96672084 Journal of Leadership Education


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Leadership Education

...is an international, refereed journal that serves scholars and professional practitioners engaged in leadership education.

...provides a forum for the development of the knowledge base and professional practice of leadership education world wide.

...is made available through the continued support and efforts of the membership of the Association of Leadership Educators.

Copyright 2009 by the Association of Leadership Educators.

All rights reserved.


Volume 7, Number 3 - Winter 2009

The Journal of Leadership Education (JOLE) is the official publication of the Association of Leadership Educators. The purpose of JOLE is to provide a forum for development of the knowledge base and practice of leadership education. The journal is intended to promote a dialogue that engages both academics and practitioners. Thus, JOLE has a particular interest in applied research and it is the premise of JOLE that feedback between theory and practice tests both and makes each better. The journal provides several categories for submittals to promote diversity of discussion from a variety of authors.

The members and board of the Association of Leadership Educators became aware of the need for a journal about leadership education in the early 1990s. The challenge of educating people about leadership is particularly provocative,

complex, and subtle. Other journals with leadership in the title focus primarily on defining and describing leadership, and journals concerning education seldom address the subject of leadership. Indeed, one common argument in society is that leadership is innate (you have it or you don’t) and teaching leadership is difficult and often ineffective. This attitude is expressed, perhaps, in the dearth of

leadership courses on our university campuses.

In this context, JOLE provides a means to test the hypothesis that leadership education is possible. Our journal sits at the nexus of education theory and practice and leadership theory and practice, and from this divide, this mountain pass there is a need to look “both ways.” Whether leadership education is a discipline of its own is unclear, at least at present. If nothing else, by looking both ways this journal hopes to provide a passageway between two disciplines,

enriching both in the process.


Editorial Staff


• Christine D. Townsend, Texas A & M University Associate Editor

• Brent J. Goertzen, Fort Hays State University Editorial Reviewers

• Tony Andenoro, Gonzaga University • Paul Arsenault, West Chester University • Elizabeth Bolton, University of Florida • Chester Bowling, Ohio State University • Barry Boyd, Texas A&M University

• Christie Brungardt, Fort Hays State University • Curt Brungardt, Fort Hays State University • Jackie Bruce, University of Pennsylvania • Marilyn Corbin, Pennsylvania State University • Chris Crawford, Fort Hays State University • Ken Culp III, University of Kentucky

• Renee Daugherty, Oklahoma State University • Dennis Duncan, University of Georgia

• Don DiPaolo, University of Detroit • Garee Earnest, Ohio State University • Chanda Elbert, Texas A&M University

• Patricia J. Fairchild, University of Nebraska, Lincoln • Nancy Franz, University of New Hampshire

• Carrie Fritz, University of Tennessee

• Susan Fritz, University of Nebraska, Lincoln • Brent J. Goertzen, Fort Hays State University • Mark Grandstaff, Brigham Young University • Tracy Hoover, Pennsylvania State University • David Jones, North Carolina State University • Eric Kaufman, Virginia Tech University • Mike McCormick, Texas A&M University

• Jeffery P. Miller, Innovative Leadership Solutions • Lori Moore, Texas A&M University

• Chris Morgan, University of Georgia • Martha Nall, University of Kentucky • Robin Orr, University of Illinois


• Kris Ricketts, University of Kentucky • Manda Rosser, Texas A&M University • Richard Rohs, University of Georgia • Mark Russell, Purdue University • Nicole Stedman, University of Florida

• Kelleen Stine-Cheyne, Texas A&M University • Wanda Sykes, North Carolina State University • Laurie Thorp, Michigan State University • Christine Townsend, Texas A&M University • Jim Ulrich, Antioch University

• Willis M. Watt, Methodist University • Bill Weeks, Oklahoma State University • Jennifer Williams, University of Georgia • Larry Wilson, University of Illinois


Table of Contents

From the Editors’ Clipboard viii

Christine D. Townsend, Texas A & M University

The Renaissance Art Academies: Implications for Leadership Education Practices and Research


Michael J. McCormick, Ph.D. Texas A&M University

When Student Leaders Don’t 10

Donald G. DiPaolo, University of Detroit Mercy

The Use of Portfolios in Leadership Education 20

Paul Olden, Saint Michael’s College

Empowering Community Members for Civic Leadership: The Institute for Community Leadership


Willis M. Watt, Ph.D., Methodist University Andrew H. Ziegler, Jr., Ph.D. Methodist University

Using a Case Study to Develop the Transformational Teaching Theory 50 Barry L. Boyd., Texas A&M University

Reconceptualizing Academic Advising Using The Full Range Leadership Model


John E. Barbuto, Jr. , University of Nebraska- Lincoln Joana S. Story, University of Nebraska- Lincoln Susan M. Fritz, University of Nebraska – Lincoln Jack L. Schinstock, University of Nebraska – Lincoln

Leadership in Intergenerational Practice: In Search of the Elusive “P” Factor — Passion



Making a Difference: Two Case Studies Describing the Impact of a Capstone Leadership Education Experience provided through a National Youth Leadership Training Program


Manda Rosser, Texas A&M University Nicole LP Stedman, University of Florida Chanda Elbert, Texas A&M University Tracy Rutherford, Texas A&M University

College Student Leaders: Meet the Alpha Female 100 Rose Marie Ward, Ph.D., Miami University

Donald G. DiPaolo, Ph.D., University of Detroit Mercy Halle C. Popson, Miami University

Effective Leadership Development for Undergraduates: How Important is Active Participation in Collegiate Organizations?


