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PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUE USED BY LAZETA SKIN CARE

ADVERTISEMENT ON INSTAGRAM

THESIS

Submitted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

Sarjana Degree of English Department Faculty of Arts and

Humanities the State Islamic University of Sunan Ampel

Surabaya

By :

Ukhti Zumrotil Aminah

NIM : A73213135

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES

THE STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SUNAN AMPEL

SURABAYA

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Declaration

This thesis contains materials which have been accepted for the award

of Sarjana degree of English Department Faculty of Arts and Humanities UIN

Sunan Ampel Surabaya. And to the best for my knowledge and belief if, it

contains no material previously published or written by other person except

where due reference is made in the text of the thesis.

Surabaya, July 10th, 2017

Writer,

Ukhti Zumrotil Aminah

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THESIS APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis by Ukhti Zumrotil Aminah entitled “Persuasive technique

used by Lazeta skin car advertisement on Instagram” has been approved by the

advisor and could be proposed to fulfill the requirements of Strata 1 Degree of English Department Faculty of Art and Humanities UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya.

Surabaya, July 10th, 2017

Thesis Advisor

Murni Fidiyanti, M.A.

NIP: 198305302011012011

Acknowledged by:

The Head of English Department

Dr. Mohammad Kurjum, M. Ag.

NIP: 196909251994031002

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF ART AND HUMANITIES

STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SUNAN AMPEL SURABAYA

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THESIS EXAMINERS APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis has been approved and accepted by the board of examiners, english department, faculty of arts and humanities State Islamic University of Surabaya,

28th July 2017

The Dean of faculty OF Arts and Humanities

Dr. H. Imam Ghazali, M. A.

NIP. 196002121990031002

The Board of Examiners:

Examiner I: Examiner II:

Murni Fidiyanti, M.A. Dr. Mohammad Kurjum, M. Ag.

NIP. 198305302011012011 NIP. 196909251994031002

Examiner III: Examiner IV:

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I can be pretty persuasive if I believe in

something strongly enough

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ABSTRACT

Zumrotil Aminah, Ukhti. 2017. Persuasive Technique Used By Lazeta Skin

Care Advertisement on Instagram. Thesis, Faculty of Letters

and Humanities, State Islamic University of Sunan Ampel

Surabaya.

Advisor : Murni Fidiyanti, M. A

Keyword : persuasion, Lazeta skin care, advertising, Instagram

This research is conducted to analyze the persuasive technique used by Lazeta skin care advertisement. This research focuses to find out the kind of persuasive technique in Lazeta skin care advertisement and also the modes of persuasion in Lazeta skin care product on Instagram.

The researcher uses Larson and Aristotle theory to describe the relation of advertisement mode on attracting costumer attention and also to know the technique of persuasion that is used by Lazeta skin care advertisement. Larson (2004) states that there are two techniques in Persuasion, they are intensification and downplaying. Intensification is divided into three categories: repetition, association, composition. Downplaying also divided into three categories: omission, diversion, and confusion.

The researcher found that Lazeta skin care advertisement used five techniques of persuasion. To intensify good quality of the product, they used techniques of Repetition, Association, and Composition. While, to downplay bad quality of their product, they used techniques of Omission and Confusion. On the other hand, Association techniques was used to associate the product with celebrities or others to attract the costumers. Composition technique was used to change the physical appearance of the message. Omission techniques was used to eliminate bad quality of Lazeta skin care product. Confusion was used to make confusion to the costumer's mind. Thus, the researcher found the modes of persuasion in Aristotle theory such as: personal character, put the audiences into a certain frame of mind, and shows the evidences.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Inside Cover ... i

Inside Title ... ii

Declaration ... iii

Thesis Advisor’s Approval Sheet... iv

Thesis Examiner’s Approval sheet ... v

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ... 1

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2.1.3.1 Personal character ... 9

2.1.3.2 Putting the audience into a certain frame of mind/Ability to control emotion ... 10

2.1.3.3 Apparent Proof or Evidence ... 11

2.1.4 Technique of persuasion ... 11

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 22

3.1 Research Approach ... 22

3.2 Technique of Data Collection ... 22

3.2.1 Source of Data ... 22

3.2.2 Research Instrument ... 23

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3.3 Data Analysis ... 24

CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS ... 26

4.1 Findings ... 26

4.1.1 The persuasive types used in Lazeta skin care advertisement ... 26

4.1.1.1 Intensification ... 26

CHAPTER 5: Conclusion and Suggestion ... 53

5.1 Conclusions ... 53

5.2 Suggestions ... 54

REFERENCES

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

Persuasion is the ability to achieve an agreement or conformity of the

speaker’s and the addressee’s willingness. It is a process to persuade others

to accept what the speaker or writer wants (Gani, dkk., 1987: 99). According

to W.IJsselsteijn, et al (2006: 1) persuasive is the efforts to influence our

behavior and attitudes, to convince us for spending our money on one

product rather than another, to vote for a particular political party, to stop

drinking or smoking, etc. Persuasive can be interpreted as an activity that is

performed by someone either spoken or written in order to influence others

to do something desired by the speaker or writer.

Persuasion is one of important linguistics studies which is connected

closely to society because persuasion became exist in every aspect in social

life for example persuasion can convince an addicts to seek professional

help, or persuasion can be a tool used by parents to urge children not to

accept rides from stranger, etc. Persuasion is also used in advertising product

and politics campaign where persuasion is used to persuade certain target of

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The technique of persuasion in advertisement is used to persuade the

consumer for consume and buy their product. Advertisement is a message to

recommend and to persuade the entire society to be interesting in the goods and

services offered (Kasali,1992: 16).. Advertising is an attempt to influence

consumers in the form of writing, picture , sound or a combination of all that is

directed at the entire society (Nitisemito 1994: 134). In this era, advertisement

becomes popular in our society. Many products are promoted by the company

using advertisement. Advertisement has a lot of influences on product sales.

