Increasing The Students Ability in Speak (2)

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Teks penuh

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INCREASING THE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN SPEAKING SKILL BY USING THEME BASED MODEL AT THE SEVENTH GRADE

OF SMP NEGERI 2 LOTU IN 2015/2016

THESIS

By:

CHRYSMAN JAYA MENDROFA

Register Number. 122108022

INSTITUTE OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF GUNUNGSITOLI FACULTY OF EDUCATION OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS

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INCREASING THE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN SPEAKING SKILL BY USING THEME BASED MODEL AT THE SEVENTH GRADE

OF SMP NEGERI 2 LOTU IN 2015/2016

THESIS

Submitted to:

Institute of Teacher Training and Education of Gunungsitoli in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements

for the Degree of SarjanaPendidikan

BY:

CHRYSMAN JAYA MENDROFA

Register Number. 122108022

INSTITUTE OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF GUNUNGSITOLI FACULTY OF EDUCATION OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS

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ABSTRACT

Mendrofa, Chrysman Jaya, 2016,

Increasing the Students’ Ability in Speaking

Skill by using Theme Based Model at the Seventh

Grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu.

Thesis Advisor (1) Adieli Laoli, S.Pd.,M.Pd, (2) Dra. Nursayani Maruao M.Pd

Key Words: Theme Based Model, Speaking

Speaking is one of communication ways to make people capable of expressing their minds, feelings, and making some interactive process of communication orally, face to face communication, give information, expressing self and make some close relationship. In syllabus of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu, the students hoped are able to speak in English by using oral language in accurate figure, accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, and accept with environtment.

The purpose of this research is to increase the students’ ability in speaking by using Theme Based Model. To achieve the purpose, the research used Classroom Action Research. The subject of this research is the students at the seventh grade especially class VII-a of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu which the total students of the class VII-a are 25 persons. This research applies in two cycles. Each cycle consists of two meetings. In conducting each cycle the researcher did it in some steps, they are; planning, action, observation and reflection. The instrument used by the researcher to collect the data are observation paper, field notes, oral test and camera (recorder). In collecting the data, the researcher uses two data; they are qualitative data and quantitative data.

Based on the result of the students’ observation paper in Cycle I, there were 10 students who had done activities and 15 students who undone the activities. The result of the students’ oral test in Cycle I, it showed that there were 5 students got level of ranting 2 with score between 43-52, 12 students got level of ranting 2+ with score between 53-62, and 7 students got level ranting 3 with score between 63-72. The average of the students’ value is 57.48.

In conducting Cycle II, the researcher re-panned and improved the weakness of the activities of Cycle I in order that the result which was expected in this research could be achieved. In Cycle II the result of the students’ observation paper showed that there were 23 students who had done activities and 2 students who undone the activities. The result of the students’ oral test in Cycle I, it showed that there were 20 students got level of ranting 3+ with score between 73-82 and 3 students got level of ranting 4 with score between 83-92. The average of the students’ value is 75.56.

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ii students’ ability in speaking.

(b) In teaching speaking thought Theme Based Model, the teacher should has a good preparation in other that the students will be successful in speaking. (c) The teacher should motivate the students to convey their idea during the teaching learning process. (d) The students should master many vocabularies because by mastering English vocabulary will help the students in speaking.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, the researcher would like to express his sincere gratitude to Jesus Christ. Because of his blessing, the researcher was able to finish this thesis with entitle “Increasing the Students’ Ability in Speaking skill by Using Theme Based Model at the Seventh Grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu in 2015/2016”. Started from the time in proposing the title, writing the thesis proposal, doing the research, until finishing in writing this thesis, there were many kinds of obstacle faced by the researcher. But the researcher could pass it well because of love and mercy of Jesus Christ.

During studying in IKIP Gunungsitoli until finishing his study and even since proposing the topic of this thesis, the researcher obtained many kinds of helps, supports, motivation from many people. Therefore, the researcher would like to express great special appreciation and gratitude to:

1. Mr. Drs. Henoki Waruwu, M.Pd as the Rector of IKIP Gunungsitoli for his supports and motivations to the students of IKIP Gunungsitoli.

2. Mr. Adieli Laoli, S.Pd., M.Pd, as the Dean of FPBS and also as the researcher’s first advisor, who always guides his by giving wonderful input, time, motivation, suggestion, and ideas in finishing the thesis.

3. Mrs. Dra. Nursayani Maru’ao, M.Pd as the researcher’s second advisor who never feels bored to give motivation, correction, and ideas in finishing the thesis.

4. Mrs. Dra. Sulasmi as researcher’s advisor of academic.

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6. Mr. Afore Tahir Harefa, S.Pd., M.Hum as the examiner of education and Mr. Yaredi Waruwu, S.S.,M.S as the examiner of study who always give advices and new knowledge in finishing the thesis.

7. All of the lecturers in English department at IKIP Gunungsitoli who have taught his well during studying at IKIP Gunungsitoli.

8. The researcher’s innermost appreciation also goes to his beloved parents Yasoziduhu Mendrofa, A.Ma. Pd (father), Mariani Lahagu (mother) Tuty Marnita Mendrofa Amd. Keb (sister), Cornelis Verdinan Mendrofa, Amd. Kep (old brother), Johan Erwin Mendrofa (young brother), Merwin Viantaty Zandroto as his motivation and for his families for a most amazing and kindness in his life, who always give love, advices, prayers, motivations, supports, and many other things that cannot be expressed by words.

9. The headmaster of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu (Mr. Waonaso Harefa S.Pd), the English teacher in SMP Negeri 2 Lotu (Mr. Boroli Zega S.Pd), and the students at the seventh grade especially VII-A in SMP Negeri 2 Lotu 2015/2016 that help the researcher in finishing the thesis.

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Finally, the researcher realizes that the thesis is far from being perfect. Therefore, he hopes all constructive suggestions and criticisms so the thesis can be better. And hopefully the thesis will be useful for the readers.

Sesungguhnya,..

Penyesalan terbesar dalam hidup kita itu

Bukan ketika kita gagal, tetapi ketika kita tidak melakukan hal yang

Sebenarnya bisa kita lakukan tapi tidak melakukannya.