John C. Ewing, The Pennsylvania State University Jacklyn A. Bruce, The Pennsylvania State University Kristina G. Ricketts, University of Kentucky

Predicting the Individual Values of the Social Change Model of Leadership Development: The Role of College Students’ Leadership and Involvement Experiences


Paige Haber, University of San Diego Susan R. Komives, University of Maryland

Evaluating a College Leadership Course: What do Students Learn in a Leadership Course with Service-Learning Component and How

Deeply do They Learn it?


Valerie I. Sessa, Montclair State University Cristina Matos, Metrus Group

Courtney A. Hopkins, Montclair State University

Casting the Net of Critical Thinking: A Look into the Collegiate Leadership Classroom



Experiential Workshop with Educational Leadership Doctoral Students: Managing Affective Reactions to Organizational Change


Leigh Falls, Ed.S., Texas Woman’s University Teresa Jara, Sam Houston State University Tim Sever, Sam Houston State University

Studying Leadership within Successful Rural Communities in a Southeastern State – A Qualitative Analysis


Kristina G. Ricketts, Ph.D, University of Kentucky

Influences of Youth Leadership within a Community-Based Context 246 Kenneth R. Jones, University of Kentucky

Kouzes and Posner's Transformational Leadership Model in Practice: The Case of Jordanian Schools


Abdullah M. Abu-Tineh, The Hashemite University, Jordan Samer A. Khasawneh, The Hashemite University, Jordan Aieman A. Omary, The Hashemite University, Jordan

Submission Guidelines 284


From the Editor’s Clipboard

Volume 7, Number 3 - Winter 2009

There is no “F-R-A-U-D” in Leadership

Have you heard, “there is no ‘I’ in ‘Team”? Most leadership educators listen to it, use it, and are familiar with the message found within the phrase. “No ‘I’” has served leadership educators well for many years and might become an entry in the proverbial “leadership dictionary.” “No ‘I’” has helped get a good leadership message into everyday conversation.

Let’s keep “No ‘I’” but move forward with a new mantra to symbolize the leadership education mission for the 21st century. The year 2008 has been wrought with crises, struggles, and change. Due to fluctuation in the economy, environment, and energy conditions, people are thinking about leadership with criticality and, perhaps, a lack of optimism. The meaning of leadership is debated – and should be debated – because its definition is used and abused for a myriad of purposes. Today is the day for leadership educators to shout


We cannot support leaders who misuse their power, conduct unethical practices, or take advantage of people inside and outside of their organizations. Leadership educators have a responsibility to develop leaders who embrace authenticity, truth, and humility.

Authentic leaders understand the values of their organization. They embrace both the needs of members and mission of the organization. Authentic leaders

remember that people rely on leaders for guidance, advice, and safe passage to the future. It is imperative that leaders are trustworthy and represent the proper

activities of an entity. Don’t be fooled; people know what is right and what is wrong. But, if the leaders spin righteousness for personal benefit and convince others that they are well-intended, people follow with blind allegiance. Authentic leadership becomes veiled and society retreats to a Machiavellian system where creativity is squelched and forward progress is limited. Without authenticity, leaders reap short term gain and society wilts under the darkness of leaders who use their power for personal power and gain.

Truth – how hard can it be? Leaders shy from truth to shield followers. Some may suggest that the shield is armor for protection from the sting of reality. But, reality is just that – life is real and people can and must endure their day to day adventure. Followers have the right to decipher the truth and make plans to adjust to the meaning of the leader’s message. Certainly, truth is a difficult and


authenticity, an untrue leader halts forward motion and risks the spirit of humanity.

Humility in leadership is the critical point where authenticity and truth are joined. A humble leader does not guide followers for the leader’s own gain; a humble leader does not hide truth to shelter followers from the leader’s purpose. Leaders with humility work with others to solve problems, develop ideas, and move the group forward. Awards and accolades are accepted on behalf of and for the group. A humble leader facilitates progress and encourages followers to succeed. The arrogance of leadership for personal gain disappears and followers have the opportunity to search for solutions and successful steps toward their future.

“There is no F-R-A-U-D in leadership.” 1. Test it using various theories of successful leadership.

2. Identify authentic, truthful, and humble leaders who make a difference.

3. Locate super leaders who experience reward for their effort and live “no F-R-A-U-D.”

Leadership educators have a awesome responsibility to live the message and develop the next generation of leaders. Your assignment is to accept the challenge and blend authenticity, truth, and humility into the proverbial “leadership


Issue Information

The Journal of Leadership Education (JOLE) continues to strive for excellence in manuscript review and acceptance. Acceptance rates are calculated for each issue and vary depending on the number of submissions. The JOLE acceptance rate for this issue is 46%. The manuscripts were authored by 37 writers.

In their review of the submitted documents, representatives of the JOLE Editorial Board provided a juried assessment of a manuscript’s scholarly significance and relevance. The Theoretical Features, Research Features, Application and Idea Briefs were peer reviewed and closely scrutinized to ensure selected manuscripts advance the theory and practice of leadership education. See the journal website for a more detailed discussion of these categories (www.fhsu.edu/JOLE/). This issue of JOLE supports scholars in their development of new knowledge in the quest for successful leadership education.



Accepted Commentary

For this issue of the Journal of Leadership Education (JOLE), the editor accepted one commentary feature. According to the JOLE Article Category guidelines, commentary pieces allow authors to share an opinion related to leadership

education. The commentaries are not reviewed by the JOLE Board of Reviewers and, therefore, do not contribute to the acceptance rate for this issue.

Michael McCormick poses a provocative question in his commentary, “The Renaissance Art Academies: Implications for Education Practices and Research.” He ponders the question, is teaching leadership similar to teaching art? His response provides the reader with considerations in mentoring, communities of practice, and creativity.