Without advertisement, the companies have the difficulty to introduce their

products to the society. Advertisement present to make people interested and

know more about the product or service that the company want to sale.

Advertising is a form of marketing communication that uses media mass to

convey their message (Soemanagara,2006: 49). But nowadays advertising uses

not only media mass but also social media. In this case we can see that some

companies, travel agencies, traders, etc promote their product and their Services

in social media. According to Chris Brogan (2010:11) social media is a new

combination of communication and collaboration tools which allow the types of

interaction that were previously not available for the common person. It can be

explain that social media is an aplications or website that enable user to

participate or share and create content in social networking. Social media that

are frequently used to promote and sell their products are facebook, twitter,

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The companies use social media as a tool to advertise their product offered.

For example, Lazeta skin care by MD Clinic informs the products through

social media especially instagram. Instagram is a social media that is currently

popular. It makes companies and service interested to promote their product in

this social media.

Researcher about persuasive has been done by several researchers in various

genres, such as: Persuasive Strategies and Hats Off for Cancer Donations

(Janae, 2013), The Persuasive Strategies Produced By Zoe And Stan While

Dating In The Black Up Plan Movie (Tjong, 2010), Persuasion In International

Journals: Pragmatic Analysis ( Madya, 2016 ), Watch your Emissions:

Persuasive Strategies and Choice Architecture for Sustainable Decisions in

Urban Mobility ( Efthimios, et al, 2014 ).

There are three studies of persuasive that are used in advertisement. First, it

is conducted by Antony (2014) from Bharathiar University of India. This study

focuses on Indian printed media as the subject in this research. The second

researcher is done by Yunita ( 2014 ) from Indonesia who conducted a study

which took advertising on television as her subjects. The third researcher is

Umi ( 2015 ) that focuses on persuasive technique that is used in Colours

magazine. Most researchers used a persuasion of advertisement is that used in

printed media like magazine, newspaper and also television as the electronic

media. However there is still limited research that takes advertisement on social

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Yet, this research with the same tittle has been done by Lilis (2014) where

did a research titled “A discourse analysis on persuasion technique used in

smartfren advertisement”. This research conducted by students of UIN Sunan

Ampel Surabaya She focuses to identify the mode of advertisement and how

the way the persuasion techniques are applied on television commercial. She

takes the data from the website of Smartfren. She use Guy Cook and Gorys

Keraf theory to describe the relation of advertisement mode on attracting people

attention. This study focus on Smartfren advertisement but her researcher take

the data from website of Smartfren.

Here, the researcher tried to explore the previous research with this research.

Based on the previous explanation, the researcher intends to analyze the

persuasive techniques used by lazeta skin care advertisement on Instagram. The

researcher investigate what are types of persuasive techniques and the intended

meanings of the persuasion modes used by Lazeta skin care on Instagram. The

researcher limits the analysis focuses on the persuasive techniques that used by

Lazetya skin care advertisement on instagram.

1.2 Research Problem

1. What are the types of persuasive techniques used by Lazeta skin care

on Instagram ?

2. What are the intended meanings the modes of persuasion used by

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1.3 Research Objective

1. To describe the type of persuasive techniques used by Lazeta skin care

on Instagram.

2. To find out function of each persuasive techniquesused by Lazeta

skin care on Instagram.

1.4 Significant of the Research

The writer hopes this research can provide the benefits to study in

linguistics field, especially about the techniques of persuasive that use

persuasive theory and discourse analysis. The writer expects to help the

readers understand the techniques of persuasive. So, this research

becomes a reference for students that are interested in this topic and

want to organize further research.

1.5 Scope and Limitations

In this research, the researcher focuses on persuasion techniques

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1.6 Definition of key terms

To avoid any misunderstanding in deliverin the terms, the researcher

explains the meaning of terms used. Some terms are defined as follows :

Persuasion persuasion as the process of/skill of symbolic message

transmissions in order to appeal to emotions and to modify the persons

attitude or behavior (Dillard & Pfau, 2002: 11).

Lazeta skin care is Facial products from MD clinic in Bandung that are

freely sold on social media especially on instagram.

(www.justsimplereview.wordpress.com)

Advertising is impersonal communication of information about

products, services or ideas through the various media, and it is usually

persuasive by nature and paid by identified sponsors (Bovee, 1992:5).

Instagram is a free online photo sharing and social network platform

that was acquired by Facebook in 2012. (Margaret Rouse IT

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Chapter II

Review of related literature

2.1 Theoretical Framework

2.1.1 Discourse Analysis

Brown and Yule (1983:1) states that discourse analysis is committed to

investigation of what and how the language is used for. It means that the study

of discourse analysis is concerned about the language which is used for

interaction and how the addressee understand about the message. Brown and

Yule also argued that discourse analysis is the fundamentally concern with the

general principle of interpretation by which people normally make sense of

what they hear and read. It can be said that discourse analysis is the study that

concern with the written or spoken text. Then discourse analysis also has

relationship with the context. Context is a world filled with the people

producing utterances people who have social, cultural and personal identities

knowledge, beliefs, goals and wants, and who interact with one another in

various socially and culturally defines situation ( Schiffrin, 1994:364). It is

explain that discourse analysis involves the study of text and context. Context

related situation or conditions in which something occurs or exists

According to Kineavy ( 1971: 39 ) there are four types of discourse such

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referential discourse. Persuasive discourse focuses on the audience, the aim is

not to designate reality but to induce some practical choice or to prompt an

action (physical, intellectual or emotional). Unlike persuasive discourse,

expression makes little effort to bring about change in the audience.

Furthermore is literary discourse that refers to the types of discourse in which

the text or the product or the work itself is the focus of the process as worthy of

being appreciated in its own right. The last is referential discourse is a type of

discourse in which the use of language stresses the ability of language to

designate or reproduce reality, in a manner of speaking.