Gunungsitoli, July 2016 The researcher,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ………. i

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS……….... iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS... vi

LIST OF TABLES ... x

LIST OF GRAPHICS... xi

LIST OF FIGURES ... xii

LIST OF APPENDICES ... xiii

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. The Background of the Problem ... 1

B. The Identification of the Problems ... 4

C. The Limitation of the Problems ... 4

D. The Formulation of the Problem ... 4

E. The Purpose of the Research ... 5

F. The Significance of the Research ... 5

G. The Assumptions of the Research ... 5

H. The Research Limitations ... 6

I. The Key Terms Definitions of the Research ... 6

CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ... 8

A. Theoretical Framework ... 8

1. Speaking ... 8

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b. The Purpose of Speaking ... 8

c. Types of Speaking ... 9

d. Element of Speaking ... 11

e. Speaking Strategies... 13

f. Teaching Speaking ... 13

g. Principles of teaching Speaking ... 14

h. How to Assess Speaking ... 14

2. Content Based Instruction (CBI) ... 18

a. The Definition of Content Based Instruction ... 18

b. The Type of Content Based Instruction ... 18

c. The Theme Based Model ... 19

d. The Procedures to Implementing The Theme Based Model ... 19

e.The Adventages and Disadventages Using Theme Based Model ... 21

f. The Relationship between Speaking and Theme Based Model ... 22

B. The Lates Related Research ... 23

C. Conceptual Framework ... 23

CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHOD ... 26

A. The Object of the Action ... 26

B. The Setting and Subject of the Research ... 27

C. The Schedule of the Action ... 28

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E. The Instrument to Collecting the Data ... 34

F. The Techniques of Data Analysis ... 36

CHAPTER IV : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ... 42

A. Research Findings ... 42

1. The Research Setting ... 42

2. The Explanation of Each Cycle in Increasing the Student’s Ability in Speaking Skill by Using Theme Based Model... 43

B.Research Findings Discussions ………. 67

1. The Common Response of the Problems...… 67

2. The Analyses and Interpretation of the Research Findings ………... 68

3. The Research Findings versus the Latest Related Research...……… 70

4. The Research Findings Versus the theory…………... 71

5. The Research Findings Implication…... 72

6. The Analyses and Research Findings Limitation…… 73

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS...……… 74

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B.Suggestions………. 75

BIBLIOGRAPHY...……….. 76

APPENDICES...……… 78

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x

LIST OF TABLES

1. The Weighting Table of the Interview Scoring ……… 16

2. The Conversion Table ……….. 17

3. The Condition of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu... 27

4. The Weighting Table of the Interview Scoring ……… 39

5. The Conversion Table ……….. 40

6. The Students’ Speaking Ability in Cycle I……….. 52

7. The Students’ Speaking Ability in Cycle II……….... 62

8. The Researche’r Ability in Teaching Speaking by Using Theme Based Model in all Cycle... 63

9. The Students’ Activities in all Cycles ……… 64

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LIST OF GRAPHICS

1. The Researcher’s Observation Paper in Cycle I...………. 49

2. The Students’ Observation Paper in Cycle I...………. 50

3. The Students’ Ability in Speaking in Cycle I... 52

4. The Researcher’s Observation Paper in Cycle II...………. 60

5. The Students’ Observation Paper in Cycle II...………. 61

6. The Students’ Ability in Speaking in Cycle II... 63

7. The Comparison of the Researcher’s Ability in Teaching Speaking Skill by Using Theme Based Model in All Cycles (done and undone)... 64

8. The Comparison of the Students’ Ability in All Cycles (done and undone)... 65

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LIST OF FIGURES

1. The Framework ………. 25

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LIST OF APPENDICES

1. Syllabus……….. 78

2. Lesson Plans……….. 81

3. Material (Expression of love)...……….. 93

4. Table of Spesification……….... 94

5. Students’ Evaluation Paper... 96

6. The Field Notes of Researcher’s Activities... 106

7. The Observation Paper of the Students’ Activities... 110

8. The Observation Paper of the Researcher’s Activities... 122

9. The List of Students’ Name... 130

10.The Test Instument Validity... 131

11.The Students’ Attandance List... 135

12.The Students’ Proficiency Description and Proficiency Level... 136

13.The Phonetic Transcription ... 140

14.The pictures of the students’ and researcher’s activities in All cycles... 150

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INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of the Problem

Speaking is one of the important skills in English beside listening, reading, and writing. It is important because speaking is always used in activity life. Collins (1991: 1339) says, “Speaking is the activity of giving speeches and talk”. It means that speaking is one of the skills in language that important for someone to express his or her idea and feeling orally”. According to Nunan (2001: 29), “Speaking is the way of presenting information to tell a story, describing something, giving a set of instruction, making a comparison and those that are evaluating, giving explanation, making a justification, predicting, coming to a decision and making interview”.

In doing speaking skills, the students can share in personal experience through direct participation in giving and taking of conversation, discussion and express the idea in real time. And it supported by Rivers (1970: 162) says, “To teach the speaking skill it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the process involved in speech”.

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In the syllabus of SMP N.2 Lotu particularly at the seventh grade, there are four skills that should be owned by the students. One of the skills is speaking. The competence standard is the students are able to speak in functional oral text and short conversation. Based on the basic competence, the students are able to convey the meaning in short functional oral text by using oral language in accurate figure, fluent, and accept with environtment. The indicator hopes the students are able to express and conveying the meaning in short functional oral text in some expressions such as exspession love by using oral language in accurate figure, accent, grammar vocabulary, fluency and comprehension, and accept with environtment.

In speaking the students should be competence to express their ideas, opinions and feelings both of their English class in everyday life. To achieve the target in this syllabus the school has decided Minimum Competence Criterion (MCC) of the English subject especially in the seventh grade is 65.

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The problems above affected by some facts, such as: The technique or model that the teacher uses in teaching speaking does not activate the students to speak and also the lack of the students’ vocabulary. So, the students are not participate and motivate to speak, the students are not able to share their experience with their friends, the students are not able to perform, to model, and to express their ideas within conversation, the students are not able to convey their ideas through speaking. They just get the traditional model from the English teacher, namely; write, read and hold a discussion, but no one of the students say anything, they are so lazy and often keep silent, the students are passive when teaching and learning process heppened in the classroom.