Accepted Idea Brief

“When Student Leaders Don’t” is an excellent partner to this issue’s commentary. Don DiPaolo writes that the goals of leadership educators and student leaders may not be an exact match. Readers of this Idea Brief find several examples that explore what we do and what we yield. “When Student Leaders Don’t” is an incubator for future research – is there a theory to explain the gap between the education and reality of leadership?

Accepted Application Brief

Paul Olsen, “The Use of Portfolios in Leadership Education,” supplies a method of leadership education that can be infused directly into leadership education programs. His outline for use of student portfolios rests within a business class and explains how accounting students blend leadership with their extremely technical education. Olsen’s approach to portfolios can be adapted to many contexts for leadership.

“Empowering Community Members for Civic Leadership: The Institute for Community Leadership,” is an Application Brief that identifies genuine contextual leadership. The leadership students are adults with a true felt need. Watt’s article can be a model for those who deal with adult learners. It can also be used for ideas to create situational meaning for students who have no context. Community is a critical aspect of any leader’s circumstances and, therefore, can be a key feature in many leadership education lessons.


Accepted Theory Features

This category is appropriate “for development of theory that is not necessarily data based, but concerns a clear issue/hypothesis, a review of related scholarship with synthesis of theory, and discussion and conclusion.”

(http://www.fhsu.edu/jole/categ_guidelines.html, retrieved 12/23/08) This issue contains 3 theory articles. Each of the articles was reviewed by members of the Editorial Board who recognize the merits of introducing new theories and merging different ideas into one thought.

Barry Boyd poses a theory that transformational leadership is a concept that can be merged with traditional teaching methodologies. In “Using a Case Study to Develop the Transformational Teaching Theory,” he analyzes one teaching case and interjects elements of transformational leadership into the case. He concludes his theory with action-oriented steps that can be utilized by leadership – and other – educators in a quest for transforming students into scholars.

Barbuto, Story, Fritz, and Schinstock continue the incorporation of leadership theory into contextual application in their article, “Reconceptualizing Academic Advising Using the Full Range Leadership Model.” At the collegiate level, academic advising is a fairly standard expectation. But the practices of academic advisors differ from site to site. The authors recognize the impact of

transformational leadership. Their resulting theory offers practices using the tenants of transformational leadership to develop, reform, and create successful academic advising models.

Kaplan, Larkin, and Hatton-Yeo address multiple users in their theory

“Leadership in Intergenerational Practice: In Search of the Elusive “P” Factor – Passion.” The authors concentrate on a critical aspect of society – working across generational lines to lead representatives of different cohorts in an organization. Their conclusion that passion is an elusive leadership action offers a provocative insight that may become an important aspect of leadership education.

Accepted Research Features

This article category is an important repository for “research-based papers containing a clear statement of an issue/hypothesis, a review of related scholarship with synthesis of theory, a discussion and conclusion.”


High school students are the focus of “Making a Difference: Two Case Studies Describing the Impact of a Capstone Leadership Education Experience Provided Through a National Youth Leadership Training Program.” In their research, Rosser, Stedman, Elbert, and Rutherford sought to answer the question

concerning the effectiveness of a capstone experience in leadership education. The high school students related their leadership enrichment to a planned and ccompleted an experience project.

Ward, DiPaolo, and Popson conduct their research with college-level students. “College Student Leaders: Meet the Alpha Female” provides insight into the development of leadership skills by a specific group. Using a qualitative research paradigm, the researchers identified themes, including a strong family structure, which impact the emergence of female leaders. The researchers suggest

possibilities for educational enrichment and opportunities for further research. The collegiate environment is again connected to leadership development in the study conducted by Ewing, Bruce, and Ricketts. “Effective Leadership

Development for Undergraduates: How Important is Active Participation in Collegiate Organizations” looks at the co-curricular environment of post-secondary education in the United States. The authors acknowledge the historic use of college clubs and sought further affirmation that clubs reinforce leadership development. Interesting results indicated that approximately ½ of the

respondents reported club participation with ¼ in leadership positions. The findings of this study can be used to further refine leadership enrichment found within college and university co-curricular activities.

Collegiate co-curricular involvement was the context for “Predicting the

Individual Values of the Social Change Model of Leadership Development: The Role of college Students’ Leadership and Involvement Experiences.” Haber and Komives studied the effect of formal leadership roles on college students’ social responsibility. The authors analyzed data from an extensive undergraduate sample to ascertain the impact of various activities. The results provide significant

findings to support involvement in student organizations as a part of the undergraduate experience.


Another collegiate teaching method is studied in relation to leadership education. Nicole Stedman investigated the role of critical thinking in leadership classrooms. “Casting the Net of Critical Thinking: A Look into the Collegiate Leadership Classroom” documents how different variables related to critical thinking success. No differences in dependent variables were discovered in relation to

innovativeness, cognitive maturity, and engagement. The author discusses how these findings impact development of collegiate leadership courses.

Falls, Jara, and Sever research collegiate doctoral students to ascertain how experiential workshops relate to leadership of organizations. “Experiential Workshop with Educational Leadership Doctoral Students: Managing Affective Reactions to Organizational Change” documents the use of a particular

educational method in leadership development of a particular student group. The researchers study how students view change in relation to their cultural


Kristina Ricketts moves beyond the traditional classroom to the community classroom in her article titled, “Studying Leadership within Successful Rural communities in a Southeastern State – A Qualitative Analysis.” The author chose to study communities that have positive factors and investigate the impact of leaders. Among several factors, she reports that leaders with strong service commitment, high moral value, and a sense of community contributed to the positive development of rural society.

