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THE EFFECTIVENESS PAUL’S WHEEL TO INCREASE STUDENT’S CRITICAL THINKING IN READING EXPLANATION TEXT FOR TEN GRADER MUHAMMADIYAH 2 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL OF SURABAYA THESIS

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A THESIS

THE EFFECTIVENESS PAUL’S WHEEL TO INCREASE STUDENTS’S CRITICAL THINKING IN READING

EXPLANATION TEXT FOR TEN GRADER MUHAMMADIYAH 2 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL OF SURABAYA

AJENG KURNIASARI NIM. 20131111002

THE ADVISORS

Gusti Nur Hafifah, M.Pd.

Vega Hesmatantya, S.Pd., M.Pd.

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURABAYA

2017

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THE EFFECTIVENESS PAUL’S WHEEL TO INCREASE STUDENT’S CRITICAL THINKING IN READING EXPLANATION TEXT FOR TEN GRADER

MUHAMMADIYAH 2 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL OF SURABAYA

THESIS

Presented to

Muhammadiyah University of Surabayain Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan in English Language Education Program

AJENG KURNIASARI NIM. 20131111002

ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURABAYA

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THE EFFECTIVENESS PAUL’S WHEEL TO INCREASE STUDENT’S CRITICAL THINKING IN READING EXPLANATION TEXT FOR TEN GRADER

MUHAMMADIYAH 2 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL OF SURABAYA

SKRIPSI

Diajukan untuk Memenuhi Salah Satu Syarat Memperoleh Gelar SARJANA PENDIDIKAN

AJENG KURNIASARI NIM. 20131111002

PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN

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MOTTO AND DEDICATION

MOTTO :

Everythings happen because a reason Be Grateful

DEDICATION :

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HALAMAN PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING

Skripsi yang ditulis oleh Ajeng Kurniasari ini telah disetujui oleh Dosen Pembimbing untuk

diujikan pada tanggal : 4 Agustus 2017

Dosen Pembimbing Tanda Tangan Tanggal

I. Gusti Nur Hafifah, M.Pd. ... ...

II.Vega Hesmatantya S.Pd, M.Pd. ... ...

Mengetahui,

Ketua Program Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

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HALAMAN PENGESAHAN PANITIA UJIAN

Skripsi ini telah diuji dan dinyatakan sah oleh Panitia Ujian Tingkat Sarjana (S1) Fakultas

Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya sebagai salah satu

syarat memperoleh gelar SARJANA PENDIDIKAN, pada tanggal 4 Agustus 2017

Dosen Penguji Tanda Tangan Tanggal

1. Gusti Nur Hafifah, S.Pd, M.Pd ……… ………

2. Sulton Dedi Wijaya, M.Pd ……… ………

3. Linda Mayasari, S.Pd, M,Pd ……… ………

Mengetahui

Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan

Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya

Dekan,

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PERNYATAAN TIDAK MELAKUKAN PLAGIAT

Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:

Nama : Ajeng Kurniasari

NIM : 20131111002

Fakultas : Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pengetahuan

Program Studi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

Menyatakan bahwa Skripsi/KTI/Tesis yang saya tulis ini benar-benar tulisan karya sendiri

bukan hasil plagiasi, baik sebagian maupun keseluruhan. Bila dikemudian hari terbukti hasil

plagiasi, maka saya bersedia menerima sanksi akademik sesuai ketentuan yang berlaku di

Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya.

Surabaya, 31 Juli 2017

Yang membuat pernyataan,

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Firstly, all praises and gratitude are to Allah SWT for blessing, strength, and

guidance. Sholawat and salam are dedicated to my beloved prophet Muhammad SAW.

The researcher realizes that he would not be able to finsh this final report without

support from many people. The researcher would like to deliver deepest gratitude to :

1. Drs. H. Wijayadi M.Pd as the Head of English Department Program.

2. Gusti Nur Hafifah, S.Pd., M.Pd as first advisor. A great thanks for your time, advices,

constructives, supports, and patience.

3. Vega Hesmatantya, S.Pd., M.Pd as second advisor. A great thanks for your

contributions, support, and advices.

4. All lectures of the English Department who have taught the worthy knowledge as a

preparation for the future and improvementin her ability.

5. Astajab, S.Pd.,M.M as Head of Muhammadiyah 2 Senior High School, Rimba Ayu S.

Hum as English teacher, All members of Mipa 1, 2, 8 who are also give supports,

contribution, and opportunity to do the research.