Thus, in this research the writer focuses on persuasive discourse only.

Persuasive almost found in advertisement as an effective way to introduce

product and service to the costumer. While creating an advertisement,

advertiser should use a correct technique to attract the customer intention.

2.1.2 Persuasion

Persuasion is used to influence other people to believe or to do

something. Larson (2004: 11) argued that persuasion is process changes

attitude, beliefs, opinion, or behavior. In this definition the process of

persuasion gets attention from the receiver. It explained that the purpose of

persuasion is the speaker tried to influence the receiver or the reader to do the

idea’s speaker without violence and coercion. According Aristotle persuasion

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logical appeals (logos) or combination of them ( Larson, 2004: 11). The formal

study of persuasion is called rhetoric. It explained as arts of discourse or more

precisely as the art of persuasive discourse ( Cockcroft, 1992: 3).

Larson ( 2004: 14) states that the focus of persuasion is not only on the

sender, the message, or the receiver, but all of them are equally focused on. All

of them have to make cooperative in making persuasive process. So, it can be

explained that persuasion is a result combined efforts of source and receiver.

From this explanation it can be concluded that persuasion is an effort to

persuade people by using the data or evidence and understanding the

psychological fact from receiver.

2.1.3 Mode of persuasion

Aristotle (1954: 24-26) classified that modes of persuasion furnished by

a spoken word into three types. The first type depend on the personal character

of the speaker , the second depends on the way of putting audience into a

certain frame of mind and the third depends on the apparent proof or evidence,

provided by the word of the speech itself.

2.1.3.1

Personal Character

Persuasion is achieved by the speaker personal character when

the speech is spoken to make us think that the speaker is credible. Keraf

(2003:21) suggests that in human relationship, character is one of the

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such as diction; sentence structure and others that become the speaker’s

totality. Such as personal character of someone who talks in television,

it can be measured from his language and his character. To make the

audiences credible with the speakers, the speakers have to know well

the problem that will be talked.

2.1.3.2

Putting the audience into a certain frame of mind/ Ability to control emotion

Persuasion may come through the audiences when the presenters

stir their emotion. In using such appeals, persuaders assess the

emotional state of their consumers and design artistic appeals for those

statements. The presenters also should stimulate consumer’s emotion if

necessary. The ability of controlling emotion is not only depends on the

consumers but also the presenters itself. In addition, the presenters

should prepare the content of the persuasion that is suitable with the

purpose intended (Keraf, 2003: 22). However, controlling the

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2.1.3.3

Apparent Proof or Evidence

Giving apparent proof is used to prove or empower the truth of

the object that persuaded. A requirement to be successful in persuasion

is that the persuader should provide sufficient evidence. Persuasion that

is done by persuader should show the truth that can guarantee the

product is better than other and it should not be too abstract for

consumers. One simple way of giving evidence is taking the society

with the product.

2.1.4 Technique of persuasion

All advertisements use persuasive techniques its used to convince us to

purchase a product or service or to support a cause. Larson ( 2004: 18) argued

that techniques of persuasion divided into two categories. Firstly, is intensify

their own good points and the weak point of the opposition. Secondly, is

downplay their own bad or weak point and the good point of the opposition.

The persuader can use repetition, association and composition to intensify their

own good point or the bad point of the opposition or they can use omission,

diversion and confusion to downplay their own bad point or the good point of

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2.1.4.1

Intensify

This technique has two sub strategies. Those are intensifying their own

good points and intensifying the weak point of the opposition. All persuader

want to look good in the eyes of the audience. in this technique the persuader

intensifies the own good points, for example: he is always been a willing and

honest servant for good causes. And other intensify the bad point of other

people, for example: he is got shifty eyes, I would not trust him ( Larson,

2004:20 ). It means this technique compared with the own idea and other

people idea. In the advertisement, this strategy used to claim the advantages of

the product or service. This technique divided into three techniques such as:

repetition, association, and composition.

2.1.4.1.1 Repetition

One way to intensify good or bad point about a product, person or

candidate is by repeating them over and over. It occurs in a slogan, jingle and

logo type. For example, in product of energizer battery “just keeps going and

going”. It presents in Television spot or on the packaging for the battery. This

repetition intensifies the good aims and emphasizes that the ultimate success

depends on each individual reader making an effort to end the slaughter of the

seals. Therefore, repetition is purposed to make a cognitive sense and also

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2.1.4.1.2 Association

Another technique for intensify is association. Larson (2004:21) states

that this technique relies on a there part process. Firstly, a cause, product or

candidate is linked. Second, to something already liked or disliked and the third

is by audience. Than the cause, product or candidate is identified with the thing

liked or disliked. In this technique persuader used careful audience analysis to

identify the fear, want and bias of the target audience, for example is in shoe

advertisement the persuader associates with well know professional athlete who

use them. It might associate the shoe with everyday people who are athlete.

(2004: 21) argue that this change comes across through the use of nonverbal or

visual means and take several forms, for example: the makeup of the printed

word can be changed as in changing “ U.S.A” to “ U$A” or “ America” to “

Amerika”. This technique also allows persuader to compare and emphasize that

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2.1.4.2

Downplay

In this technique the persuaders want to downplay their own bad point

at the same time downplay competitor good point. It is the opposite of the first

technique, for example ford and general motors firstly downplay a number of

Chrysler specially, Chrysler invented factory, rebate 7/70.000 warranties, the

minivan front wheel drive although both ford and general motor tried to match

Chrysler effort., firstly downplaying the opposite but after that left the two

latecomers with a “me too” image to be downplaying (Larson, 2004: 22). This

techniques are divided into three categories such as: omission, diversion and

confusion.