An additional community-based leadership education experience was researched by Kenneth Jones. In his study titled, “Influences of Youth Leadership Within a Community-Based Context,” Jones documents the impact of civic engagement and use of adult volunteers working with youth in various activities. The results of this partnership yielded several positive results including positive relations with adults and understanding of decision-making within the community.

The global incorporation of leadership education is viewed in the study by Abu-Tineh, Khasawneh, and Omary. These researchers studied leadership of school principals in Jordan with documentation found in “Kouzes and Posner’s


The Renaissance Art Academies: Implications for

Leadership Education Practices and Research

Michael J. McCormick, Ph.D. Senior Lecturer

Texas A&M University 979/ 845-2954



Taking the perspective that leadership education is similar to art education created a bridge connecting the leadership education literature with the large and rich body of literature on art education and art history. A survey of the more

prominent Renaissance art academies was employed to illuminate the education practices of that extraordinary time, and then consider whether these practices had application to modern day leadership education. Results directly challenged the efficacy of the skills approach to leadership education, affirmed the importance of the mentoring method, supported the communities of practice method as a

powerful tool for leadership education, argued for the idea of a talent for leadership, proposed designing leadership games and simulations that included positive and negative consequences, and stressed the importance of creating college and university based leadership academies.

The Renaissance Art Academies: Implications for Leadership

Education Practices and Research

The Renaissance was that period of time in human history when Western Civilization exhausted by famine, plagues and incessant warfare teetered on the brink of chaos only to incredibly remake itself in a grand explosion of energy and inventiveness (Manchester, 1993). Sandwiched between the Middle Ages and the Reformation, it was the period that spawned artists, explorers, poets,

philosophers, and reformers. It was the age of Michelangelo and Raphael,


For many people, the Renaissance brings to mind the stunning and awe inspiring works of art produced in that period like Michelangelo’s masterwork, the Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. Along with these timeless works of art and the artists who produced them came the influential art academies. These were the greenhouses where the young and the talented sought to develop their own distinctive artistic styles and attract the attention of art patrons. Of relevance to leadership educators is that each academy had a particular conceptual

framework that guided the academy’s approach to developing the artistic capabilities of its students. Also, the art academy system embodied a set of teaching methods, practices, and ideas that are instructive and thought provoking especially for current leadership education practices and research.

Taking the perspective that the practice of leadership is much like the practice of art, which has been proposed by other researchers and scholars (Cohen, 1990; Nahavandi, 2006; Walters, 1987), then the Renaissance art academies may provide some useful insights for leadership educators.

The purpose of this paper is to survey some of the more prominent Renaissance art academies, identify their particular approaches to art education, and extend their education insights to present day leadership education practices and

research. Furthermore, this review will explore Renaissance art academy practices that support educational practices being presently used by leadership educators, challenge some, and suggest potential avenues for future research.

The Academy of Fine Arts Florence: the Invention of the


The Renaissance was a particularly important period for painters, sculptors, and architects who at the time were considered only craftsman, and thus not worthy of the high social standing accorded to professionals (those with university degrees). That all changed with the founding of the Florentine Academy under the

sponsorship and protection of Duke Cosimo de Medici. Because of the aura of Medici power and the presence of famous instructors like Michelangelo, those with artistic talent for painting, sculpting, or architecture enjoyed a substantially enhanced social regard. Furthermore, the invention of the academy gave


work. Third, the Academy of Fine Arts Florence sponsored regular debates, discussions as well as shows and lectures on art history, theory, and practice. The final advantage of the academy model was that it enabled young artists to connect with both wealthy patrons who could support their continued development as well as attract the attention of artistic mentors, who were vital to a student’s continued artistic refinement and success.

Academy of Fine Arts Florence: Modern Applications

to Leadership Education.

The foremost implication for leadership educators is the invention of the

academy. Professional leadership educators have long had to struggle to gain the acceptance and recognition of practitioners and academic colleagues, many of whom still question whether leadership studies is in fact an academic discipline. Perhaps the Renaissance art academy concept offers a means for overcoming this rankling issue.

The means to gain credibility might lie in creating leadership academies in university settings that enjoy the support of prominent alumni and administrators. Just like the Florentine Academy that had the backing of Medici power and prestige, it legitimized the art academy institution and gave to its students a degree of social status. Perhaps leadership educators should re-direct their efforts from engaging in the eternal debates over what is leadership and whether

leadership studies is a legitimate academic discipline to concerning themselves with creating leadership academies. Perhaps the time has come for institution building.

The manner in which the academies were organized and operated fits well with the modern concepts of communities of practice and mentoring as strategies for improving individual capabilities. Communities of practice represent a refinement of the situated learning model advanced by Lave and Wenger (1991). It is,

“groups of people who share a common concern or a passion for something they do and who interact regularly to learn how to do it better” (Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002, p.1). And that is what the academy structure did. It brought together highly talented individuals with a common passion for artistic expression that fostered learning in an environment (the studio) that was functionally similar to where the learning was applied. And all practice was performed under the ever watchful eye of a master, since all students began as apprentices.


students’ corrected works found that the students’ revised drawings showed they had indeed learned the lesson (Goldstein, 1996).

Roman Accademia di San Luca: Theory Building

and Talent Identification

The Accademia di San Luca was another of the important Renaissance art

academies. It rivaled the Florentine Academy in terms of faculty, being comprised of some of the most influential artists in Europe, and powerful patrons that

included the Papacy. It was founded by Federico Zuccaro with the expressed intention of elevating the institution of the art academy to the high regard accorded to the university.

