extrinsic Motivation of Buck from A Pack of Wolves ... 40

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS... 44

A.Conclusions ... 44

B.Suggestions ... 45

REFERENCES ... 47

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Page

Appendix A: The Summary of The Call of the Wild……….49

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1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of five sections, namely the background of the study, the problem formulation, the objectives of the study, the benefits of the study, and the definition of terms. The first section, the background of the study, explains the reasons why the writer chooses literature and a certain novel to be analyzed in this study. The second section, the problem formulation, mentioned the problems that the writer aims to answer. The third section, the objectives of the study, will discuss the objectives that are going to be discussed in this study. The fourth section, the benefits of the study, discusses the benefit of the study for the writer herself, for other people, and for education. The fifth section, the definition of terms, will explain the meaning of the terms which are used in the study.

A. Background of the Study

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used in many occasions and in many aspects in the world, such as, education, politic, and society. There are two forms of literature, namely the written form and the spoken form. In written form, literature can be in a form of a poem, a novel, and a short story/novella.

There are many aspects of literature that compose a novel. Plot, character, setting, conflict, motivation, and language feature, are the examples of aspects that compose a novel. Conflict and motivation are two of many aspects that exist in a novel; both of them can help the reader to understand the story. One the one hand, a conflict, something that builds the story itself, is a big part of a novel. In a novel, it is very possible that more than one conflict occurs, the more the conflicts there are, the more complex the story will become. On the other hand, a motivation is a thing that pushes a character in a novel to achieve his goal. As a human being, we live our life to achieve our goals, something that pushes human to do something or achieve something is what called as a motivation. Literature, as stated by Dyke (1922), represents the life of a man, so is a character in a novel. In order for a character to achieve his goal, a motivation is something which pushes a character to achieve his goal.

In this study, the writer chooses a novel entitled The Call of the Wild

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describe both the suffering of a man, and a dog, in this man-eat-man world. Instead of using the author himself as the main character, Jack London manifests himself in another being. In short, the author is not only sharing his experience of the harsh world he encounters, but also the harsh world that other beings might also encounter. The writer believes that reading this novel and seeing the world from another living creature’s perspective is interesting, such thing can inspire us to be able to feel “others’ shoes,” even animals. The writer believes that this novel carries out many good values of life. From this novel human being can learn many things, such as, expands their perspective wider, makes them to be able to care to animals, and especially to live harmoniously one another in this earth.

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conflicts which are faced by the main character, and also analyze the motivations of the main character which encourage him to go into the wild.

B. Problem Formulation

This study is aimed to answer these two formulated problems:

1. What types of conflicts are faced by the main character Buck as seen in London’s The Call of the Wild?

2. What motivates the main character Buck to go into the wild as seen in London’s The Call of the Wild?

C. Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are lined with the two formulated problems, the objectives are, first, is to find out the types of conflict, and second, is to find out what motivates the main character to go into the wild.

D. Benefits of the Study

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their literature knowledge. By introducing literature through education, the writer hopes that literature can give a meaningful contribution for students’ life.

E. Definition of Terms

There are three terms that will be used in this study. Below, the writer provides the definition of the terms to prevent misunderstandings in delivering the discussions.

1. Conflict

In this study, a conflict is the presence of different objectives, understanding, or aims, between one character to another. According to Wheeler (1998), conflict is a problem of different ideas of life, values, and things in the world between one people and another, one people and a group, or two groups of people. In this study, there are some conflicts that are experienced by the main character Buck.

2. Motivation

In this study, a motivation is a thing that encourages a character to do something to achieve his goal. According to Petri (1981), motivation is the concept which is used to express the direction of a particular behavior.

3. Character

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7

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter contains the theories that will be used in this study, namely

the theory of psychological approach, the theory of conflict, and the theory of

motivation. These theories will help the writer to guide her in analyzing the novel

and answer the two formulated problems.

A. Review of Related Theories

This chapter will discuss the theories which are used by the writer in this

study. According to Kennedy and Gioia (1995), there are nine common critical

approaches to the literature, namely the formalist, the biographical, the historical,

the gender, the psychological, the sociological, the mythological, the

reader-response, and the deconstructionist. In this study, the writer chooses the

psychological one as the approach of the study. Therefore, this chapter will

discuss the three theories, namely the theory of psychological approach, the

theory of conflict, and the theory of motivation.

1. Psychological Approach

According to Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman, and Willingham (2005),

the psychological approach in literature seeks the psychological condition and

conflicts of the character by looking at literature’s aspects, such as, dialogues,

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literature seeks to analyze and understand human’s psychological life, character,

behavior, and events that are written in literature. As mentioned before, literature

is a work of an author which represents the author himself. By analyzing a work

of literature with the psychological approach, the author’s physical condition can

also be known, namely the author’s life, the conflicts, and the motivation that the

author endured in his life. Therefore, through literature work, human’s

psychological condition can be understood and learned.

2. Theory of Conflict

According to Hammond (2010), a conflict is a centre issue of a literature

work, it makes the story. He also states that while a short story can have one

conflict, a novel can have more than one conflict. Furthermore, he states that there

are two types of conflicts, namely

a. Internal Conflict

According to Hammond (2010), an internal conflict is a conflict which

exists inside of a character. The conflict itself, for example, is in a form of

morality, fate, desire, and belief. Hammond also states that the only one who can

resolve this kind of conflict is the character himself. An internal conflict can

possibly be triggered by someone or something from outside of a character, for

example, another character makes a character to question things in his mind.