2.1.4.2.1 Omission

In this technique persuader simply leaves out critical information to

avoid highlighting the own shortcoming ( Larson, 2004: 22). However, this

technique tries to omit telling costumers about their own bad thing and the other

is good point. The purpose of this technique is to omit the bad point of the

message in order to influence the receiver, for example: is in Claussen Pickle

Company intensified its own good points when it advertised that its pickles are

refrigerated rather than cooked and are therefore much crisper than Vlasic

pickles, its major competition. They did this in television advertisement that

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Claussen pikle and the brust of juice from it really intensified Claussen is good

points. However, Claussen omitted telling consumers that, in order extend the

shelf life of the pickles, they contain more sodium that Vlasic pickles (their

own bad point) and that refrigeration is not necessary for Vlasic pickles

(the other is good point) (Larson, 2004: 23).

2.1.4.2.2 Diversion

This technique consists of shifting attention away from another good

point or one is own bad point. The basic purpose is to provide a substitute issue.

In this case persuader also used humor to divert attention. The key of the using

humor is to make a point that no one is perfect. In the other hand, it also used

highly emotional appeal sometimes called the ad hominem argument. For

example: ford motor company used of emotional appeals to divert attention

away from its own shortcoming in the design of the explorer. “ the vehicle had

a dangerous tendency to roll over, and a number of death or injuries resulted”

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2.1.4.2.3

Confusion

The last technique in downplaying is making confusion in the audience

mind. It used the highly technical terminology or jargon that the receiver does

not understand and creates confusion. Larson (2004: 24) argued that another

device for downplaying one is own weaknesses or the competition is strengths

through confusion is the use of faulty logic, for example: “She is beautiful! She

engaged! She use earth balsam hand crème!” the supposed logical progression

is that because “she” used the hand cream, she is beautiful and because she is

beautiful, she met and won the man of her dream (Larson 2004: 23). Therefore,

this technique is purposed to downplay the own bad point by using confusion.

2.1.5 Advertisement

Advertisement here equated with the concept of advertising. Belch and

Belch (2001:15) stated that Advertising is any delivery of information about

goods or services by using paid non personal media. Advertising is a process of

communication that has important strengths as marketing tools, help service, as

well as ideas and ideas through certain channels in form of information that is

persuasion.

Jones (2002:2) gives definitions of advertisement as a perpetually and

relentlessly commercial enterprise. It builds or protects business, which

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to do these tasks. Another definition about advertising as a paid non personal

communication, from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or

influence an audience (William lewis, 2000:4)

From the explanation above it can be concluded that the advertising is

the delivery of information of public about the goods or services offered

through the mass media and through the media posted in public places.

2.1.5.1

Types of advertisement

According to Kotler (2002: 658) there are three types of advertisement

such as:

1. Informative advertising

These advertisements have the following characteristics:

Purpose to establish or create awareness or recognition and

knowledge about, the product or new features of existing

products, Inform the price changes and product packaging,

Explain how the product works, Reduce the fear of consumers,

Correct.

2. Persuasive advertising

These advertisements have the following characteristics: Aiming

to create joy, preferences, and beliefs so that consumers want to

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choose a particular brand, Advise to buy, Changing consumer

perceptions, Persuade to buy now.

3. Reminder advertising

This advertisement has the following characteristics: Purpose to

encourage repeat purchases of goods and services, Remind that a

product has the possibility to is needed in the near future,

Remind the buyer where to buy the product, Maintain awareness

of products (consumer's state of mind), Establish a good

relationship with the consumer.

2.1.6

Previous study

The researcher find some of persuasive strategies that is used in

advertisement. it has been done by several researchers such as Antony (2014).

He conducts a research tittle “Language persuasion: a discourse approach to

advertising language”. The subject in this research is advertisements that

published in Indian print media. He uses discourse analysis approach to analyze

how the advertisement affect the human mind through their language that is

explored in the three levels : 1) Cohesion and coherence, 2) Speech acts and 3)

Ideology. The finding of this research is not necessary the advertisement used

an image. Because, the more number of cohesive and coherence markers use

textual level. These markers at textual level itself create persuasion among the

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answer method, problem- solution methods, suspense creating methods are

some of the most influencing attractive methods used in many of the textual

advertisements. There are no advertisements without ideology. If the ideology

is powerful the ads will be compatible. The weak ideology advertisement

remains stale and less persuasive.

Second researcher is Nuckfi from Maulana Malik Ibrahim State

University Malang (2016), she conducted a research tittle “Persuasive strategies

used in slogan of iphone advertisement”. This research focuses on the kind of

persuasive strategies in slogan of Iphone advertisements and the way the

advertiser implemented persuasive strategies in slogan of Iphone advertisement.

The researcher used Gory’skeraf and Aristotle theory about persuasive

strategies. The finding of this research is there are six kind of persuasive

strategies that used in slogan of Iphone advertisement, they are : rasionalization,

identification, compensation, hypnotic, conformity, and displacement strategy,

but the most frequent that used in this slogan is rasionalization, compensation

and hypnotic strategy. The adviser in this research used ethos, pathos and logos

technique to implementing the persuasive strategies in slogan of Iphone

advertisement.

The third researcher is done by Umi ( 2015 ) from Sunan Ampel State

University of Surabaya. She conducted to analyze persuasive technique that is

used in colours magazine. The researcher uses the theory from Larson (2014)

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the using of persuasive techniques that used in advertisement of colours

magazine and describing of those function. The result of this research is the

colours magazine advertisement uses five technique in persuasion they are

repetition, association, and composition to increase their own good point and

the bad point of the opposition. While used the techniques of omission and

diversion to downplay their own good point and the bad point of the opposition.