Zuccaro introduced noteworthy educational ideas that distinguish the Roman Accademia di San Luca from other Renaissance academies. The first was that practical instruction was only one part of art education. Another was theory-building, the creation of some kind of coherent mental framework or theory that would capture what art was and the elements that comprised the creation pf art. He argued that art students needed to have a conceptual foundation of how art was created and that it must come before even the development of the manual

dexterity of drawing (Elkins, 2001).

A second educational idea he proposed was the need to regularly challenge students with competitions to reward the talented and select out the less capable. He based this proposition on his belief that artistic inspiration entered the mind of man as a spark of the divine mind. To put it into a more secular expression, artistic inspiration was a talent and no amount of training and practice could make up for the lack thereof. It was a gift of Nature; it was innate.

A third distinguishing feature of the Roman Accademia di San Luca was the drawing “alphabet.” Novices would begin their training by mastering the ABCs of drawing heads, feet, hands, and facial expressions. It was assumed that by

assembling the parts art would be created.

In the end Zuccaro’s insistence on theory building and abstract esthetics regarding the nature of art was rejected by working artists because they perceived his


Roman Accademia di San Luca: Modern Applications

to Leadership Education

An interesting technique employed by this academy was requiring students to first master the skills for drawing heads, feet, hands, and facial expression before beginning to create larger drawings with multiple objects, people, and scenes. Similarly, the Skills Approach to leadership education proposes that mastery of the discrete skills of leadership will result in better and more effective leadership. From a leadership education perspective, it seems to make intuitive sense to assign effective leadership to a list of skills to be mastered. Yet, the outcomes of this technique based on the experience of this Renaissance academy and others suggest otherwise. While teaching discrete leadership skills may be necessary, it is not sufficient to nurture the leadership development process. It is the integration of discrete leadership skills in response to the leadership demands of the moment that produces the art of leadership.

Another sensitive, but necessary, issue addressed by the Accademia di San Luca and its director, Zuccaro, was the issue of talent. Zuccaro frequently conducted competitions to separate the gifted from the technically capable. He asserted that, “art is a God given gift for the lack of which no amount of study will compensate” (cited in Goldstein, 1996, p.46). Recent work by Hogan and Kaiser (2005) cite substantial research to support the idea that (a) there is a talent for leadership, (b) it can be measured, and (c) given the right developmental experiences, it can be highly refined.

The Accademia de Carracci: Imitation and the Copy

The Accademia de Carracci was a private academy that was inspired by the Florentine Academy. Its purpose was promoting the professional advancement of its students. It stressed drawing practice of the anatomical units of the body: eyes, ears, legs, feet, head, and so on. Also, it stressed careful and constant repetition until drawing the basic anatomical parts became automatic. Like Zuccaro’s academy, drawing practice was coupled with theory however problematic this must have been at the time.


Students studied anatomy, systems of proportion and rules of perspective. Importantly, they were expected to discern and integrate the knowledge, rules, and style of the artistic masters of antiquity into artistic strategies that culminated in some kind of well crafted painting or sculpture. It appears that the Carracci art students were expected to use what we now refer to as inductive reasoning to derive rules, styles, and techniques that they would then incorporate into their own works (Moore, 1998). However, like the absence of artistic talent, without inductive reasoning capacity, the pupil would not be able to learn from their hard work of imitating the masters. The student would be unable to reduce the whole into a set of cogent insights or observations. The Carracci Academy proposed that the “true” learning method was imitation, copying the works of highly successful artists and deriving their methods using inductive reasoning rather than deductive reasoning (Goldstein, 1996).

Accademia de Carracci: Modern Applications

to Leadership Education

The instructional methods employed by the Carracci Academy essentially implied that the capacity for inductive reasoning was a prerequisite for learning from the great artists of antiquity. Here again, though indirectly, the notion of leadership talent presents itself especially since thinking abilities like critical thinking and inductive reasoning vary in the population (Moore, 1998).

Research is needed to verify whether those who have inductive reasoning capacity are able to derive important leadership insights from biographies, movies, or case studies of significant leadership success as compared to those with lesser

inductive reasoning capacities. An example of such a case study would be the leadership lessons displayed by Chief Flight Director, Gene Kranz, during the spectacular rescue of the three astronauts aboard Apollo 13. It may well be that inductive reasoning is an individual difference variable that must be present in some measure for someone to derive useful meaning from case studies, movies, or biographies. Furthermore, if differences in inductive reasoning capacity do

influence the recognition of important leadership lessons, can tools, techniques and strategies be designed to help those with lower inductive reasoning capacity to more effectively learn from case studies and other vicarious experiences?

The French Academy in Rome: Trial by Fire


Students at this academy were recipients of the Prix de Rome, a prize awarded annually to the top students of the Royal Academy in Paris. The winners were the survivors of a long series of competitions in which students had their artistic works rigorously evaluated by academy instructors. Prize recipients received three year scholarships to the French Academy in Rome courtesy of the French

government (Goldstein, 1996). While in Rome students were expected to copy the great artistic works that were scattered all about Rome in museums, public areas, churches, and at St. Peter’s Basilica.

In this academy competition became a large part of the student’s life.

Advancement through the curriculum of the Royal Academy depended upon whether a student’s artistic projects were deemed meritorious and indicative of the student’s mastery of the subject. Mere technical competence was insufficient. The student had to display talent. Thus, those of lesser talent or motivation were held back. Although this was an intensely competitive system, it did select out the more motivated and naturally gifted.

French Academy: Modern Applications to

Leadership Education

What the French Academy in Rome has to say to leadership educators of today is that leadership learning activities with real consequences must be a part of the leadership education process. However, implementing experienced-based

leadership development interventions with real consequences may be problematic. Nevertheless, since it was a mainstay learning tool in most of the Renaissance art academies, designing and implementing leadership experiences with real

consequences is worthy of a serious consideration.