However, as long as the conflict stays inside of a character, it still called as an

internal conflict. Therefore, the meaning of the internal conflict is the struggle and

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b. External Conflict

Hammond (2010) also claims that an external conflict, which exists

outside of a character, tends to deal with bigger problems. He claims that an

external conflict might occur from other characters or other being, such as,

society, nature, and government. Hammond also states that an external conflict

can take many forms, for example, verbal, swear words and mean words,

physical, fights and violence, nature, earthquake and snowy storm. Furthermore,

he also states that a physical fight between one character and another is a conflict

which often presents. In short, an external conflict is more complicated than an

internal conflict.

3. Theory of Motivation

As a push that makes someone to do something, a motivation plays a big

role in a novel. According to Thompson (2014), there are two types of motivation,

namely

a. Intrinsic Motivation

According to Thompson (2014), an intrinsic motivation is a motivation

that comes from within a character which forces and encourages a character to do

something to achieve his goal. Furthermore, she claims that when a character is

intrinsically motivated, he enjoys the process of achieving the goal while

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b. Extrinsic Motivation

Thompson (2014) declares that because extrinsic means from outside of,

an extrinsic motivation means a motivation that comes from outside of a

character. She also states that a character that is extrinsically motivated acts based

on a reward that he will get when he achieves his goal. She declares that an

extrinsic motivation drives a character to be able to achieve something which will

benefit himself. However, this kind of motivation is usually followed by a reward

rather than an enjoyment.

B. Theoretical Framework

In this study, the writer uses two main theories to conduct the study. The

two main theories are the theory of conflict by Hammond (2010) and the theory of

motivation by Thompson (2014). The writer uses the theory of conflict to analyze

the types of conflicts faced by Buck, the main character. The writer also uses the

theory of motivation to analyze the motivations of the main character to go into

the wild.

By analyzing the types of conflicts using the theory of conflict from

Hammond (2010), it leads the writer to find out the things which underlie Buck’s

wishes to live freely and go into the wild. Furthermore, the writer will look closer

into the motivations themselves and analyze them using the theory from

Thompson (2014). Basically, the writer holds an understanding that a motivation

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motivation afterward, because while a character encounters a conflict, he tries to

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter consists of three sections, namely the object of the study, the

approach of the study, and the method of the study. The first section, the object of

the study, contains the summary of the novel which is analyzed in this study. The

second section, the approach of the study, explains the psychological approach

which is used in this study. The third section, the method of the study, explains

about the method used in this study, which is the library research.

A. Object of the Study

This section gives information about the object of the study, which is a

novel entitled The Call of the Wild, and the summary of the novel itself.

1. The Call of the Wild

The Call of the Wild is a novel written by Jack London. Jack London was

born on January 12th

The novel tells a story of a dog named Buck, a St. Bernard and Scotch

Collie mix breed. The story begins with Buck being kidnapped from his master’s , 1876 in San Francisco. London, who produced an enormous

amount of stories, was very popular at his time when he published The Call of the

Wild. The Call of the Wild is published in 1903 by Macmillan Publishers USA,

and it was recognized and remains as Jack London’s greatest work. This novel

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home in California by one of the gardeners and sold into service as a sled dog. It

happens during the Klondike Gold Rush in 1890s when strong dogs are in high

demands. As a house-dog, the world outside is a very different world for Buck.

However, in the wild and primitive situation he is in, Buck tries hard to survive.

He learns how to be a sled dog, how to obey men, and most important how to

dominate other dogs. Throughout his journey, Buck meets some people, there are

kind people and bad people, and from them Buck encounters many helps and

obstacles. Along the journey, Buck is getting more and more anxious and wants to

go into the wild and live by himself. In the end of the story, Buck decides to go

into the wild and joins a pack of wolves.

B. Approach of the Study

The focus of this study is on the influence of the conflicts and the

motivations experienced by the main character with his decision to go into the

wild. In this study, the writer chooses the psychological approach as the approach

to study the main character. According to Landauer (1972), psychology is a study

which analyzes living thing’s behavior; what a living thing does.

In this study, the writer uses the psychological approach to study the types

of conflict faced by the main character during his effort to survive. Moreover, this

approach is also used to analyze the motivations that motivate the main character

to go into the wild. The psychological approach will help the writer to understand

how the conflicts influence the main character’s life, and how the motivations

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C. Method of the Study

In this study, the writer chooses the library research as the method of the

study. According to George (2008), library research is a method which involves

identifying and analyzing a research question with opinions of experts.

Furthermore, George also states that the researcher can also add factual

information or other necessary components related to the research question. The

next paragraph will explain about the six steps of conducting this study.