The last research is Madya from Muhammadiyah University of

Surakarta ( 2016 ) where did a research titled “ Persuasion In International

Journals: Pragmatic Analysis.” Her research is about the persuasive strategies

and hedging the strategies that applied in persuasive sentences used by native

and non-native English author in journals International. This research used

documentation method by using content analysis techniques. The writer

aanalyze 25 journals written by native English author and 25 jounals written by

non-native author using Aristotle’s persuasive strategies theory and Hyland’s

hedges strategies theory. The result from this study the native authors used 481

persuasive strategies which consist of 186 Ethos, 132 Pathos, and 189 logos. In

non-native author found 397 persuasive strategies which consist of 157 Ethos,

32 Pathos, and 208 Logos. In the use of hedges strategies the native authors use

803 hedges which consist of 62 Attribute Hedges, 463 Reliability Hedges, 149

Writer Oriented hedges, and 129 Reader Oriented Hedges. On the other hand,

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Reliability Hedges, 113 Writer-Oriented hedges , and 133 Reader Oriented

Hedges.

Unlike the previous studies, this research studies about technique

persuasive of advertisement on Instagram only focus on technique persuasive

that use on social media especially on instagram of Lazeta skin scare. The

researcher take and collect the data from Instagram of Lazeta skin care. This

study examines the types of persuasive techniques and the intended meanings

of the persuasion modes used by Lazeta skin care on Instagram. Though, this

present study applied Larson and Aristotle technique and modes of persuasion.

Larson suggest there are two categories of techniques persuasion they are

intensify and downplaying. There are 3 types techniques persuasion to intensify

their own good point or the bad point of the opposition such as: repetition,

association and composition. There are also 3 types technique persuasion to

downplay their own bad point or the good point of the opposition such as:

omission, diversion and confusion. And there are three types in modes of

persuasion such as: depends on the personal character , the second depends on

the way of putting audience into a certain frame of mind and the third depends

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Chapter III

Research method

3.1Research Approach

In this research, the writer used descriptive qualitative approach.

Daymon and Holloway (2002:14) stated “Qualitative research focuses

on words rather than numbers, although occasionally numbers are used

to indicate the frequency that a theme is found in transcripts or the

extent to which a form of action occurs”. It means that the qualitative

research is describe the data in the form of word it is reasonable for this

research.

3.2Technique of Data Collection

3.2.1 Source of data

The data of this research were all of the language that

Lazeta skin care used for their advertisement which contains the

persuasive language. The data source is the picture some

products of Lazeta skin care advertisement on Instagram. The

researcher found all the advertisement of Lazeta skin care from

@mdglowingskin account on instagram. It is the official account

that give all information about Lazeta skin care start from the

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promote their products, etc. The resercher took the caption and

picture that they used for promote their product become the main

sources in this research.

3.2.2 Research instrument

The main instrument is the researcher herself as the data

collector, conduct and analyze the data based on the theory.

Maleong (2013:168) states that researcher is a planner, analyzer,

the data interpreter, the data collector and the reporter of their

research. It means that the researcher is the main tool to

conducted this research. The data from this research were

collected by searching on instagram account used mobile phone

or laptop.

3.2.3 Data Collection

The researcher used some steps for collecting the data which

consist of:

1. Selecting advertisement that contains advertisement mode

based on picture and caption that is used or writing on

instagram account @Mdglowingskin

2. Taking the data source with screenshot advertisement picture

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3. Classifying the data into two categories of persuasive

technique and three categories modes of persuasion used by

Lazeta skin care product.

3.3Data Analysis

In analyzing the data the researcher uses some steps which

consist of:

1. Identifying the kinds of persuasive technique on the picture

and caption (writing) of Lazeta skin care advertisement on

Instagram.

2. Classifying the data and data source based on two persuasion

techniques by Larson. That is intensifying which is decided

into three categories such as repetition, association and

composition. Then the downplaying also is decided into

three categories such as: omission, diversion and confusion.

3. Describing the picture and caption based on the theory.

4. Analyzing the data and discusses it clearly.

5. Analyzing the modes of persuasion by Aristotle theory.

6. Making a conclusion about the finding of the persuasive

techniques used by Lazeta skin care advertisement in their

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modes of persuasion that exist in this advertisement based on

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Chapter IV

FINDING AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the finding that is obtained from the research and

the discussion of the result. It includes the kind of persuasive techniques and

the modes of persuasion which are applied by Lazeta skin care products.

4.1 Findings

4.1.1 The persuasive types used in Lazeta skin care advertisement

The researcher uses persuasive techniques by Larson, such as

intensification and downplaying technique. Intensification technique consists of

repetition, association and composition. Downplaying technique consists of

omission, diversion and confusion. And it will be explained on analysis below:

4.1.1.1 Intensification

In this research, Lazeta skin care uses intensification technique to attract

the consumen and then buy the product of Lazeta skin care. To intensify the

brand name and the quality of skin care by Lazeta, there are three categories of

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4.1.1.1.1 Repetition

The first technique of Lazeta skin care advertisement is Repetition. In

order to persuade people, the advertiser uses repetition on a single word or

sentence. The researcher finds this technique in data 1 below:

Picture 1

The advertiser shows picture 1 included the brand name and slogan for

the advertisement. The advertiser repeats “Md glowing as the brand name of

this product” and shows it in every picture to imprint on memory of the reader

or consumer especially the users of Instagram to identify, to recognize, and to

respond. Thus, the advertiser purposely wants to make the reader easier to

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The researcher also finds the same sentences that use in all pictures of

the product in this advertisement. The advertiser chooses the good diction in

their advertisement “ always listening to your skin". It indicates that the

advertiser tries to give information that their product can make skin good, clean

and another benefits that we want about our skin. Therefore, the advertiser uses

this slogan. Moreover, this slogan becomes the characteristic of Lazeta skin

care product and makes people easier to remember this advertisement. Hence,

this advertiser uses repetition technique for this advertisement. Thus, the next

point explains about the second category of intensification that is association.