Summary and Conclusions

The turbulent Renaissance, the years of poisoning princes, warring popes, the all powerful Medici family, and religious conflicts seemed to be pushing Europe and Western Civilization to the point of social collapse. Yet, remarkably, out of this chaotic period appeared a group of artistic giants who left a legacy of artistic works so beautiful and profoundly moving that they have become icons of the age. The period also inspired the creation of art academies to promote the arts and train young artists.



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Moore, K. (1998). Patterns of inductive reasoning (3rd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing.

Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

Walters, J. D. (1987). The art of leadership. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Wenger, E., McDermott, R., & Snyder, W. M. (2002). Cultivating communities of



Michael J. McCormick is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Agricultural Leadership Education, and Communications at Texas A&M University. His research focuses on how individuals learn leadership. He can be reached at


When Student Leaders Don’t

Donald G. DiPaolo Assistant Professor University of Detroit Mercy

Detroit, Michigan dipaoldo@udmercy.edu


This introspective and reflective idea brief explores the nature of the gap between what leadership educators hope to accomplish in the lives of students and what actually happens. The author draws upon 30 years of leadership education and a wealth of interactions with leadership educators and student leaders across North America. Five latent barriers to successful leadership education are presented for further discussion, debate, and application. These include hidden narratives, limitations of past leadership styles, student leader collapse, the attached

umbilical cord, and the price of being a student leader. The reader is encouraged to engage in supportive dialogue with colleagues to address difficult questions and cultural obstacles to our work.


I have been in the fortunate position of working with tens of thousands of student leaders across North America. They have taught me a great deal. I have also learned from hundreds of student life professionals, extension coordinators, coaches, deans, and faculty members who are committed to leadership education and who spend their lives in an attempt to serve students.


What follows are five broad notions from the field on why student leaders fail. I offer this idea brief in an effort to spark discussion and reflective dialogue among leadership educators and in the hopes that we continue to come together and ask tough questions. At the most recent ALE conference in Spokane, there were calls for more qualitative methods and honest dialogue in an attempt to uncover what is really going on in campus leadership development (Boyd, 2008). Leadership educators from across the country have also called into question the efficacy of our attempts to teach leadership (Brungardt, 1997; DiPaolo, 2008a; Townsend, 2002; Williams, Townsend, & Linder, 2005). Perhaps these efforts can be aided by a consideration of the more hidden and difficult impediments to students leading on campus.

This idea brief might appear, on the surface, as being singular in perspective. I would offer that this perspective is really a synthesis of thousands of personal case studies and represents a personal ethnography. This reflective brief is meant to offer safe space for others in the field to dialogue about the difficulties we face as leadership educators.

Barrier One: The Hidden Narrative

Students come to us with powerful mind maps of how humans relate in the world. As research has shown, family dynamics and socialization have a great deal to do with shaping the leaders that arrive on campus (Hartman & Harris, 1992). When our students experience a crisis or crucible of leadership, I have found that an unresolved personal or characterlogical struggle is often at play (Bennis & Thomas, 2002). Student leaders that struggle often display symptoms of personal dysfunction. They are not usually able to see on their own that these have

underlying causes that, unless resolved, will continue to be problematic

throughout their lives. We tell students to lead from their core, but student leaders that stumble often have unresolved conflicts in their core (DiPaolo, 2008b). In essence, many of them need healing in their core.

Our students come to us as full, complex human beings. The realities of human personality and characterlogical make-up are invited and uninvited guests at every leadership class and retreat (Kets de Vries, 1993). Every leadership educator has experienced moments when the overwhelming deeper needs of a student dominate and even negate our best efforts.

• Would we be more effective referring some of our student leaders to campus counseling rather than leadership activities?

• Are schools prepared to handle the onslaught of students seeking their assistance?


• Beyond leadership development, how far do we go with personal development?

• Are we trained to make this call? If we do not make the call, who will do so and after how much damage to the life of the student and the


Barrier Two: Time For A Different Style

I have found that many student leaders have been rewarded with positions of leadership in college based on a style that worked for them in junior high and high school. However, this style is not necessarily effective once they are in college (Endress, 2000; Fleishman, Zaccaro, & Mumford, 1991; Yammarino & Bass, 1991). Quite often this involves an alpha female or alpha male discovering that they really cannot do it alone in college – that their personal charisma, particular area of talent, or strong will is no longer enough. People assume that a president or captain in high school is just going to carry on in college. I once had an

Olympic medalist tell me, “Just because I have an Olympic medal, people think I know how to lead. I have no idea how to lead!”

Many of our student leaders have been wearing the label of “leader” without any real understanding of what that means. This may work for a while, but the enormity or added complexity of the organization at the college level becomes problematic. The cracks in the armor begin to show. Student leaders find out they are on teams or in student organizations that have many other successful leaders and they do not know how to really share leadership or adapt to a different or more collaborative style. For others, it may be time to not lead and learn what it means to be a successful follower (Vecchio, 2002).

• Should leadership educators, coaches, orientation leaders, and other campus personnel build leadership style assessment into the first experiences students have on campus?

• How do we let student leaders know that what they bring as leaders might not work anymore, or even more difficult, that perhaps it is time to just follow first and learn?

• What mental models and paradigms of leadership education can be refocused to highlight this need?

• How can we challenge students to evaluate, and maybe even change, their current leadership paradigm when they feel they have already been

strongly rewarded?


Barrier Three: Student Leader Collapse

Another dynamic that leadership educators face is the utter burnout of our student leaders. Many of our student leaders as well as their educators are exhausted physically, intellectually, and emotionally. We keep telling students to “get involved” and they follow our advice. Perhaps our first advice should be to encourage them to discover what matters most to them and then be very selective in their involvement. Is this an opportunity to introduce the concept of “less is more” rather than “more is better?”