Firstly, the writer chooses a novel that she wants to analyze. The writer

chooses a novel written by Jack London entitled The Call of the Wild, which is

published in 1903. Secondly, the writer carefully and accurately reads the novel,

tries to find aspects that she wants to analyze. After finishing reading the novel,

the writer finds a main character and two objects that she wants to analyze,

namely the conflicts, the motivations, and the character named Buck. Thirdly, the

writer looks for the suitable approach, theory, and method for this study. Since the

focus of this study is to analyze the character’s conflicts and motivations from his

behaviour described in the novel, the writer chooses the psychological approach

as the approach to analyze the novel, and the theory of conflict by Hammond

(2010) and the theory of motivation by Thompson (2014) to study the conflicts

and the motivations. Fourthly, the writer chooses the library research as the

method of the study. Fifthly, the writer tries to analyze the conflicts and the

motivations in the novel with the guidance of the theories mentioned before. The

writer connects the theories with the lines quoted from the novel. Sixthly, the

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15

CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

This chapter is aimed to answer the two formulated problems in this study.

This chapter is divided into two sections. The first section will analyze the types

of conflicts faced by the main character Buck. The second section will analyze the

motivations of Buck to go into the wild.

A. The Conflicts Faced by the Main Character

Hammond (2010) divides conflict into two types, namely the internal

conflict and the external conflict. Therefore, to analyze the types of conflicts faced

by the main character, the analysis will be divided into two sections, the first

section is the internal conflict, and the second section is the external conflict.

1. The Internal Conflicts Faced by the Main Character

According to Hammond (2010), an internal conflict is a conflict which

exists inside of a character. He also mentions that this kind of conflict is centered

on a character, and only can be resolved by the character himself. Furthermore, he

emphasizes that other characters or something outside of a character can trigger a

character to have a conflict inside his mind. In the novel, there are two internal

conflicts which are faced by Buck, namely surrender into the Law of Club and

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a. Surrender into the Law of Club

Buck is a house-dog, as a house-dog he does not know many things. One

of the things, for example, is the violence a man does to dogs to force them to do

something. When Buck meets the man in the red sweater and his club and strikes,

Buck experiences violence for the first time. The first internal conflict faced by

Buck is triggered by the man in the red sweater. The strikes that Buck receives

from the club in the man’s hand force him to decide whether to fight back or

surrender.

He saw, once for all, that he stood no chance against a man with a club. He had learned the lesson, and in all his after life he never forgot it. That club was a revelation. It was his introduction to the reign of primitive law, and he met the introduction halfway. Again and again, as he looked at each brutal performance, the lesson was driven home to Buck: a man with a club was a law-giver, a master to be obeyed, though not necessarily conciliated (p. 28).

The paragraph above shows Buck’s first experience with a club. After

denying his own belief that he can beat a man with a club in his hand, Buck

decides to surrender whenever a club is involved. While his body is enduring a lot

of pain he never feels before, Buck comes into an understanding that he cannot

fight a man with a club. He sees and feels the effect of the club’s strikes. Buck

realizes that a club is a serious matter, Buck even calls a man with a club a

law-giver, and he understands that only by a club a man could simply make dogs obey

him. By threatening dogs with a club and force them to obey, a man easily makes

the law. Buck also witnesses other dogs attack the man in the red sweater when

they experience the strikes of the club for the first time. Fight back is a dog’s

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from fighting such weapon, moreover, when getting beaten with it in the process.

Hammond (2010) states that an internal conflict is a conflict which can only be

resolved by the character himself, in this conflict Buck resolves the conflict

himself by deciding to surrender under the Law of Club.

b. Survive from the Law of Fang

Buck not only learns to surrender whenever a club is involved but also

learns to survive under the Law of Fang. The Law of Fang is not a law made for a

man and a dog, this law is made for a dog and another dog. This time, the trigger

of the internal conflict of Buck is the tragedy which occurs to Buck’s friend

named Curly.

There was no warning, only a leap in like a flash, a metallic clip of teeth, a leap out equally swift, and Curly’s face was ripped open from eye to jaw. Thirty of forty huskies ran to the spot and surrounded the combatants in an intent and silent circle (pp. 31 – p.32).

But she lay there limp and lifeless in the bloody, trampled snow, almost literally torn to pieces, the swart half-breed standing over her and cursing horribly (p. 32).

Buck watches more than thirty huskies are killing Curly, he feels bitter for

losing a friend like Curly. Buck experiences an internal conflict which as

mentioned by Hammond (2010) should be resolved by Buck himself. Buck pities

Curly, but cannot do anything at the same time. Buck knows he cannot defend

Curly because too many huskies are cornering her. From Curly’s tragic death,

Buck learns the Law of Fang. In the Law of Fang, there is no fair play, once a dog

is down, the others will make sure of his death. The Law of Fang knows no

boundaries, it does not explain what might cause it to happen. Buck sees with his

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not take Curly’s gestures nicely. Therefore, Buck makes a mental note that he will

never get down. He sees the impact that will come upon him if he ever gets down.

Curly’s tragic death makes Buck watches his action, thinks more thoroughly, and

never attacks other dogs without a proper plan. The Law of Club and The Law of

Fang are harsh. The two internal conflicts teaches Buck many things, he learns to

restrain himself from fighting against something that he cannot win and he always

remember to never get beaten and knocked down by other dogs. Through those

laws, Buck emerges to become a stronger, a mature, and a wise dog. In the next

section, the writer will discuss about the external conflicts of Buck.