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Based on the explanations above, the researcher wants to do the research to solve the students’ problem and propose the title “Increasing the Students’ Ability in Speaking Skill by using Content Based Instruction (CBI) espeacially in Theme Based Model at the Seventh Grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu in 2015/2016”.

B. The Identification of the Problem

In speaking process, the researcher identifies the problems, they are: 1. The lack of the students’ vocabulary.

2. The students are not participate and motivate to speak.

3. The students are not able to convey their ideas through speaking. 4. The students are not able to share their experience with their friends. 5. The students are not able to perform, to model, and to express their ideas

within conversation.

6. The technique or model that the teacher uses in teaching speaking does not activate or less variation the students to speak.

C. The Limitation of the Problem

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D. The Formulation of the Problem

The problem above is formulated as follows: “How does the Content Based Instruction (CBI) espeacially in Theme Based Model increase the students’ ability in speaking skill espeacially in expression love at the Seventh grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu in 2015/2016?”.

E. The Purpose of the Research

The purpose of the researcher is to increase the students’ ability in speaking skills especially in expression love by using Content Based Instruction (CBI) espeacially in Theme Based Model at the seventh Grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu in 2015/2016.

F. The Significances of Research

There are some significances of this research can be useful for: 1. The students, as contributions for them to be able to speak.

2. The researcher, as a guideline in applying a new model namely Content Based Instruction (CBI) espeacially in Theme Based Model as a choice to increase the students’ ability in speaking skill.

3. The teacher can use this model as guidelines in order to engage the students more interest in learning English speaking.

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G. The Assumptions of the Research

The researcher has some assumptions in this research, they are: 1. Speaking is one of the important things in communication. 2. Speaking is very important for the students in mastering English.

3. Content Based Instruction (CBI) espeacially in Theme Based Model is applicable to be used in teaching English skill.

H. The Limitation of the Research are as follows

1. The subject of this research is the seventh grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu especially class VII-A in 2015/2016.

2. The object of this research is the students’ ability in speaking skills especially in expression love.

3. The researcher will use classroom action research (CAR) as the research method.

4. This research will focus to increasing students’ ability in speaking skill especially in expression love by using Content Based Instruction (CBI) espeacially in Theme Based Model.

I. The Key Terms Definitions of this Research

To avoid misunderstanding during this research, the researcher wants to give some explanation that concern to the definition of this research title:

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Theoretical Framework

1. Speaking

a.

The Definitions of Speaking

According to Harmer (1991: 87) speaking is a way to tell and express something orally that will make rehearsal, feedback, and engagement toward people. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and processing information by telling and express something orally (Brown, 1994; 27).

Based on the theory above the researchers conclude that Speaking is one of communication ways to make people capable of expressing their minds, feelings, and making some interactive process of communication orally face to face communication, give information, expressing self and make some close relationship.

b. The Purpose of Speaking

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According to Tsui (1996: 154), “the purpose of teaching speaking is communicative efficiency”. That’s why we can say that speaking can be used to seek or express opinions, to describe things, to complain about people, and others. Students should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation.

Based on the theory above the researcher conlclude that the purpose of speaking is to communicate with the other people to present information, to tell about something, express felling, giving a set instruction, making a comparison and those that evaluate, giving explanation, making a justification predicting, coming to a decisions and making interview.

c. Types of Speaking

According to Brown (1986: 271), that there are six types with the obvious connection between listening and speaking, six similar categories apply to the kinds of oral production that students are expected to carry out in the classroom, namely:

1) Imitative

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2) Intensive

Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include any performance that designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive speaking can be self initiated or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are going over certain forms of language.

3) Responsive

A good deal of the students’ speech in the classroom is responsive, short replies to teacher or students initiated question or comments. Such speech can be meaningful and authentic.

4) Transactional (conversation)

Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended form of responsive language.

5) Interpersonal

The other form of conversation mentioned in the previous chapter was interpersonal conversation, carried out more for the maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information. 6) Extensive

Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels are called on to give extended monologue in the form of oral reports, summaries, or perhaps short speeches.

Moreover according to Maria del Mar Suárez Vilagran (2008:25), that there are three types speaking, namely:

1) Interactive

a) Face-to-face conversation b) Telephone calls

c) We are alternately listening and speaking

d) Chance o ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner.

2) Partially Interactive

a) Giving a speech to a live audience, where the conversationis that the audience does not speak.

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3) Non-Interactive

a) When recording a speech for a radio braodcast. b) Performing in a play.

c) Reciting a poem d) Singing

Based on the types above, someone that has speaking competence will be able to accept the information easily through listening and assist someone to submit or to produce the good information through speaking.

d. Elements of speaking

According to Harmer (third edition 1991 : 269-267), the ability to speak fluently presupposes not only a knowledge of language features, but also the ability to process information and language on the spot.

1) Language features

Among the element necessary for spoken production are the following: a) Connected speech

Effective speaker of English need to be able not only to produce the individual phonemes of English (as in saying I would have gone) but also to use fluent connected speech (as in “I’d gone”). In connected speech, sounds are modified (assimilation), omitted (elision), edit (linking) or weakened (through construction and stress patterning)

b) Expressive devises

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suppresser mental and device in the same way if they are be fully effective communicators.

c) Lexis and Grammar

Spontaneous speech is marked by the use of the number of common lexical phrases, especially in the performance of certain language functions. Teacher should therefore apply a variety of phrases for different function such as agreeing or disagreeing, expressing surprise, shock, or approval. Where the student are involved in specific speaking contexts such as job interviews, we can prime them in a same way, which certain useful phrases, which they produce at various stages of an interaction.

d) Negotiation Language

Effective speaking benefits from the negotiator language we use to seek clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying. We open need to ask for clarification when we are listening to someone talk. For students this is especially crucial. e) Mental/social processing

Success of speaking also depended upon the rapid processing skills that talking necessitates.

f) Language processing

Effective speakers need to be able to process language in their own heads and put it into coherent order so that it comes out in forms that are not only comprehensible, but also convey the meanings that are intended. Language processing involves the retrieval of words and phrases from memory and their assembly into syntactically and propositionally appropriate sequences. One of the main reasons for including speaking activities in a language listen is to help students develop ambits and rapid language processing in English.

g) Interacting with others

Most speaking involves interaction either one or more participants. This means that effective speaking also involves a good deal of listening, and understanding of how the other participants are feeling and a knowledge of how linguistically to take turns or allow other to do so.