I have seen so many student leaders turning to any number of ways to cope with the competing demands on their time and the enormous expectations that they feel – whether these demands originate internally or externally. Once we pull back the veil – if students allow us to see their vulnerability – it can be a bit shocking to the student and to the leadership educator.

We talk about mind-body-spirit balance, yet we often do not model this as leadership educators and we lavish awards on students who do not maintain this balance either. I have been frequently surprised at the number of complex coping mechanisms students employ, just to get through the school year. Students often “self-medicate” through the use of common stimulants, binge drinking episodes, or the growing prescription drug network. Sometimes, they simply break down.

• How do we help student leaders learn healthier lifestyles when campus culture seems to reward those who do not live them?

• What are we, as leadership educators, modeling for students? • What theoretical or practical models of student leadership can we

highlight in our programs to prevent the toll on stressed students?

• Is there a place for an intentional “less is more” message in our leadership curricula?

Barrier Four: The Attached Umbilical Cord


I recently had a leadership educator report to me that he sat with a new student who was stunned and saddened by the sudden realization that nothing he had done in his life, up to that point, was his own decision. This student was Class

President, Captain of the Track Team, a Merit Scholar, and led a host of other organizations. He saw that he had ended up at the college of his parent’s choice in a major in which he had no interest.

If student leadership education has self-efficacy and personal empowerment as core psychological underpinnings, are we facing a crisis in the power of students to evolve as thinking, emoting, and separate beings (Bandura, 1997)?

• Are we getting a generation of student leaders who are performing for authority rather than leading from a place of purpose and strength? • How do we help students claim the intellectual and interpersonal freedom

that is necessary to be an authentic leader – an author of one’s life? • How do we encourage a type of separation from parents while respecting

their contributions?

• Is there a familial trend that requires us to first exhort our student leaders to “know thyself” before we ask them to lead anything?

Barrier Five: The Price of Leadership

The most common complaint I hear from university presidents, deans of students, campus life professional, and faculty members is the lack of accountability and responsibility exemplified by student leaders. Many campus professionals feel a sense of personal betrayal when students, in whom much has been invested, do not come through.

Despite our best efforts, many of our prized student leaders are just unable to pay the price of leadership. When it comes down to drawing a line in the sand on any number of social or ethical issues, our exemplars are often unable to hold their peers accountable. The price is very high, of course, because students who demonstrate this kind of courage are often quickly rebuked and risk harmony in relationships. College students are vulnerable in their status with peers and it takes courage and strength of character to be a principled leader, especially regarding the need to belong and the risk involved in not complying with peer-group dynamics.


A related dynamic is the expectation of other students that the leaders are

supposed to do all the work. Students will often grant other students the title and position of leadership, but then place unrealistic demands on what that means for an organization. Somehow, being a student leader has come to mean that the leader is supposed to do all the work.

• What can we do to embolden student leaders to do the right thing during crucible moments?

• How can we best create early networks on campus that may serve as supports of principled student leadership?

• As leadership educators, are we modeling accountability for our students? • How do we help students see the value of principled leadership in a

culture where there are so many examples of failed leadership?

• How do we help student leaders promote a sense of shared responsibility in organizations?


I offer these broad notions humbly and introspectively in an attempt to promote courageous dialogue and honest discussion among those of us who care about student leadership development. It is critical that we create the space in our professional lives to come together and ponder these phenomena. This effort could unlock some of the mysteries in the lives of the students we serve and reveal a hidden curriculum on campus that we might want to take into account when we design our programs and create our courses.

It seems critical that we dedicate time at national conferences for this open

sharing of common struggles. The data that is stored in the personal memories and experiences of every leadership educator is an untapped treasure. Interpersonal efforts among colleagues are highly appropriate augmentations to the more common approach of shared knowledge through written scholarship. In scholarly endeavors, the notion of frank discourse in a special edition of this publication would be a welcome step.



Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Bennis, W. G., & Thomas, R. J. (2002). Geeks and geezers: How era, values and defining moments shape leaders. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Boyd, B. (2008). Research themes, authors, and methodologies in the Journal of

Leadership Education: A five year look. Paper presented at the

Association of Leadership Educators Annual Conference, Spokane, WA. Brungardt, C. L. (1997). Evaluation of the outcomes of an academic collegiate

leadership program. Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. DiPaolo, D. G. (2008a). Echoes of Leadership Education: Reflections on failure,

forgetting, and our future. Unpublished submission.

DiPaolo, D. G. (2008b). Leadership education at American universities: A longitudinal study of six cases. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. Endress, W. L. (2000). An exploratory study of college student self-efficacy for

relational leadership: The influence of leadership education, cocurricular involvement, and on-campus employment. University of Maryland,

College Park.

Fleishman, E. A., Zaccaro, S. J., & Mumford, M. D. (1991). Individual differences and leadership: An overview. Leadership Quarterly, 2 (4), 237-243.

Hartman, S. J., & Harris, O. J. (1992). The role of parental influence on leadership. Journal of Social Psychology, 132 (2), 153-167.

Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (1993). Leaders, fools, and imposters: Essays on the psychology of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McEwan, E. (2005). How to deal with parents who are angry, troubled, afraid, or just plain crazy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.


Vecchio, R. P. (2002). Leadership and gender advantage. The Leadership Quarterly, 13 (6), 643-671.

Williams, J., Townsend, C., & Linder, J. (2005). Teaching leadership: Do students remember and utilize the concepts we teach? Journal of Leadership

Education, 4 (1), 62-74.