2. The External Conflicts Faced by the Main Character

In the novel, there are seven external conflicts faced by Buck, namely the

conflicts of Buck with Manuel’s friend, the four men in a saloon, the man in the

red sweater, Spitz, Hal, Black Burton, and the Yeehats. These seven conflicts

challenge Buck and make Buck struggle to survive.

a. The Conflict between Buck and Manuel’s Friend

Buck is kidnapped by a gardener named Manuel from his master’s house,

Judge Miller. Buck does not have any idea or any suspicion that he is being

kidnapped, he thinks Manuel is just about to give him a walk. The minute Manuel

gives the end of the rope which circled Buck’s neck to his friend, Buck starts to

feel cautious. Hammond (2010) states that an external conflict which is a conflict

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characters. The quotation below shows the first violence that Buck gets from a

man.

But to his surprise, the rope tightened around his neck, shutting off his breath. In quick rage, he sprang at the man, who met him halfway, grappled him close by the throat, and with a deft twist threw him over in his back. Then the rope tightened mercilessly while buck struggled in a fury, his tongue lolling out of his mouth and his great chest panting futilely (pp. 23 – 24).

Buck is a newcomer to this kind of world, a world where violence swiftly

given, he simply does not know yet how to respond to that. Buck is a house-dog,

he has a good master, Judge Miller, who care about him and never treats him

badly. Buck’s activities are varies, from being a companion for his master until

escorting his master’s family to the yard. Buck never knows about violence,

particularly physical violence. Anyone back at home never treats him badly.

Trying to defend himself, Buck attempts to attack the man, and succeeds.

The man sprang for his throat, but Buck was too quick for him. His jaws closed on the hand, nor did they relax till his senses were choked out of him once more.

“All I get is fifty for it,” he grumbled, “an’ I wouldn’t do it over for a thousand, cold cash.”

His hand was wrapped in a bloody handkerchief, and the right trouser leg was ripped from knee to ankle (p. 24).

According to Hammond (2010), a conflict which includes a fight and a

physical violence between one character and another is a conflict that often exists.

The quotation above shows Buck’s first fight with a man, the man torments him,

and he attacks back. This might be Buck’s first time to bite and hurt someone. In

some aspects, as a dog, Buck has an advantage, he is quick, and the man does not

expect anything from Buck. Manuel’s friend is the first external conflict

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b. The Conflict between Buck and the Four Men in A Saloon

Buck arrives at a saloon in San Francisco, the saloon keeper neither gives

Buck any attention nor gives Buck any trouble. The quotation below shows

another external conflict of Buck, however this is not a harsh one. This time, the

external conflict is from the four men in the saloon.

More tormentors, Buck decided, for they were evil-looking creatures, ragged and unkempt; and he stormed and raged at them through the bars. They only laughed and poked sticks at him, which he promptly assailed with his teeth till he realized that that was what they wanted. Whereupon he lay down sullenly and allowed the crate to be lifted into a wagon (p. 25).

The external conflict of Buck mentioned above does not trigger any fights

or violence, it is verbal. Hammond (2010) mentions conflict in a verbal form is

possible; the four men laughed at Buck, and they also poke Buck with a stick.

Buck has not yet learned to handle his tormentors. Buck’s responses to the four

men are really aggressive at the first time, he tries to hurt his tormentors from

inside of his crate for mocking him, but then he realizes that those four men are

getting happier and more excited when he acts aggressively, Buck then decides to

ignore them.

c. The Conflict between Buck and the Man in the Red Sweater

According to Hammond (2010), an external conflict is a conflict which is

more complicated than internal conflict because it deals with another character or

another thing. Buck gets two toughest external conflicts in the story. One of them

is when Buck meets the man in the red sweater. Buck meets the man in the red

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strike horses to make them run faster. The first encounter of Buck with the man in

the red sweater make Buck learns about the violence of a club and the cruelty of a

man.

In mid air, just as his jaws were about to close on the man, he received a shock that checked his body and brought his teeth together with an agonizing clip. He whirled over, fetching the ground on his back and side. And again the shock came and he was brought crushingly to the ground. This time he was aware that it was the club, but his madness knew no caution. A dozen times he charged, and as often the club broke the charge and smashed him down (p. 27).

Buck has no knowledge about a club and what a man capable to do with it,

but he decides to act based on his anger again and does not calculate his actions.

He does not expect that the man in the red sweater will launch an attack to him.

After that, many strikes are landed on him, yet he does not give any signs to

surrender. On the one hand, Buck’s fury, anger, and tiredness are mingled

together, cause him to not be able to think straight. On the other hand, the man in

the red sweater is a man with no mercy. He keeps on striking Buck whenever

Buck is about to attack him. At one point, Buck is about to give up, however, the

man in the red sweater does not let him go.

He staggered limply about, the blood flowing from nose and mouth and ears, his beautiful coat sprayed and flecked with bloody slaver. Then the man advanced and deliberately dealt him a frightful blow on the nose. The man, shifting the club from right to left, coolly caught him by the under jaw, at the same time wrenching downward, and backward. Buck described a complete circle in the air, and half of another, then crashed to the ground in his head and chest (p. 27).

Buck knows his limits, he is covered in blood, all parts of his body are

screaming in pain. The strikes are becoming unbearable for Buck, for he never

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Buck’s tormentor, the man in the red sweater, is a harsh man. He does not fear

Buck will attack him back. Moreover, he uses a club, something that easily

weakens Buck.

For the last time he rushed. The man struck a shrewd blow he had purposely withheld for so long, and Buck crumpled up and went down, knocked utterly senseless (p. 27).