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Quite a part from our responses to others’ feelings we also need to be able to process information they tell us the moment we get it.

e. Speaking Strategies

According to Tsui (1996: 154), there are six strategies for overcoming anxiety and reluctance to speak, namely:

1) The first strategy was to lengthen the amount of time between asking a question and nomination someone to respond.

2) The second strategy was to improve questioning techniques. 3) Third strategy, by teachers was to accept a variety of answers. 4) The fourth strategy was to give learners an opportunity to rehearse

their responses in small groups or pairs before being asked to speak up in front of the whole class.

5) The fifth strategy, reported as effective was to focus on content rather than form.

6) The sixth strategy, identified by the teacher was to establish good relationships with the students.

Based on the explanation above the researcher concludes that is the key to encourage the students to communicate.

f. Teaching Speaking

According to Nunan (2003 : 97), teaching speaking is to teach ESL learners to:

1) Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns.

2) Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language.

3) Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter.

4) Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence. 5) Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments. 6) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural

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Based on the statements above the researcher conclude that addressed for the teachers as their skill and target in teaching speaking and assist student in learning speaking easily.

g. Principles for Teaching Speaking

According to Nunan (1991: 42), there are five principles for teaching speaking, namely;

1) Be aware of the differences between second language and foreign language learning context.

2) Give students practice with both fluency and accuracy.

3) Provide opportunities for students to talk by using group work or pair work and limiting teacher talk.

4) Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning.

5) Design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking.

Based on the principles above the researcher conclude that these five principles for planning speaking lesson in language classroom that can be used to help language learners gain practice in speaking in the target language.

h. How to Assess Speaking

To assess speaking skills, the researcher will use the steps according to Hughes (1941: 111-113).

Accent INDICATORS

1. Pronunciation frequently unintelligible.

2. Frequent gross errors and a very heavy accent make understanding difficult, require frequent repetition. 3. “Foreign accent” requires concentrated listening, and

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4. Marked “foreign accent” and occasional mispronunciations which do not interfere with understanding.

5. No conspicuous mispronunciations, but would not be taken for a native speaker.

6. Native pronunciation, with no trace of “foreign accent.”

Grammar INDICATORS

1. Grammar almost entirely inaccurate phrases.

2. Constant errors showing control of very few major patterns and frequently preventing communication.

3. Frequent errors showing some major patterns uncontrolled and causing occasional irritation and misunderstanding. 4. Occasional errors showing imperfect control of some patterns

but no weakness that causes misunderstanding. 5. Few errors, with no patterns of failure.

6. No more than two errors during the interview.

Fluency INDICATORS

1. Speech is so halting and fragmentary that conversation is virtually impossible.

2. Speech is very slow and uneven expect for short or routine sentences.

3. Speech is frequently hesitant and jerky; sentences may be left uncompleted.

4. Speech is occasionally hesitant, with some unevenness caused by rephrasing and groping for words.

5. Speech is effortless and smooth, but perceptibly non-native in

Vocabulary INDICATORS

1. Vocabulary inadequate for even the simplest conversation.

2. Vocabulary limited to basic personal and survival areas (time, food, transportation, family, etc).

3. Choice of words sometimes inaccurate, limitations of vocabulary prevent discussion of some common professional and social topics.

4. Professional vocabulary adequate to discuss special interests; general vocabulary permits discussion of any non-technical subject with some circumlocutions.

5. Professional vocabulary broad and precise; general vocabulary adequate to cope with complex practical problems and varied social situations. 6. Vocabulary apparently as accurate and extensive as that of an educated

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speech and evenness.

6. Speech on all professional and general topics as effortless and smooth as a native speaker’s.

Comprehension INDICATORS

1. Understands too little for the simplest type of conversation. 2. Understands only slow, very simple speech on common social

and touristic topics; requires constant repetition and rephrasing.

3. Understands careful, somewhat simplified speech when engaged in a conversation, but may require considerable repetition and rephrasing.

4. Understands quite well normal educated speech when engaged in a conversation, but requires occasional repetition and rephrasing.

5. Understands everything in normal educated conversation expect for very colloquial or low-frequency items, or exceptionally rapid or slurred speech.

6. Understands everything in both formal and colloquial speech to be expected of an educated of an educated native speaker.

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Score: Accent + Grammar + Vocabulary + Fluency + Comprehension

Value = Obtained score X 100 Maximum score

The total of the weighted is then looked up in the following table, which converts it into a ranting on scale 0-4+.

Table 2

THE CONVERSION TABLE

*) Sign ( + ) shows the middle position between two degrees. Which:

1. Proficiency Description Score 1

The students are able to rich their needs and the rule in speaking.

2. Proficiency Description Score 2

The students are able to rich their needs by routed and have limited.

3. Proficiency Description Score 3

The students can use the language by the grammatically and it has important role in daily activities.

4. Proficiency Description Score 4

The students can use the language in fluently.

Ranting Score Ranting Score Ranting Score

0+ 16 – 25 2 43 – 52 3+ 73 – 82

1 26 – 32 2+ 53 – 62 4 83 – 92

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5. Proficiency Description Score 5

The students able to speak like foreigner and can speak in good pronunciation.

2. Content Based Instruction (CBI)

a. Definition of Content Based Instruction (CBI)

According to Karges-Bone (2001: 28) Content Based Instruction (CBI) is a great model to increase and gesture the students’ participation and jazz up instruction in speaking. It supported by Rowe (1960: 432), says “Content Based Instruction (CBI) is particularly effective with students, for broadening and increase the students’ participation and promoting one person to talk at a time”.

Based on the theory above the researcher conclude that Content Based Instruction (CBI) is model that activate the students to increase and gesture the students’ participation and jazz up instruction in speaking and it will appropriate for teacher and students when use in the classroom to increse the students’ ability in speaking skills.

b. The Types of Content Based Instruction (CBI)

According to Rhalmi (2009 : 31), there are several types of role in Content based Instruction (CBI), namely:

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“sheltered” because learners are given special assistance to help them understand regular classes.

