Lec 7 Implementasi Disjoint Set

29 

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Teks penuh

(1)
(2)
(3)

Making a “good” maze

Disjoint Set Union/Find ADT

Up-trees

(4)

Represent maze environment as graph

{V,E}

 collection of rooms: V

 connections between rooms (initially all closed): E

Construct a maze:

 collection of rooms: V = V

 designated rooms in, iV, and out, oV

 collection of connections to knock down: E E

(5)

 So far, some walls have been

knocked down while others remain.

 Now, we consider the wall

between A and B.

 Should we knock it down?

no

, if A and B

are

otherwise connected

yes

, if A and B

are not

otherwise connected

A

(6)

While edges remain in E

Remove a random edge

e = (u, v)

from

E

If

u

and

v

have not yet been connected

- add e to E

(7)

An equivalence relation R has three properties:

 refexive: for any x, xRx is true

 symmetric: for any x and y, xRy implies yRx

 transitive: for any x, y, and z, xRy and yRz implies xRz

Connection between rooms is an equivalence relation (call it C) For any rooms a, b, c

a C a (A room connects to itself!) If a C b, then b C a

If a C b and b C c, then a C c

(8)

Union/Find ADT operations

unionfnd  create  destroy

Disjoint set equivalence property: every element of a DS U/F structure belongs to exactly one set

Dynamic equivalence property: the set of an element

can change after execution of a union

{1,4,8}

{7}

{6}

{5,9,10}

{2,3} find(4)

8

union(2,6)

(9)

Given a set U = {a1, a2, … , an}

 Maintain a partition of U, a set of subsets of U {S1, S2, … ,

Sk} such that:

- each pair of subsets S

i and Sj are disjoint:

- together, the subsets cover U:

- The S

i are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive

 Union(a, b) creates a new subset which is the union of a’s subset and b’s subset

NOTE: outside agent decides when/what to union - ADT is just the bookkeeper

 Find(a) returns a unique name for a’s subset

NOTE: set names are arbitrary! We only care that:

(10)

Construct the maze on the right

Initial state (set names underlined):

{a}{b}{c}{d}{e}{f}{g}{h}{i}

Maze constructor (outside agent) traverses edges in random order and decides whether to union

(11)

{a}{b}{c}{d}{e}{f}{g}{h}

union(b, e)

{a}{b,e}{c}{d}{f}{g}{h}

Order of edges in blue

(12)

Finding the representative member of a set

is somewhat like the

opposite

of finding

whether a given item exists in a set.

(13)

 Each subset is an up-tree with its root as its representative member  All members of a given

set are nodes in that set’s up-tree

 Hash table maps input data to the node

associated with that data

a c g h

d b

e

Up-trees are not necessarily binary!

(14)

a c g h

d b

e

f i

find(f) find(e)

a

d

b

e

c

f

g h i

11

10

7

9 8

12

Just traverse to the root!

(15)

a c g h

d b

e

f i

union(a,c)

a

d

b

e

c

f

g h i

11

10

9 8

12

Just hang one root from the other!

(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)

find(d) = find(e) No union!

(20)
(21)
(22)

find(e)

(23)
(24)

find(e) = find(h) and find(b) = find(c) So, no unions for either of these.

a

d

b

e

c

f

g h i

11

10

9

12

f

g

h a

b

c

i d

(25)
(26)

find(g) = find(h) So, no union.

And, we’re done!

a

Ooh… scary!

(27)

 A forest of up-trees

can easily be

stored in an array.

 Also, if the node

names are integers or characters, we can use a very simple, perfect hash.

f

g h a

b

c

i d

e

0 -1 0 1 2 -1 -1 7

-1

0 (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5 (f) 6 (g) 7 (h) 8 (i)

up-index:

(28)

typedef ID int;

ID find(Object x) {

assert(hTable.contains(x)); ID xID = hTable[x];

while(up[xID] != -1) { xID = up[xID];

}

return xID; }

ID union(ID x, ID y) { assert(up[x] == -1); assert(up[y] == -1);

up[y] = x; }

(29)

 Simple ADT, simple data structure, simple code

Complex complexity analysis, but extremely useful

result: essentially, constant time!

 Lots of potential applications

 Object-property collections

 Index partitions: e.g. parts inspection

 To say nothing of maze construction

 In some applications, it may make sense to have meaningful

Figur

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