The last strike sends Buck to the ground and ends the fight between him

and the man in the red sweater. After Buck seems to understand how things work

in his new life, he tries to set aside his anger and fury, and focuses more to

himself. After all, his anger and fury will not rid him from hunger and thirst. He

still is a living thing that needs to eat and drink, and in his current condition he

only gets those essential needs from human, even from the one who just tortures

him. Buck learns his lesson about a man with a club in a hard way, but the

important thing is that now he knows how to behave around a man with a club. As

stated by Hammond (2010) that an external conflict is more complicated than an

internal conflict, this conflict which is faced by Buck nearly knocks him down.

Buck’s first encounter with a man and a club in his hand nearly causes him his

death. If only Buck does not back down, the man in the red sweater might beat

him to death.

d. The Conflict between Buck and Spitz

Buck is bought by a Canadian Government from the man in the red

sweater. The Canadian Government, Perrault, then brings Buck in the deck to go

into Dyea Beach. In the deck, Buck meets two other dogs, Spitz and Dave. Spitz

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conflict with another dog is with Spitz. Even though Buck gets involved in a fight

a lot with Spitz, those fights are not the toughest conflicts encountered by Buck.

However, Buck’s conflicts with Spitz are complicated because Francois, who

works for Perrault as the sled’s driver, most of the time, comes in between the two

to prevent the fight from happening.

He was friendly, in a treacherous sort of way, smiling into one’s face the while he meditated some underhand trick, as, for instance, when he stole from Buck’s food at the first meal. As Buck sprang to punish him, the lash of Francois’s club sang through the air, reaching the culprit first; and nothing remained to Buck but to recover the bone (p. 30).

Buck knows three other dogs, Toots and Ysabel, the two terriers back in

Judge Miller’s home, and Curly, a good-natured Newfoundland who Buck meets

in the man in the red sweater’s house. Buck never encounters any problem with

any of the other dogs. Therefore, having a problem with another dog is a new

thing for Buck. Spitz is the first dog bought and brought into the deck by Perrault,

which makes him be the leader of Perrault’s team of sled-dogs. Spitz always tries

to pick a fight with Buck, and most of the time, Buck welcomes Spitz’s challenge.

However, Francois, a black-faced giant and a French-Canadian, always gets into

the two and prevents the fight from happening. Buck knows that Spitz is not a

good friend, and that he has to be careful around him. Still, Spitz is getting more

and more thrilled to get into Buck’s nerves.

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The external conflicts of Buck with Spitz are all in form of physical

violence, and that kind of conflict has been stated by Hammond (2010) before.

However, the previous quotation shows that Buck always tries to shrug off any

possible trouble with him. However, this kind of effort is one-sided only, on the

one hand, Spitz keeps doing what he likes because he thinks Buck will never burst

out. On the other hand, Buck is getting tired of tolerating Spitz’s behavior, one

time Buck attacks Spitz spontaneously until Spitz himself is startled.

Spitz was equally willing. He was crying with sheer rage and eagerness as he circled back and forth for a chance to spring in. Buck was no less eager, and no less cautious, as he likewise circled back and forth for the advantage (p. 41).

After recovering from the shock, Spitz starts to face Buck. Even though

Spitz is startled, he himself is keen to fight Buck. Buck, however, is angry and

cannot hold his patience any longer. Another fight initiated by Spitz erupts, and it

is about to break when a pack of hungry huskies barging into the camp because of

the smell of the food. Buck and Spitz’s fight has to wait because they have to fight

the hungry huskies that are already sneaking in to steal the food. However, if the

hungry huskies are not barging in, there must have been a big fight between Buck

and Spitz. Hammond (2010) mentions that an external conflict is more

complicated than an internal conflict and the presence of the hungry huskies

makes the situation more complicated. Buck, who gets hurt more than the others

from fighting the hungry huskies, is an easy target for Spitz.

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Even in the middle of the fight with the hungry huskies, Spitz is still trying

to harm Buck. Buck, who is still recovering from the fight with the hungry

huskies simply dodges the fight and walks away. This shows that even though

Buck cannot stand Spitz, he still can think straight and always contemplate the

condition first. For him, the big fight with the hungry huskies is a fight big enough

for one day. The team is in a bad condition, the dogs, Perrault, and Francois are

stressed out because the hungry huskies steal most of the team’s food. The team

then continues their journey and in Pelly River, which is a headstream of Yukon

River, another fight between Buck and Spitz breaks. It starts when Dolly, the last

husky brings into the team in Dyea, goes suddenly mad and springs straight for

Buck. Dolly chases Buck, who runs in panic, and they disappear into the woods,

running around until Buck hears Francois calls his name. When Buck passes

Francois, the dog-driver holds the axe and crashes it down upon mad Dolly’s

head. While Buck is still in shock from his first encounter with a mad dog, Spitz

decides to attack Buck, for this is a chance that he has been waiting.

Buck staggered over against the sled, exhausted, sobbing for breath, helpless. This was Spitz’s opportunity. He sprang upon Buck, and twice his teeth sank into his unresisting foe and ripped and tore the flesh to the bone. Then Francois’s lash descended, and Buck had the satisfaction of watching Spitz receive the worst clubping as yet administered to any of the team (p. 45).

This time Spitz succeeds to hurt Buck, leaving his marks on him.

However, luckily for Buck, Francois is always interferes. This time, the harshest

strike of Francois’ club lands on Spitz, and Buck is satisfied just by watching it.