2) The Adjunct Model: Undertaken by ESL teachers. The aim of Adjunct classes is to prepare students for “mainstream” classes where they will join English L1 learners.

3) The Theme Based Model: These classes can be taught by EFL teachers who create content material based on the needs and interests of the students.

Based on the types on page before, the researcher conclude to use Theme Based Model to teach the students about speaking skill at the seventh grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu.

c. The Theme Based Model

According to Rhalmi (2009: 35), “The Theme Based Model: These classes can be taught by EFL teachers who create content material based on the needs and interests of the students”. It supported by Davies (2003 : 2) says,

“Theme Based Model is usually found in EFL contexts, Theme Based CBI Model can be taught by an EFL teacher or team taught with a content specialist. The teacher(s) can create a course of study designed to unlock and build on their own students’ interest and the content can be choosen from an enormous number of deverse topics”.

Based on the statements above, the researcher conclude that The Theme Based Model is a model that appropriate to appy in the classroom to teach the students about speaking skills at the seventh grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu.

d. The Procedures to Implementing The Theme Based Model

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1) A subject of interest is chosen.

2) Finding suitable sources that deal with different aspects of the subject. These could be websites, reference books, audio or video of lectures or even real people.

3) Using small groups

4) Assigning each group a small research task and a source of information in the target language to use to help them fulfil the task. 5) Groups sharing and comparing information.

6) A result in the form of an end product such as a report or presentation of some kind.

Moreover according to Stoller

(

2001: 63) there are some procedures to apply Theme Based Model they are;

1) Choose a subject of interest to students.

2) Find three or four suitable sources that deal with different aspects of the subject. These could be websites, reference books, audio or video of lectures or even real people.

3) Divide the class into small groups and assign each group a small research task and a source of information to use to help them fulfil the task.

4) Then once they have done their research they form new groups with students that used other information sources and share and compare their information.

5) There should then be some product as the end result of this sharing of information which could take the form of a group report or presentation of some kind.

Based on the precedures above the researcher will modify the procedures:

1) The researcher prepares the material to the students. 2) The students are divided into groups.

3) The researcher introduces the material about expression of love. 4) The researcher asks the students experience about expression of love. 5) The researcher asks the students to choose a theme related to expression

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6) The researcher asks the students in group to share their experience about expression love with their friends in group that related to the theme which determined by the students.

7) The researcher asks the students to make a conversation by using expression of love based on the theme which determined by them.

8) The students in group are invited to perform, to model, to express the expressions of love that obtain within conversation that have been made by them.

9) The researcher and the students take the conclusion together about the using of expression love based on the definition and example from the conversation that had been performed by the students.

10) The researcher improves the student’s mistake by considerating their proficiency description in accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

e. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Theme Based Model

According to Rhalmi (2009: 37), there are some advantages in using Theme Based Model in teaching-learning are;

1) Language learning becomes more interesting and motivating. 2) CBI especially in Theme Based Model offer a wide educational

knowledge to learners in the formS of the different topics instructed.

3) It helps students Increas valuable study skills such as note taking, summarizing and extracting key information from texts.

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Based on the advantages above, the students are trained more active to talk at the time to express their ideas, opinions, and thoughts.

The disadvantages in using Theme Based Model faced by teacher in teaching speaking are;

1) CBI especially in Theme Based Model implicit language instruction can confuse learners and may give them the impression that they are not actuallylearning language.

2) Overuse of native language can be a problem in some parts of the lesson.

3) Finding information sources and texts that lower levels can understand can be difficult.

Realizing the disadventeges above, the researcher is demanded to become creative and imaginative in finding the solution to solve the disadventeges above.

f. The Relationship between Speaking and Theme Based Model

Stoller, (1986:623), showed that Theme Based Model can be effectively used to teach speaking. It support by Brewster (1999:32) says, “The Theme Based Model is distinctive from the traditional approaches in four feature”.

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B. The Latest Related Research

Tjuwinunggoro (2007) in his thesis (unpublished) had made a research about increasing students’ speaking ability by using Content Based Instruction especially in Theme Based Model in SMP Negeri 1 Surabaya. The subject was class B of the eighth grade. There were 24 students in class B. The conclusion of the research is the students of the eighth grade got development in speaking after apply Theme Based Model in teaching speaking for the students. In the last meeting on his research, the average of the students got mark 85, while MCC is 65.

From the latest related research above the researcher concludes that using Content Based Instruction especially in Theme Based Model is very good and suitable to be used to teach the students in speaking skill.

In this research there are some difference case about the speaking skill, the research uses Theme Based Model at the seventh grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu to increase the students ability in speaking skill. The subject of this research is the students of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu at the seventh grade. The both research are different because this research uses Theme Based Model which has a certain character, principles, and procedures of implementing it.

C. Conceptual Framework

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In the syllabus of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu, speaking is taught to the students. But in fact, most of the students are not able to share their experience, the students are not participate and motivate to speak, the students are not able to perform, to model, and to express their ideas within conversation, and the students are not able to convey their ideas through speaking.

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Material

Procedures

Teaching-learning process

Advantage The goal of

Teaching-Learning

The students’ achievement Speaking

Theme Based Model

Figure1:

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26

RESEARCH METHOD

A. The Object of the Action Research

In doing this research, the researcher applied the Classroom Action Research (CAR). As stated by McNiff (2006:1), action research talks about improving practice, but talks less about improving learning as the basis of improving practice and even less, it is used as the new theory and an important contribution to the world of ideas. In other words, Classroom Action Research is important action for the teachers who are competent in improving practice, and also how the teacher is able to transform the learning into the new learning and new practice that will be benefit for the students.

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the researcher and the students during the teaching and learning processes could be observed well.

B. The Setting and Subject of the Research

The setting of the research was SMP Negeri 2 Lotu that is located on Maziaya village, Lotu. The total numbers of the teachers were 16 persons and two of them were English teachers. The school consisted of 6 classes, the seventh grade consisted of 2 classes, the eighth grade consisted of 2 classes, and the ninth grade consists of 2 classes and the total students for all grades were 140 persons. The subject of the research was VII-A (seventh class students which was consisting of 25 students). The researcher chose class VII-A, because the students in the class has problems in learning speaking. The real condition of the seventh grade students of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu could be seen as below.