6. My beloved parents (Ibunda Marsani and Ayahanda Nasiyono ) who always love,

pray, support and also motivate me during my study until completing this thesis.

7. My beloved sister ( Putri Permatasari ) who always cheer up my days

8. My best friend Dwi Putri Marshella, Ratih Masruroh, Nur Suci Romadloni who

remain still as a unity to stand up until now.

9. All my students who always give spirit and motivate my days

10.All the members of English Department, especially (Encik, Annisa, Dwi, Wahyu,

Muhin, Tenny, Fanda and other friends especially for eight semester students(Ciee

Class). Thanks for the togetherness.

11.All people whose names could not be mentioned one by one. Thank you for

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Finally, the writer realizes that the research is far from being perfect. The researcher

welcomes any endorsing suggestions and critiques. At least, the researcher greatly expects

that this research will be useful and able to give contribution for the academis study and

future research.

Surabaya, 22 July 2017

Ajeng Kurniasari

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... iv

CHAPTER II REVIEW AND RELATED LITERATURE ... 2.1 Definition of Reading ... 6

2.2 The Reading Process ... 8

2.3 Reading Comprehension ... 9

2.4 Strategies for Reading Comprehension ... 10

2.5 Teaching Reading ... 11

2.5.1 Principles for Teaching Reading ... 12

2.6 Explanation Text ... 13

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2.6.2 Grammatical Features of Explanation Text ... 14

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 3.1 Research Design ... 30

3.7 Quantitative Data Analysis Technique ... 37

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3.7.6.2 Reliability ... 42

3.8 Qualitative Data Analysis Technique ... 43

CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION ... 4.1 The Effectiveness of Paul’s Wheel Strategy in Increasing Students’ Critical Thinking in Reading Explanation Text ... 44

4.1.1 The Pre-test Score of Both Classes ... 45

4.1.2 The Post - Test Score of Both Classes ... 46

4.1.3 The Precentage Student’s Score Improvement of Passsing Grade 4.1.4 Test Normality Distribution ... 48

4.1.4.1 Test of Normality Distribution of Both Classes (pre-test) ... 49

4.1.4.2 Test of Normality Distribution of Both Classes (post-test) ... 50

4.1.5 Homogenity Test ... 50

4.1.6 T - Test ... 51

4.2 How the Paul’s Wheel Strategy Enhances Student’s Critical Thinking in Reading Explanation Text ... 52

4.2.1 The Implementation of Paul’s Wheel Strategy ... 52

4.2.2 Aspect of Critical Thinking in Paul’s Wheel Strategy ... 54

4.2.3 The Analysis of Paul’s Wheel Strategy Enhances Student’s Critical Thinking in Reading Explanation Text ... 57

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ... 5.1 Conclusion ... 65

5.2 Suggestion ... 66

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LIST OF TABLES

Pages

Table 3.1 The Conducting Data Schedule ... 35

Table 3.2 The Result of Validity... 40

Table 3.3 List of Validator ... 41

Table 4.1 Pre-Test’s Score of Experimental and Control Class ... 45

Table 4.2 Post-Test’s Score of Experimental and Control Class ... 46

Table 4.3 The numbers of student execedding of Passing Grade in Pre-Test and Post-Test (experimental class ) ... 47

Table 4.4 The number of student execedding of passing grade in pre-test and post-test (controlled class) ... 47

Table 4.5 The comparison percentage of Post-Test for controlled and Experimental class ... 48

Table 4.6 Result of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) 1 ... 49

Table 4.7 Result of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) 2 ... 50