Twice now, Buck has not response any of Spitz’s attacks, which both occur in his

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one night and Pike, the malingerer, does not appear. Through the night until

morning Pike is securely sleeping in his nest under the snow. Francois looks for

him in vain, while Spitz in his wrath starts to make Pike frightened in his nest.

When Pike appears, Spitz launches at him and about to punish him when Buck

comes in between them.

Pike, who had been trembling abjectly, took heart at this open mutiny, and sprang upon his over-thrown leader. Buck, to whom fair-play was a forgotten code, likewise sprang upon Spitz. But Francois, chuckling at the incident while unswerving in the administration of justice, brought his lash down upon Buck with all his might (p. 47).

From the quotation above, it is known that the trigger of the fight this time

is Spitz’s arbitrary attitude toward the other dogs. Buck stands for Pike, because

as a leader of the team Spitz does not bring any comfort for the team. Francois

comes in the middle of the fight and put an end to the fight before it begins.

Buck’s decision to strike Spitz is not based on the things that Spitz does to him,

but also to the other dogs. The other dogs are too scared to take a stand to their

leader, but Buck is not scared. Since then, the other dogs are not scared anymore

with Spitz, which leads to a condition where Francois backs up Spitz with his

club, while Buck backs up the rest of the dogs. Even though Buck really wants to

challenge Spitz and his leadership status, he knows that he cannot start a fight in

front of Francois and his club. One day, at the mouth of Tahkeena, the last fight

between Buck and Spitz breaks. Buck leads the pack, sixty in total, with the fifty

huskies of Northwest Police, whose camp is a hundred yards away, in a hunting of

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front of him and catches the rabbit. Without any hesitation, Buck launches himself

at Spitz.

He did not check himself, but drove in upon Spitz, shoulder to shoulder, so hard that he missed the throat. They rolled over and over in the powdery snow. Spitz gained his feet almost as though he had not been overthrown, slashing Buck down the shoulder and leaping clear. Twice his teeth clipped together, like the steel jaws of a trap, as he backed away for better footing, with lean and lifting lips that writhed and snarled (p. 51).

Hammond (2010) claims that a conflict is the centre of a novel which is

capable of telling the character’s struggle to overcome any conflicts he

encounters. The conflicts between Buck and Spitz are the conflicts which play a

strong role in the novel, the conflicts are described in detail by the author, and

how Buck and Spitz cannot stand each other. All those conflicts of Buck with

Spitz lead Buck to challenge Spitz’s leadership status of the team. Buck is waiting

for a chance to defy Spitz, to finish him once and for the last time. The quotation

above shows that Buck finally finds his chance, there is no Francois or Perrault

around to come between them. Moreover, Buck is in fury because Spitz is

meddling in his rabbit hunting. Both Buck and Spitz are looking forward to fight

each other. Buck is eager on beating and defeating Spitz so that he can seize the

leadership status and prevent the team of sled-dogs from getting into a worse

condition. Buck fights not only for himself but also for the other dogs. Hammond

(2010) states that an external conflict is a conflict which mostly is in a form of a

fight between one character and another, and Buck’s conflicts with Spitz are

mostly fights and physical violence.

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Buck it was nothing new or strange, this scene of old time. It was as though it had always been, the wonted way of things (p. 51).

Buck starts to realize that he is a fighter, circumstances in his new life

force him to be one. Facing Spitz does not make Buck scared, on the contrary,

Buck feels eager to have a last fight with Spitz. However, on the one hand, Spitz

is a good fighter, he knows when to attack and how to harm his opponent. On the

other hand, Buck might be strong, but he rarely learns how to fight.

Fang clashed fang, and lips were cut and bleeding, but Buck could not penetrate his enemy’s guard. Then Buck took to rushing, as though for the throat, when, suddenly drawing back his head and curving him in from the side, he would drive his shoulder at the shoulder of Spitz, as a ram by which to overthrow him. But instead, Buck’s shoulder was slashed down each time as Spitz leaped lightly away (p. 52).

The quotation above shows Buck’s non-stop efforts in fighting Spitz. It is

also clear that Buck is left behind in fighting skill, compared to Spitz. Spitz has

strategies, while Buck does not have any. As a house-dog in Judge Miller’s house

back in California, Buck never learns how to fight, let alone learns any kind of

strategies in fighting. Even though Spitz has not launched any strikes yet, he is

two steps ahead of Buck. There is one time when Buck almost knocks down and

the other sixty dogs are ready to finish him.

Spitz was untouched, while Buck was streaming with blood and panting hard. The fight was growing desperate. And all the while the silent and wolfish circle waited to finish off whichever dog went down. As Buck grew winded, Spitz took to rushing, and he kept him staggering for footing. Once Buck went over, and the whole circle of sixty dogs started up; but he recovered himself, almost in mid air, and the circle sank down again and waited (p. 52).

Buck is starting to lose some blood and getting bruised all over his body.

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to finish the defeated dog. Hammond (2010) mentions that a character can have an

external conflict with society. In this conflict Buck almost deals with society,

which is the Northwest Police’s team of dogs. The other sixty dogs are waiting for

either Buck or Spitz to fall down. The fight among dogs is harsh. The fifty dogs of

the Northwest Police do not care which one between Buck and Spitz will be the

loser, they are eager to participate to finish the loser even though they are not the

part of the pack. The ten dogs, of which Buck is also fighting for, also are not

standing up for anyone, not even for Buck. The ten dogs know that Spitz is not a

good leader, but if Buck lost those ten dogs should take part in finishing Buck.