Table 3

THE CONDITION of the SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS of SMP NEGERI 2 LOTU in 2015/2016

No Class Total

1 VII-A 25

2 VII-B 21

TOTAL 46

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C. The Schedule of the Action

Based on the planning, the researcher conducted the research around two months. It started on April – May 2016 refers to the education calendar and syllabus of the seventh grade of SMP Negeri 2 Lotu.

D. The Procedures of Implementing the Action

In doing this research, the researcher arranged the procedures of the action implementation in one cycle or more. The cycle consisted of some activities, they were:

1) Planning that involved the determination of learning material and determination of the schedule in implementing it.

2)Action was the realization of theory and teaching strategy. It was aimed to solve the problem.

3)Observation was done with the process of learning activities it was running in the class, and it involved the students’ activities, the development of material and the result of the learners.

4)Reflection involved the analysis activities of learning result with arranging the improved plan for the next cycle.

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Cycle I

Cycle II

Preliminary study

Planning

The researcher looking for the syllabus, prepares the lesson plan, material, and prrepares the

Action

The researcher devided the students into groups, introduce the material, asked the students

experience, then asked the students to chose a theme related to expressions of love, invited

the students to share their experience with their friends, asked the students to arranged a

Successful

Reflection

The researcher notes, analyzes and evaluates the result of observation sheet and evaluation sheet as reflection and make improvisation for the next cycle.

Improving and revising lesson plan, material,

and the weaknesses and going the cycle II. Unsuccessful

Observation

The teacher collaborator observing the students’ action, respond, attitude and weaknesses during teaching learning process, and observing the researcher’s activities.

Figure 2: Implementation of the Action to Increase the Students’ Ability in Speaking Skill by Using Theme Based Model

Planning

The researcher looking for the syllabus prepares the lesson plan, material, and prrepares the

Action

The researcher devided the students into groups, introduce the material, asked the students

experience, then asked the students to chose a theme related to expressions of love, invited

the students to share their experience with their friends, asked the students to arranged a

Reflection

The researcher notes, analyzes and evaluates the result of the observation sheet and evaluation sheet as reflection.

Observation

The teacher collaborator observing the students’ action, respond, attitude and weaknesses during teaching learning process, and observing the researcher’s activities.

Conclusions

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Based on the figure before, it was conducted in two cycles and in each cycle consisted in two meetings. The time allocation in each meeting was 2x40 minutes. The researcher arranged each meeting as follows:

Cycle I:

1. The First Meeting

a. Planning

1) The researcher prepared the syllabus. 2) The researcher arranged the lesson plan.

3) The researcher prepared the speaking materials.

4) The researcher prepared the observation paper of the students’ activity. 5) The researcher prepared the observation papers of the researchers’

activities.

b. Action

1) The researcher prepared the material to the students. 2) The students were divided into groups.

3) The researcher introduced the material about expression of love. 4) The researcher asked the students experience about expression of love. 5) The researcher asked the students to choose a theme related to expression

of love.

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7) The researcher asked the students make a conversation by using expressions of love based on the theme.

8) The students in group were invited to perform, to model, to express the expressions of love that obtain within conversation that had been made by them.

9) The researcher and the students took the conclusion together about the use of expressions of love based on the definition and example from the conversation that had been performed by the students.

10) The researcher improved the student’s mistake by considering their proficiency description in accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

c. Observation

1) The researcher observed the students’ activities during the teaching – learning process.

2) The researcher observed the students’ attitude during the teaching – learning process.

d. Reflection

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4) The researcher evaluated field notes and plan what should be improved in the next meeting in order that the students got success in learning the material that they had studied.

2. The Second Meeting

a. Planning

1) The researcher arranged the lesson plan.

2) The researcher prepared the speaking materials.

3) The researcher prepared the observation paper of the students’ activity. 4) The researcher prepared the observation papers of the researchers’

activities.

b.

Action

1) The researcher prepared the material to the students. 2) The students were divided into groups.

3) The researcher introduced the material about expression of love. 4) The researcher asked the students experience about expression of love. 5) The researcher asked the students to choose a theme related to expression

of love.

6) The researcher asked the students to share their experience about expressions of love with their friends related to the theme.

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8) The students in group were invited to perform, to model, to express the expressions of love that obtain within conversation that had been made by them.

9) The researcher and the students took the conclusion together about the use of expressions of love based on the definition and example from the conversation that had been performed by the students.

10) The researcher improved the student’s mistake by considering their proficiency description in accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

c. Observation

1) The researcher observed the students’ activities during the teaching – learning process.

2) The researcher observed the students’ attitude during the teaching – learning process.

d. Reflection

1) The researcher noted the observation result. 2) The researcher analyzed the observation result. 3) The researcher evaluated the observation result.

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In implementing the procedure of Theme Based Model in Cycle I, the result of the students’ ability in speaking skill was unsuccessful. Most of the students could not pass of Minimum Competence Criterion (MCC) 65, average of students’ score was 57.48. Therefore the researcher decided to continue in Cycle II.

Cycle II:

1. The First Meeting

a. Planning

1) The researcher prepared the syllabus. 2) The researcher arranged the lesson plan.

3) The researcher prepared the speaking materials.

4) The researcher prepared the observation paper of the students’ activity. 5) The researcher prepared the observation papers of the researchers’

activities.

b. Action

1) The researcher prepared the material to the students. 2) The students were divided into groups.

3) The researcher introduced the material about expression of love. 4) The researcher asked the students experience about expression of love. 5) The researcher asked the students to choose a theme related to expression

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6) The researcher asked the students to share their experience about expressions of love with their friends related to the theme.

7) The researcher asked the students make a conversation by using expressions of love based on the theme.

8) The students in group were invited to perform, to model, to express the expressions of love that obtain within conversation that had been made by them.

9) The researcher and the students took the conclusion together about the use of expressions of love based on the definition and example from the conversation that had been performed by the students.

10) The researcher improved the student’s mistake by considering their proficiency description in accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

c. Observation

1) The researcher observed the students’ activities during the teaching – learning process.

2) The researcher observed the students’ attitude during the teaching – learning process.

d. Reflection

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3) The researcher evaluated the observation result.