4.1.1.1.2 Association

To intensify the quality of the Lazeta skin care product, this

research uses association technique. This technique tries to link the

product with the readers' like or dislike. It means that the advertiser

associates the emotional appeal of the reader. The researcher finds the

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Picture 1 Picture 2

Picture 1 shows the teenage actress called Randy Martin and the second

picture shows Randy Martin with Casandra Lee as his girl friend. In the first

picture, Randy martin wears a white t-shirt with the neat hair and put his hand

beside his head and Lazeta skin care product in front of him. It indicates how

clean his face is because of this product. The advertiser endorses Randy martin

and uses this picture for the advertisement to show that this product is intended

to the teenagers or young man. On the other hand, in the second picture, the

advertisement shows Randy and Casandra as the model. It indicates that this

product is not only intended to the boys but also for girls. Here, the advertiser

also tries to make their costumer realize that there is an interesting thing which

makes Randy and Casandra have a good skin as on the picture above. It can be

inspired all of the teenagers that they can have a good skin like their idol. The

advertiser wants all teenagers feel that they have connection with their idol by

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Picture 3

The third picture above, Lazeta skin care as the famous product on

instagram is endorsed by Aghnia Punjabi as the brand ambassador or model of

Md glowing skin Luxury cream by Lazeta for teenager. The advertiser knows

that Selebgram now becomes famous on Instagram especially for woman

teenager. In the picture above, Aghnia holds the Luxury cream from Lazeta, she

wears pink clothes, headcarf and also sunglasses on her head. Actually, this

style now becomes a trend fashion on beauty blogger, selebgram or among

other woman teenager. Indirectly, the advertiser wants to give an information

through the picture that this product is produced for teenegers. Therefore, this

advertisement applies the technique of association to influence the costumer

especially for woman teenager. The advertiser also give an information that this

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Picture 4

In picture 4, the advertiser also uses Nikita Willy as endorsee for their

product. In the picture above, Nikita looks beautiful with long hair and her left

hand touches her left cheek with smile on her lips. Besides, she also shows the

Md glowing luxury cream from Lazeta. From the picture, the advertiser wants

to show that looks clean using Md glowing luxury cream because the product

makes her skin soft and glow. The advertiser uses Nikita to persuade the

costumers easily through her personal character. As we know that she is a

famous entertainer so she has a she has 2,4 million followers in her Instagram

account, so it will be easy to affect the costumers especially her followers to

buy product which is endorsed by her. Hence, this advertisement links the

Luxury cream with Nikita as a famous entertainer from Indonesia. Therefore, if

common people like Nikita, they will link her to Luxury cream. So, they will

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Picture 5

From the picture 5, the advertisement shows the picture of Nagita

Slavina. She posses and holds the milk cleanser product by Lazeta beside her

cheek. The advertiser links Milk cleanser product by Lazeta with Nagita

Slavina to intensify a good point of this product. From this picture, the

costumer can see that Nagita looks glowing and also has a good skin. The

advertiser actually knows that Nagita has a lot of followers on her Instagram

account, then it makes easier for her to attract the attention of her followers or

fans to buy this product. So, this advertisement gives the fundamental idea for

the costumers if they want to be cool and beautiful, they have to use this

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Picture 6

In the next picture, the advertiser shows Amy R Qanita as the model for

Md glowing sun screen cream by Lazeta. The picture shows that Amy poses

with holding the Md glowing product by wearing sunglasses and also standing

around the date palm tree as her background. In this picture, Amy wears

sunglasses which means that Amy stands in the hot weather. This picture also

looks bright, it means that the advertiser wants to give information that this

picture is taken in the afternoon and also there is no lighting around her because

she wears sunglasses. The advertiser links this picture to the Md glowing sun

screen product that shows through this picture about when we have to use this

product. In addition, the advertiser also tries to give information that the

product can protect our skin from the sunshine. This advertiser influences the

old woman like Amy to uses this product and buy product which is endorsed by

her.

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Picture 7

From this picture, it gives the information that Md glowing skin by

Lazeta presents the event Ramadhan called “Ramadhan Ngangenin”. The

process of persuasion is begun by showing its visual effect which indicates that

the event is attended by Makuta Princess (Laudya Cynthiabella) and also shows

the arrangement in this event such as tausiah, music performance and we can

break fasting together with Makuta princess. Besides that, the picture also

presents all of the sponsors for this event. It means that the advertiser tries to

intensify its excellence. It associates this advertisement with the big event

which is very attractive to readers. The advertiser also associates to the readers

who like Princess Makuta, so they can be interested on this event and know

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Data 5

In data 5 shows the picture of Medina Zain in the brochure. This

brochure contains of invitation for all the costumers from Md glowing for the

exclusive break fasting together with @medinazein on Friday 16th June 2017 in

Numericca 29 botolempangan street, Makassar. The advertisement affects the

customers to come and join on this event that is attended by Medina Zein as the

CEO. People who are wondering about the CEO of Md glowing by Lazeta

surely be interested and attend on this event. Hence, the advertiser associates

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Picture 8

Picture 8 shows all of the brand ambassadors of Md glowing skin by

Lazeta. The advertiser links all of the Celebrities and Selebgrams as the brand

ambassadors with Md glowing skin product by Lazeta. It identifies between the

brand ambassador with Md glowing skin, so it can affect and attract the

costumer who adore them to buy Md glowing skin by Lazeta. Therefore, the

advertiser links the brand ambassadors in their advertisement.

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Picture 9

Picture 9 shows Medina Zein as the CEO from Md glowing by Lazeta.

She smiles and holds the Md glowing product by Lazeta. The advertiser uses

Medina to show the costumers that CEO of Md glowing also uses th e product.

It also shows her looks which is glowing and having a good skin because of

using the product. However, the advertiser wants to make sure that the product

has been tasted and proved by the CEO before it is sold. The advertisement

intensifies the good quality from this product by associating Md glowing

product with her CEO.