Therefore, Buck realizes that he cannot lose the battle, because once he is down

the other dogs will finish him.

His tooth closed on Spitz’s left fore leg. There was a crunch of breaking bone and the white dog faced him on three legs. Thrice he tried to knock him over, then repeated the trick and broke the right fore leg. Despite the pain and helplessness, Spitz struggled madly to keep up. He saw the silent circle, with gleaming eyes and lolling tongues, and silvery breaths drifting upward, closing in upon him as he had seen similar circles close in upon beaten antagonists in the past (p. 52).

Buck is a tough fighter, seeing that he is left behind in the fight, he starts

to think for the best ways to infiltrate Spitz’s strong defense. Following his

instincts, Buck starts to plan his next moves. Buck learns so many things by his

own since the day he is kidnapped, and this fight is not any different. Buck

realizes that all his attempts are in vain so far, therefore he decides to change his

ways. The fight is starting to take a turn when Buck starts to camouflage his

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broken. When Spitz is getting impossible to fight any longer, the circle of the

sixty dogs is starting to close in around him.

Only Spitz quivered and bristled as he staggered back and forth, snarling with horrible menace, as though to frighten off impending death. Then Buck sprang in and out, but while he was in, shoulder had at last squarely met shoulder. The dark circle became a dot on the moon-flooded snow as Spitz disappeared from view. Buck stood and looked on, the successful champion, the dominant primordial beast who had made his kill and found it good (p. 53).

The quotation above shows the final encounter between Buck and his

enemy, Spitz. Buck succeeds to defeat Spitz, and therefore gains the leadership

status of the team. Despite of the harms Spitz brings for Buck, at the same time he

forces Buck to learn to survive through the wild things of Buck’s new world.

Buck learns how to control his anger, to act with a plan, and to give empathy

toward others, by looking out for the other dogs when they are in trouble with

Spitz’s arbitrary behavior.

e. The Conflict between Buck and Hal

In the city called Skagway, Buck bids goodbye with Francois and Perrault.

Buck and the rest of the sled-dogs then are taken by a Scotch half-breed driver

and his mates. Buck and the rest of the dogs are with the Scotch driver for around

fifteen days. By the time Buck and the rest of the dogs back at Skagway, they are

in terrible state. Buck is losing weight, Pike is suffering from a hurt leg, Sol-leks

is limping, and Dub is suffering from a wrenched shoulder blade. Four days after

their arrival, two men from the States, Hal and Charles is how they called each

other, buy the team. Travel along with Hal and Charles is Mercedes, she is

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the dogs to rest. With most of the dogs are injured, the team is not in a good

condition. The eight of them, Buck, Billee, Joe, Sol-leks, Pike, Dub, Teek, and

Kona, are in need of a long rest. Furthermore, Hal, Charles, and Mercedes pack

too many belongings, they do not know the rule which said, “Half the load and

twice the dogs.” One evening, Hal and Charles buy six other dogs, three

short-haired pointers, one Newfoundland, and two mongrels. However, those dogs are

not sled-dogs, they do not have any experience, and those dogs only make the

situation worse. At one point, Buck’s health is decreasing, and he is no longer can

pull a sled. Hammond (2010) states an external conflict in a form of physical

violence between one character and another is often exist, and Buck encounters

this kind of conflict when he meets the man in the red sweater. This time, from

Hal, Buck gets another toughest external conflict.

He pulled when he could, when he could no longer pull, he fell down and remained down till blows from club or club drove him to his feet again. The hair hung down, limp and draggled, or matted with dried blood where Hal’s club had bruised him. His muscles had wasted away to knotty strings, and the flesh pads had disappeared, so that each rib and every bone in his frame were outlined cleanly through the loose hide that was wrinkled in folds of emptiness (p. 71).

The quotation above shows Buck’s terrible condition. This time, Hal is the

worse master than any masters of Buck before. Hal strikes the dogs with a club

when they cannot seem to get on their feet and pull the sled. Buck receives most

of the strikes because he is the leader and the pull of the team. Hal keeps on

torturing Buck, however, Buck does not give up yet, he still insists to pull when

he can. A few days past, and in the mouth of White River, where the team stops

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This was the first time Buck had failed, in itself a sufficient reason to drive Hal into a rage. He exchanged the club for the customary club. Buck refused to move under the rain of heavier blows which now fell upon him. Like his mates, he was barely able to get up, but, unlike them, he had made up his mind not to get up (p. 74).

Buck gives up for the first time in his life. Hal’s club keeps falling down

on him and Buck does nothing to dodge the strikes. He is tired and cannot rise to

his feet, all of his energy is draining from his body because of the non-stop works.

Hal, being an ignorant master, does not think about anything other than tortures

Buck. Hal beats Buck with a club over and over again and if not for the rescue

from John Thornton, Buck may be dead.

He refused to stir. So greatly had he suffered, and so far gone was he, that the blows did not hurt much. And as they continued to fall upon him, the spark of life within flickered and went down. It was nearly out. He felt strangely numb. As though from a great distance, he was aware that he was being beaten. The last sensations of pain left him. He no longer felt anything, though very faintly he could hear the impact of club upon his body. But it was no longer his body, it seemed so far away (p. 74).