4) The researcher evaluated field notes and plan what should be improved in the next meeting in order that the students got success in learning the material that they had studied.

2. The Second Meeting

a. Planning

1) The researcher arranged the lesson plan.

2) The researcher prepared the speaking materials.

3) The researcher prepared the observation paper of the students’ activity. 4) The researcher prepared the observation papers of the researchers’

activities.

b. Action

1) The researcher prepared the material to the students. 2) The students were divided into groups.

3) The researcher introduced the material about expression of love.

4) The researcher askeed the students experience about expression of love. 5) The researcher asked the students to choose a theme related to expression

love.

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7) The researcher asked the students make a conversation by using expressions of love based on the theme.

8) The students in group were invited to perform, to model, to express the expressions of love that obtain within conversation that had been made by them.

9) The researcher and the students took the conclusion together about the use of expressions of love based on the definition and example from the conversation that had been performed by the students.

10) The researcher improved the student’s mistake by considering their proficiency description in accent, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

c. Observation

1) The researcher observed the students’ activities during the teaching – learning process.

2) The researcher observed the students’ attitude during the teaching – learning process.

d. Reflection

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4) The researcher evaluated field notes and plan what should be improved in the next meeting in order that the students got success in learning the material that they had studied.

E. The Instruments to Collecting the Data

There were two kinds of the data in this research to be collected, namely qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data was the data that refers to the students and researcher activities, behavior and attitudes in the class during teaching learning process. The data was obtained from the researcher and students activities in the classroom. Meanwhile, quantitative data was the data that refers to increasing the students’ ability in speaking skill by using Theme Based Model. The data was obtained from the students’ ability in speaking skill.

In collecting the data in this research the researcher used the research instrument namely:

1. Observation sheet

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2. Oral Test

The oral test was used to know the students’ ability in studying. The oral test was done by the students at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure their ability in speaking and to know the students’ weakness or mistakes after the researcher applied the Theme Based Model. Kinds of oral test that used were interview and conversation. Interview was conducted in the beginning and conversation conducted in the end.

3. Handy cam

This instrument was used to record the video clips and took photos about the researcher’s activities and the students’ actions during the teaching-learning activities. Clearly, this instrument was useful for the researcher to record the students’ speaking when evaluated them in oral test.

4. Filed notes

It was a piece of blank paper used by the teacher-collaborator to know the weakness, strength and improvement during the teaching-learning process in the social events.

F. The Techniques of Analyzing Data

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1. Analyzing the Qualitative data

Qualitative data is the data that refers to the students and researcher activities, behavior and attitudes in the class during teaching learning process. The data was obtained from the researcher and students activities in the classroom. To analyze the qualitative data the researcher was done in three steps as follows:

a. Reduction data.

Reduction of data is evaluating and classifying the data based on information and must be organized according to the statements of this research.

b. Explanation data.

Explanation of data is all the data that have been organized by the researcher must be classified to get the meaning.

c. Conclusion data.

Conclusion is after the explanation of the data made, the researcher took some conclusion about the data in statement of formula form.

To gain the percentage of the students’ and researcher’s activities related to the qualitative data obtained from the observation paper, the researcher analyzed by used a formula below adapted from Tuckman (1975: 287) in Nugiyantoro as below:

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Which:

PD : Percentage degree

F : Frequency of the researcher’s and students’ activities have been already done

T A : Whole activities of the researcher and the students 100 : Constant and maximal number of percentage

Then it is classified as Nurgiyantoro (2001:399) says, to the following scale (%). 1) For the researcher’s activities

0% - 39% : the degree of teaching level is fail. 40% - 59% : the degree of teaching level is less. 60% - 74% : the degree of teaching level is enough. 75% - 84% : the degree of teaching level is good. 85% - 100% : the degree of teaching level is very good. 2) For the students’ activities

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2. Analyzing the Quantitative data

Quantitative data is the data taken from the evaluation result which is conducted by the researcher. To gain the average of the students’ ability related to quantitative data obtained from the oral test, the researcher analyzed the quantitative data by using a formula as written by the researcher (See Chapter II, Part d, pages 15-18). The steps are:

a. Scoring the students’ speaking record by considering the proficiency description to the weighting table of interview scoring (Chapter II, Part h, pages 15 by Hughes 1989). After considering the proficiency description to the weighting table of interview scoring, finally the researcher calculates the total score of the students (See Chapter II, Part h, page 15). The table as below:

Table 4

WEIGTHING TABLE

PROFICIENCY DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 (A)

Accent 0 1 2 2 3 4

Grammar 6 12 18 24 30 39

Vocabulary 4 8 12 16 20 24

Fluency 2 4 6 8 10 12

Comprehension 4 8 12 15 19 23

SUM

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Score: Accent + Grammar + Vocabulary + Fluency + Comprehension

Table 5

THE CONVERSION TABLE

*) Sign ( + ) shows the middle position between two degrees.

Which:

1. Proficiency Description Score 1

The students are able to rich their needs and the rule in speaking.

2. Proficiency Description Score 2

The students are able to rich their needs by routed and have limited.

3. Proficiency Description Score 3

The students can use the language by the grammatically and it has important role in daily activities.

4. Proficiency Description Score 4

The students can use the language in fluently.

5. Proficiency Description Score 5

The students are able to speak like foreigner and can speak in good pronunciation.

Value = Obtained score X 100 Maximum score

Ranting Score Ranting Score Ranting Score

0+ 16 – 25 2 43 – 52 3+ 73 – 82

1 26 – 32 2+ 53 – 62 4 83 – 92

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Then, it can be interpreted into some categories, as follows: 85%-100% = Very good

75%-84% = Good 60%-74% = Adequate

40%-59% = Less

0%-39% = Very weak

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46

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

A. Research Findings

1. Research Setting

The setting of the research was SMP Negeri 2 Lotu that is located on Maziaya village, Lotu. This school had some rooms, such as: the headmaster’s room, teacher’s room, classrooms, library, canteen and a large yard as a place of ceremony. The school consisted of one headmaster, a vice-headmaster, some teacher included with civil servant and some office clerk.