4.1.1.1.2 Composition

The researcher also finds the technique of Composition in Md glowing

product. This technique emphasizes the own good characteristic by changing

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Picture 11

As from the picture, the advertiser tries to give the information about

products of Lazeta skin care. The advertiser tries to intensify the good point of

Lazeta skin care. It can be seen in writing of “ Lazeta ”. The advertiser changes

the name of brand Lazeta with a new symbol that is more beautiful and makes

easy to remember by the readers or the costumers. It is supposed to make

Lazeta different from another skin care and also explains the quality of Lazeta

skin care with changing the physical appearance. Hence, this advertisement

uses technique of composition.

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Picture 12 shows the old packaging from Md glowing Toner by Lazeta

skin care. And now they use a simply packaging but elegant, and brighter than

before. They also change the picture with different background. It can be seen

on pictures 12 and 13. The new picture has a match background with new

packaging of toner product. It is more attractive than the old er picture.

Whereas, the second is about taking the picture and editing before they upload

on instagram. Picture 12 is accustomed than picture 13. It surely makes the

costumers are not interested with this product. Therefore, the advertiser changes

the physical makeup (visual elements) of this product to promote their product

in order to attract the customers so they are interested to buy this product.

4.1.1.2 Downplaying

This technique is divided into three categories such as omission,

diversion and confusion. This technique is used to downplay the weakness of

the quality for this skin care product, but at the same time downplay is a good

quality than other products.

4.1.1.2.1 Omission

Omission technique is the technique that is used to give an

information about the bad quality by saying something detail with omit

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to underestimate other products by sublimating the language. This

technique is presented as the data below:

Picture 14

Picture 14 shows the machine of Lazeta skin care that is used in

their factory to produce Md glowing skin. It shows the detail

information about production of the products. In this picture, advertiser

only shows the machine of this product, but they do not show the

process of production and packaging (negative points). The advertiser

downplays the negative point by persuading and giving the information

for costumer that they have a good product which is produced by the

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about the packaging and process of production Md glowing products

by Lazeta.

4.1.1.2.2 Confusion

This technique uses confusion technique to make customers' mind.

It uses the highly technical terminology that makes the costumer does

not understand and creates confusion. It is presented as below:

Picture 15

Picture 15 shows Kartika Putri as the other brand

ambassador from Lazeta product. She poses with showing her

long hair that blows by the wind, but it still looks neat. When the

costumers see this picture, they will think that Lazeta wants to

show the new product that relates with her hair. They will think

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makes confusion for the costumers after they see this picture. In

this case, the advertiser appeares the faulty logic of the

costumers to downplay the fact that this advertisement or

message from this pictures is less persuasive as negative point

from Lazeta skin care product. Therefore, the advertiser uses

technique of confusion in their advertisement.

Picture 16 Picture 17

From the pictures of 15 and 16, there are two of women

who pose and show similar hair colors. Picture 15 shows the

long hair of Shanty and picture 16 shows the short hair of Angel.

When the costumers see this picture, they will think that Lazeta

wants to show the new product that has a connected with their

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advertisement that released by Lazeta. Therefore, it makes

confusion for the costumers after they see this picture. In this

case, the advertiser appeares the faulty logic of the costumers to

downplay the fact that this advertisement or message from this

pictures are less persuasive as negative points from Lazeta skin

care product. Therefore, the advertiser uses technique of

confusion in their advertisement.

Data 1

From the caption above, it is said that “travel is like knowledge,

the more you see, the more you know you haven’t see the world”. And

then “ Let’s see the world with our daily skincare product that you

already seen with us”. The supposed logical progression is that because

you have already seen the healthy skincare products you can see the

world. Hence, this technique makes the readers are confused with the

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world with daily skincare product. This technique is purposed to

downplay the negative point by using technique of confusion.

4.1.2 Modes of persuasion

The researcher uses mode of persuasion by Aristotle that is divided into

three types. The first type depends on the personal character of the speaker, the

second type depends on the way of putting audience into a certain frame of

mind. And the third depends on the apparent evidence that is provided by the

word of the speech itself.

4.1.2.1 Personal character

The personal character of the speaker is the mode of persuasion

that is defined by someone who has good character and high credibility.

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Video 1

In video 1, the presenter of this advertisement is Hamidah

Rahmayanti. The advertiser uses Hamidah as the presenter to give

information about Md glowing luxury series because of her personal

character. As we know that Hamidah is the one of the famous hijaber,

beauty blogger and also Selebgram who has a lot of followers. In this

product, Hamidah also able to use persuasive language for the

advertisement. She catches the consumers' attention and make them feel

that they need to but this product. She also gives some evidences to

strengthen her statement and reveals why she uses persuasive language

advertisement. This is the way to answer the intended meaning, modes

of persuasion language advertisement in using the way to persuade

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Video 2

The personal character of this research can be seen from the

profile of the presenter itself. Nikita Willy as an actress who has a good

performance, good self-confidence, and also has a great ability to speak

as the scenario. In this video, Nikita shows about the tutorial of using

Md glowing platinum by Lazeta skin care. it also gives an information

about the benefit of each product in Md glowing platinum product. In

the last scene, Nikita shows on the mirror that after using the Md

glowing series see looks more fresh and glowing. Here, Nikita tries to

catch the consumers' attention through the evidence that she has

obtained after using the product itself. Thus, the next modes of

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4.1.2.2 Putting The Audience Into a Certain Frame Of Mind/

Ability To Control Emotion

The advertiser assess the emotional state of their

consumers and design artistic appeals for those statements. The

presenters also should stimulate consumer’s emotion if

necessary. It is presented below:

Picture 18 Picture 19

Pictures of 18 and 19 show Nikita Willy and Nagita Slavina as

the celebrities from Indonesian who have a lot of followers on their

Instagram accounts. The advertisement uses these pictures to make the

costumers think that their idols have healthy skin and look glowing

because of using this product. Thus, the customers will need to buy this

product to make their skin healthy and look glowing as their idols. This

advertisement contains the persuasive language because of its intended

meaning. So, it will make the consumers buy and grab the product in

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The advertiser uses pictures of the famous Selebrities such as

Nagita slavina, Randy Martin, Casandra Lee and Nikita Willy on

Instagram account of Lazeta to catch the costumers' attention, so they

can be interested and thinking about famous actresses who use this

product. Customers will think that these actresses look clean and

glowing because of this product. They will also need this product to

become more beautifull or handsom and also have a glowing, healthy

and good skin like their idol.