Table 4.8 Test of Homogenity Variances ... 50

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LIST OF FIGURES

Pages

Figure 2.1 The Element of Thought ... 16

Figure 2.2 Intellectual Standard ... 18

Figure 2.3 Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning ... 22

Figure 2.5 Thinking Process ... 25

Figure 3.1 Explanatory Sequantial Design Model ... 30

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LIST OF CHARTS

Pages

Chart 4.1 The Impact of Critical Thinking Aspect Show in the

Test Improvement (Percentage) ... 55

Chart 4.2 The Impact of Critical Thinking Aspect Show in the

Test Improvement (Pre and Post Test)... 60

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Pages

Appendix 1 Lesson Plan (Experimental Class) ... 67

Appendix 2 Lesson Plan (Control Class) ... 80

Appendix 3 Silabus Bhs.inggris Peminatan kelas 10... 86

Appendix 4 Try - Out ... 91

Appendix 5 Pre - Test ... 93

Appendix 6 Explanation Text Material... 95

Appendix 7 Post - Test ... 97

Appendix 8 Lembar Soal ... 99

Appendix 9 Kunci Jawaban ... 101

Appendix 10 List of Experimental Class ... 103

Appendix 11 List of Control Class ... 104

Appendix 12 Pre-Test’s Score of Controlled Class ... 105

Appendix 13 Pre-Test’s Score of Experimental Class ... 106

Appendix 14 Post-Test’s Score of Controlled Class ... 107

Appendix 15 Post-Test’s Score of Experimental Class ... 108

Appendix 16 Validity and Reliability Test ... 109

Appendix 17 T-Test ... 111

Appendix 18 Teacher Interview ... 112

Appendix 19 Observation Checklist ... 113

Appendix 20 Paul’s Wheel OF Reasoning Rubric ... 114

Appendix 21 Transcribe of Introduction Activity ... 116

Appendix 22 Transcribe of Main Activity ... 119

Appendix 23 The Implementation of Paul’s Wheel Strategy ... 121

Appendix 24 t- Table ... 123

Appendix 25 Table of Reliability Person Product Moment ... 124

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REFERENCES :

Ary, Donald, et.al. 2010.Introduction to Research in Education. Nelson Education, Ltd : Canada. Ambarwati, Mega, Desi,. 2014. The Application of Socio-Drama Method in Teaching Reading.

Surabaya : Muhammadiyah University.

Arikunto. 2012. Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara

Bakhtiari,Sadegh.Gobalization and Education: Challenges And Opportunities. Iran:Isfahan University.

Brown, H. Douglas. Second Edition. Teaching by Principles : An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy : Longman.

Cohen, Martin. 2015. Critical Thinking Skills for Dummies. Chichestar, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,

Cotreel, Stella. 2005. Critical Thinking Skill: Developing Effective Analysis and Argument. New york : Palgrave Macmillan

Creswell, W. John. Fourth Edition. Educational Research : Planning, Conducting, ans Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Lincoln: University of Nebraska.

Eduviews. 2008. Teaching in the 21st Century : A review of the issues and Changing Models in the Teaching Profession. Washington, DC.

Halpern, F, Diane. 2003. Thought and Knowladge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates : London.

Haris, R, Karen, SteveGraham 2007. TeachingReading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties. London: THE GUILFORD PRESS.

Harmer, Jeremy. 1998. How to Teach English: An Introduction to the practice of English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Longman

Johnson, P, Andrew. 2008. Teaching reading and writing : A Guidebook for Tutoring and Remediating Students.USA Rowman and Littlefield Eduacation.

Judge, Brenda, Patrick Jones, Elaine McCreery. 2009. Critical Thinking Skills For Education Students.Learning Matters.British.

Knapp, Peter, Megan, Watkins. 2005. Genre,Text,Grammar : Technologies for teaching and assesing writing. Australia : University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

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Jeanty, C, Guy. 2011. Mix Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers. USA: Carloz Albizu.

From : http// www.nova.edu/sss/QR/QR 16-3/jeanty.pdf

Moon, Jennifer. 2008. Critical Thinking : An exploration of theory and practice .London and New York : Routledge.

Novita, Dian. 2010. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) for Teaching Reading Comprehension Text. Sidoarjo: Muhammadiyah University of Sidoarjo.

Oakhil, Jane, Kate, Cain and Carsten Elbero. 2015. Understanding and Teaching Reading Comprehension. London and New York : Routledge.

Paul,Richard, and Linda Elder. 2008. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concept and Tools. Barkely: University of California.

Pollard, Lucy. 2008. Guide To Teaching English: A book to help you through your first two years in teaching.

Putri. Laila. 2013. Teaching Reading Comprehension Explanation Text By using Combining of Think Pair Share and Jigsaw Strategies. Sumatra Barat: STKIP PGRI.

Sudarwati,Th,M, Eudia Grace. 2014. Pathway to English : Program Peminatan . Jakarta: Erlangga. Supranata, Sumarna. 2009. Analisis, validitis, reabilitis, dan interpretasi hasil tes.Jakarta : Bumi

Aksara

Scanlan, J. Stephen. 2006. The Effect of Richard Paul’s Universal Elements and Standards of Reasoning on Twelfth Grade Composition. San Diego : Alliant International University Spiller,Dorothy, Pip Bruce Ferguson.2011.Teaching Strategies to Promote the Development of

Students’ Learning Skills : Teaching Development : The University Of Waikato.

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