The total number of the teachers were 16 persons and two of them were English teachers. The school consisted of 6 classes, the seventh grade consisted of 2 classes, the eighth grade consisted of 2 classes, and the ninth grade consisted of 2 classes and the total students for all grades were 140 persons. Every year this school always accepted new students to studied in this school. This school always got positive remarks from the people because of its very potential contribution with the children around the place where the school exists. This school holds the teaching-learning process in the morning at 07.15 am – 13.05 pm. All the members of the school were cooperative with the resercher.

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researcher was helped by the English teacher of SMP Negeri 2 lotu. The teacher was as the observer of the students’ and the researcher’s activities in order tha the activities could run well and got the valid result.

2. Explanation of Each Cycle in Increasing the Students’ Ability in Speaking Skill by Using Theme Based Model

In doing this research, the researcher took 2 cycles which consisted of a meeting in each cycle.

a. Cycle I

In doing Cycle I, the researcher took 2 meetings with allocation 2x40 minutes. The process of the research in Cycle I as follows:

1) The First Meeting

The first meeting was held on Friday, 22nd April 2016.

a) Planning

In doing the first meeting, the researcher prepared somethings, such as: lesson plan, material, field notes and the observation sheets.

b) Acting

After planning, the researcher conducted the action in the classroom. Meeting I Cycle I, was held on 22nd April 2016. The teaching-learning process

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present list. After checked the students’ presented list the students were divided into groups after the students were divided into groups the researcher introduced the material about expression of love to the students by using some example, after explain about the expression of love the researcher continued by asking the students experience about exspression of love.

Furthermore, after the researcher asked the students experience about exspression of love, the researcher asked the students to chose a theme related to expression of love. the researcher continued by asking the students to make a conversation by using expression of love based on the theme. After each group finished their discussion by making a conversation, the researcher asked the students in each group to perform, to model, to express the expressions of love that obtain within conversation that had been made by them. While the students in other groups listened carefully when their friend practiced.

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c) Observation

In this research, the analysis of the observation sheets was to know the researcher and the students’ activities during the teaching-learning process especially during conducted the research in the first meeting of Cycle I that was observed by the eacher collaborator.

Reffering to the result of the researchers’ and students’ activities during conducted the teaching-learning process in the first meeting in Cycle I, Some weaknesses of the students’ and researcher’s were found during the teaching-learning process in this meeting, as follows.

 Only a few students who were able to answer the researcher’s question.

 Some of the students were not able to work together with their friends in the group in got the information about the materials based on the theme.

 The researcher was not asked the students to got the information about the material based on the theme that has been chosed by them.

 The researcher was not asked the students to shared and compared the information with their friends in group about kinds of the expression that used based on the theme provided by them.

Besides, there were also some strength of the researcher’s and students’ after applying Theme Based Model in the first meeting, such as below:

 Some of the students were participated and motivated to speak.

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d) Reflection

In the first meeting, based on the result of the observation sheets that was expained in the previous part, the researcher did some improvements in the next meeting, such as:

 The researcher asked the students to got the information about the material based on the theme that has been chosed by them.

 The researcher asked the students to shared and compared the information with their friends in group about kinds of the expression that used based on the theme provided by them.

 The researcher asked and motivated the students to work together with their friends in the group, in getting the information about the materials based on the theme.

 The researcher asked and involved the students to make a conclusion for the the materials.

 The researcher modified the procedures to applied in the classroom for the next meeting

2) The Second Meeting

The second meeting was held on Tuesday, 26rd April 2016. It needed

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a) Planning

In doing the second meeting, the researcher prepared manythings, such as: lesson plan, material, recorded (camera), field notes and two picies of the observation sheets.

b) Acting

The researcher was accompanied by the teacher-collaborator to entered the class. The researcher greeted and motivated the students. Furthermore, the researcher reviewed the last material and explained the mistakes that must be avoided in speaking especially in expressing of love. Then, the researchers divided the students into groups and continued their last discussion about expression of love. Each the student in group has different reason ability and the researcher had to make sure that work properly. The researcher asked each the students in group to practice their conversation in turn before they presented it in front of the classroom.

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c) Observation

Reffering to the result of the researchers’ and students’ activities during conducted the teaching-learning process in the second meeting in Cycle I, the researcher got the data about the students who had done and undone the activities:

- Done activities : 7 persons of 25 students. - Undone activities : 18 persons of 25 students

Some weaknesses of the students’ and researcher’s were found during the teaching-learning process in this meeting, as follows.

 Some of the students were not able to work together with their friends in the group, in got the information about the materials based on the theme.

 Some of the students in groups were not able to the express their idea by using Theme Based Model

 The students did not done the test seriously.

Besides, there were also some strength of the researcher’s and students’ after applying Theme Based Model in the second meeting, such as below:

 Some of the students were participated and motivated to speak.

 The students showed good response when the researcher gave instruction to them.

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- Done activities : 10 of 11 activities - Undone activities : 1 of 11 activities

d) Reflection

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0

Ranting 2 Ranting 2+ Ranting 3 Students Absent

Table 6

THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY IN CYCLE I

Mcc Score Ranting

Absent

Frequency Percentage (%) Clasification Meeting

The result of the students’ ability in Cycle I before can be viewed in the graphic as below.

Graphic 1

Figur

Table 1
Table 1 . View in document p.34
Table 2
Table 2 . View in document p.35
Table 3
Table 3 . View in document p.45
Figure 2: Implementation of the Action to Increase the Students’ Ability in Speaking Skill by Using Theme Based Model

Figure 2.

Implementation of the Action to Increase the Students Ability in Speaking Skill by Using Theme Based Model . View in document p.48
Table 4 WEIGTHING TABLE

Table 4.

WEIGTHING TABLE . View in document p.61
Table 5 THE CONVERSION TABLE

Table 5.

THE CONVERSION TABLE . View in document p.62
Table 6
Table 6 . View in document p.72
Table 7
Table 7 . View in document p.80
Table 8
Table 8 . View in document p.81
Table 9 THE RESEARCHER’S ABILITY IN TEACHING SPEAKING BY USING THEME

Table 9.

THE RESEARCHER S ABILITY IN TEACHING SPEAKING BY USING THEME . View in document p.82
Table 10 THE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN SPEAKING FOR ALL OF CYCLES

Table 10.

THE STUDENTS ABILITY IN SPEAKING FOR ALL OF CYCLES . View in document p.82

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