The quotation above shows another toughest external conflict of Buck in a

form of physical violence, such kind of conflict has been stated by Hammond

(2010). Buck is about to die when John Thornton saves him from Hal’s rage. This

conflict is tougher than Buck’s conflict with the man in the red sweater, with the

man in the red sweater Buck decides to surrender and the blows stop. Moreover,

Buck is not in a terrible condition that time and the man in the red sweater

demands Buck’s obedience only. This time, however, Buck cannot do more work

because his physical condition is not capable to do so, there are too many

damages done to his body. The blows from Hal’s club are inevitable, Buck is no

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heartbreaking part of the novel, the struggle of a dog to keep alive after being

kidnapped. As if all the violence that Buck receives is not enough, still Buck is

beaten almost to his death. Fortunately, Buck is saved by John Thornton, he is

also Buck’s true and last master before he goes into the wild.

f. The Conflict between Buck and Black Burton

John Thornton takes Buck with him and helps Buck to recover and gain

back his strength. Unlike Buck’s previous masters, John Thornton does not use

Buck as a sled-dog. He rarely harnesses Buck’s strength to pull a sled, only

several times. He considers Buck as one of his dogs, and especially as his friend.

Buck even gets along with John Thornton’s two dogs, Skeet and Nig. From the

day John Thornton saves Buck from Hal’s rage, Buck grows to be fond of him.

With John Thornton, Buck is back being a dog like he used to be in Judge Miller’s

house, he plays with John Thornton himself and with Skeet and Nig, plays in the

woods, river, and around the camp. He accompanies John Thornton everywhere,

never lets him get out of his sight. Buck grows to love John Thornton that he is

willing to do anything for him. One time, John Thornton is stepping into a fight

with Black Burton to defend a man at the bar. Black Burton is an evil-tempered

and malicious man. As usual, Buck always follows John Thornton everywhere, he

is lying in the corner watching his master’s every action.

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The man called Black Burton wakes up the sleeping lion inside of Buck.

Throughout the year, John Thornton is the man whose Buck’s life revolves around

on. After a long time, Buck gets another external conflict in a form of physical

violence, as Hammond (2010) has stated. However, Buck is not the recipient of

the physical violence this time, John is, and Buck defends John and attacks

Burton. Buck’s loyalty toward John Thornton is strong. As a year past on, Buck

grows to be a more mature and stronger dog. He has learned both the ways of

house-dog and sled-dog. As a house-dog, he is demanded to be loyal to his master

and has a good nature. As a sled-dog, he is demanded to be strong enough to pull

a sled, and to attack at times when he needs to. As a grown-up dog, he is getting

better at switching between the two automatically. Buck’s encounter with Black

Burton shows that even a year without a fight or any threat, Buck is still a fighter.

g. The Conflict between Buck and the Yeehats

Months come and pass, and in the fall of the year, John Thornton, his

mates, his dogs, and Buck are looking for the Lost Cabin, a place of which legend

speaks about its gold mine. While John Thornton and his mates are working on

the gold, the dogs do not have something to do. Buck entertains himself by

hunting and wandering in the woods. Sometimes, he spends the night in the

woods, but he always comes back to the camp when the night falls, for Buck

cannot seem to be far away from John Thornton. One time, Buck spends four

nights in the woods because this time his prey is big and it takes time for him to

kill the prey. Buck comes back to the camp to find the rest of the team is

(51)

voices, rising and falling in a sing-song chant. Buck found Nig laying outside of

the camp on his side, dead, an arrow protruding from either side of his body. A

hundred yards away, one of the sled-dogs John Thornton had bought in Dawson is

also dead. Stepping forward, Buck finds John Thornton’s partner Hans dead,

feathered with arrows. From that point, Buck starts to lose his head. Hammond

(2010) states that not only with another character or nature a character might get

external conflict from, but also from society, the quotation below shows the

external conflict Buck gets from the local Indian tribe, the Yeehats.

He sprang at the foremost man (it was the chief of the Yeehats), ripping the throat wide open till the rent jugular spouted a fountain of blood. He did not pause to worry the victim, but ripped in passing, with the next bound tearing wide the throat of a second man. He plunged about in their very midst, tearing, rending, destroying, in constant and terrific motion which defied the arrows they discharged at him (p. 101).

The quotation above shows the greatest fury Buck ever feels. The fury is

so big that Buck can take down most of the Yeehats in just a few minutes. Buck

takes most of the Yeehats down in spite of the fact that Buck has not found John

Thornton’s body yet. Buck starts to kill most of the Yeehats. Buck’s loyalty

toward John Thornton is so big that he does not even think twice about taking the

Yeehats – whose armed up with arrows and spears – down by himself. This time,

the external conflict he gets from the Yeehats makes him lose someone who is

dear to him. Hence, Buck’s fury does not stop at the camp, he chases after the

running Yeehats into the woods, and afterward discovers the rest of the team’s

body, including John Thornton’s.

Figur

Figure 1 above shows that there are two internal conflicts and seven external

Figure 1

above shows that there are two internal conflicts and seven external p.58
Figure 2.The Motivations of Buck

Figure 2.The

Motivations of Buck p.59

Referensi

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