4.1.2.3 Apparent Proof or Evidence

Persuasion that is done by persuader should show the truth that

can guarantee the product is better than other and it should not be too

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Picture 14 Picture 15

This advertiser shows the evidence of using this product by

showing those pictures. The advertiser shows the girl who has used

the product of Lazeta skin care. From picture 14, it shows the girl

who has dull skin before uses this product and becomes glowing

after using MD glowing by Lazeta skin care. Picture 15 shows the

face which has a lot of acne before uses this product and then

becomes glowing and the acne from her face is faded after using this

product.

4.2 Discussion

Based on the finding which is described above, there are several things

that can be noted from each research problem. The first research problem is

“what are the types of persuasive techniques used by Lazeta skin care on

Instagram?”. The researcher uses technique of persuasion by Larson. There are two

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persuader can use repetition, association and composition to intensify their

good point or bad point from the competitor or they can use omission, diversion

and confusion to downplay the negative point. But, in this research, the

researcher finds three types of intensify technique such as repetition,

association and composition. And two types of downplay, they are omission

and confusion.

The result of the finding of the first research question is contrast with

the result by Umi (2015). Umi (2015) examines the technique of persuasion and

its function on Colours magazine. The result showed this research in uses five

technique in persuasion they are repetition, association, and composition to

increase their own good point and the bad point of the opposition. While used

the techniques of omission and diversion to downplay their own good point and

the bad point of the opposition. Meanwhile, the result of the finding in this

research shows that the researcher do not find the technique of diversion in

Lazeta skin care advertisement. Diversion is the technique which consists of

shifting attention away from another good point or the own negative point.

On the other hand, the researcher finds the most common type which is

used by this advertisement, it is association. Association technique uses to link

the product with the readers' like or dislike. It means that the advertiser

associates the emotional appeal of the reader.. In this advertisement, the

researcher finds that the advertiser tries to associate or link several famous

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Almost the entire products of Lazeta use association technique to make the

consumers believe and interested to buy this product. Other reason is because

there are several actresses who have good skin after using product from Lazeta

skin care.

The second research problem is “what are the function of each

persuasive techniques used by Lazeta skin care on Instagram?”. Basically,

technique of persuasion involves three kinds of intended meanings of modes

persuasion such as personal character, putting the audience into a certain frame

of mind or ability to control emotion and apparent the evidence.

Personal character is one of fundamental ideas in persuasion shown on

the picture2, picture 3, picture 4, picture 5, picture 6, and video 1. It shows that

this advertisement uses personal character to catches the consumer attention and

make them feel that they need to buy this products. The second fundamental of

persuasion is putting the audience into a certain frame of mind or ability to

control emotion. The advertiser shows the picture 4 and picture 5 to makes the

consumers think that their idols use product skin care from Lazeta and have

beautiful and healthy skin. So, they are interested to buy and use this product

too. The third is apparent the proof and evidence. The evidences are needed in

showing to consumers that this advertisement is surely true. Besides that, the

evidences are needed to make successful in persuading the consumers. The

advertiser shows picture 14 and picture 15 to makes the costumer believe about

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Thus, this research present the technique of persuasion and modes of

persuasion in media social advertisement especially the famous product skin

care on instagram. The researcher finds the confusion technique to downplay

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Chapter V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion

After the findings of the data in chapter IV, the researcher makes

conclusion for this research including the answer for each research problem.

For common advertisement, persuasion is important thing to make consumers

are interested with the product. It can be seen from Lazeta skin Care

advertisement which becomes popular product on Instagram because the

persuasive technique that they use to promote their product. In Lazeta skin care

advertisement, there are two techniques to influence the consumers. To

intensify their own good point or the bad point of the opposition, the advertiser

uses repetition, association and composition technique. And then to downplay

their bad or good point of the opposition, they use omission and confusion

technique. The writer also finds common techniques that Lazeta skin care used

in their advertisement, it is association technique.

Secondly, another technique that is used to persuade the costumers also

depends on the intended meaning of persuasion modes such as personal

character, putting the audience into a certain frame of mind or ability to control

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The other techniques to persuade the consumers are also depend on the

intended meaning of using Modes persuasion, they were the personal character of

the speakers, the presenters ability in controlling the consumers emotion, and the

the advertisers should give the evidences.

5.2 Suggestion

Finally, the researcher hopes this research can give contribution to other

researchers especially for those who will conduct a similar research with the

same topic in order to use other theory and more complete and better. The

researcher also suggests for the next researcher to take another subject for

persuasive technique such as use film, phenomenon in our environment,

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Belch G.E. and Belch, M.A. 2001. Advertising and promotion: An Integrated

Marketing Communications Perspective. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.

Bothos, E., Apostolou, D., & Mentzas, G. “Choice architecture for

environmentally sustainable urban mobility”. In CHI'13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM. (2013).

Bovee, Courtland L, dan Arens, William F, Irwin Homewood. Illionis. 1992

Contemporary Advertising. US : Richard D Irwin, Inc.

Brogan, Chris. 2011. “Social Media 101 Tactic and Tips to develop your

Business Online”. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, Gilliant and Yule, George. 1983. “Discourse Analysis”. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Budiani, Yunita Sari. 2014. “An analysis of Persuasive Techniques Used in

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Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publishers.

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