Wong Briggs, T. (2007). Helicopter parents' role up in the air. USA Today. Yammarino, F. J., & Bass, B. M. (1991). Person and situation views of




The Use of Portfolios in Leadership Education

Paul E. Olsen, Ed.D.

Department of Business Administration and Accounting Saint Michael’s College

Colchester, Vermont polsen@smcvt.edu


This paper discusses the benefits of using student portfolios in undergraduate leadership education at Saint Michael’s College. There appears to be a natural link between the use of portfolios as a tool to facilitate and document leadership growth and development. The Business Administration and Accounting

Department at Saint Michael’s College adopted the portfolio concept to provide students with a vehicle for introspection, self-reflection, and to learn from successes and failures as they provide evidence of satisfying the business department’s goals for graduating students and document their growth and development as leaders.


In 2006 the Business Administration and Accounting Department at Saint Michael’s College made a major curriculum change by adding the new capstone course Experiential Portfolio (BU 495) for undergraduate business administration majors. Central to this course is the portfolio, an innovative tool in management and leadership education.

Experiential Portfolio (BU 495) is designed to provide students with the

knowledge and skills required to assess their learning experiences and document mastery of the outcomes required of each student. These outcomes include the technical, conceptual, and interpersonal skills needed to lead in an organizational environment. BU 495 is taken primarily by seniors at the end of their


Knowing Oneself

Self-awareness is often seen as key to leadership development. Hughes and Beatty (2005) describe this self-awareness as knowing who you are and where you want to go. Haas and Tamarkin (1992) stress the importance of introspection as a form of self-discovery. Lipman-Blumen (1996) characterizes the search for personal meaning as a time when “we introspect about who we are, what we have done, and the nature and limits of our own worth…we dig into issues of personal authenticity and integrity” (p. 329-330).

After interviews with 125 leaders, George, Sims, McLean, and Mayer (2007) found that leadership emerged from life stories. They note that “the journey of authentic leadership begins with understanding the story of your life” (p. 132). Authentic leaders reframe life events “to discover their passion to lead” (p. 132). Learning from life experiences is central to knowing who you are and your development as a leader. “If people are capable of learning from their

experiences, they can acquire leadership,” Northouse (2007, p. 43) concludes. Kouzes and Posner (2007) suggest that this learning can also come from reflecting on failures. “Life is the leader’s laboratory, and exemplary leaders use it to

conduct as many experiments as possible. Try, fail, learn. Try fail, learn. Try, fail, learn. That’s the leader’s mantra” (p. 20). Dreher (1996) agrees concluding: “Remember that any successful political leader, artist, scientist, or Olympic athlete has had many failures. What separates the leaders from the losers is that they learn from their difficulties, make adjustments, and go on. Like bamboo, they bend, but do not break. Persevering, they stay the course to reach the finish line” (p. 25). So how can leadership educators concerned with leadership development provide a vehicle for introspection, self-reflection, and learning from successes and failures? Portfolios may be one answer.


Student portfolios have long been used in teacher education to document learning and assess performance (Wolf, 1996). In addition to education majors, other academic areas including writing and art have used portfolios to “assess and display skills and growth” (Green & Smyser, 1995, p. 44). Portfolios have also been found to be useful in the job search process. “In a sea of résumés and cover letters, a portfolio emphasizes individuality, and the visual nature of a portfolio can make a lasting impression on a prospective employer” (Giuliano, 1997, p. 43). In addition to these practical uses, Giuliano (1997) asserts that the most


Portfolios document accomplishments over a period of time (Wolf, 1996) and “allow students to tell the stories of their growth” (Guillaume & Yopp, 1995, p. 94). Portfolio contents generally include a résumé, certificates and awards, course papers, and transcripts (Giuliano, 1997). Student portfolios for BU 495 also provide evidence of satisfying the business department’s goals for graduating seniors. These goals generally deal with ethics, service to others, group dynamics, lifelong learning as well as other technical, conceptual, and interpersonal skills required of leaders (Appendix I h). Each outcome is documented using a reflective paper, which describes the experience, identifies the learning that occurred, and indicates how the information was applied and how it fits into the student’s course of study and development as a leader. Wolf (1996) suggests that finished portfolios contents including artifacts, should be carefully selected “so that it is manageable, both for the person who constructs it and for those who will review it” (p. 35). As such, students in BU 495 include major papers, course projects, presentation videos, and other artifacts to serve as evidence of mastery of each goal.


The structure of the Portfolio was largely outlined by me (Appendix I). Completed portfolios in BU 495 were generally well written and organized. Response papers documenting attainment of the business department’s learning outcomes were thoughtful. Many reflected on or reframed experiences in required courses like Management and Organizational Behavior, Business Policy and Strategic Management, Financial Policies of Corporations, Marketing Management, Foundations of Business, and minor courses (i.e., Managerial Leadership, Ethical Issues in Business, Labor Relations, Principles of Advertising, Essentials of Investments, and Information and Knowledge

Management) when discussing what theories and skills they learned and how they applied them. Not surprisingly, evidence and artifacts included in portfolios came from many of these courses (i.e., leadership case studies, presentation slides, shareholder reports, business plans, memos, and finance assignments) and from activities BU 495 (i.e., Myers Briggs). Where applicable, students also drew heavily from internships, study abroad, athletic, and work experiences.

Students ended their Portfolios with a paper describing their experience creating the portfolio and how it contributed to their development. Selected comments follow:


• The steps necessary to assemble such an exhaustive account of my accomplishments were as worthwhile as the results they produced.

• This portfolio has given me the means to give a potential employer a more in depth story than simply what is on my resume or transcript.

• Creating the portfolio was a positive experience. Prior to this course I did not think in depth about the goals of the department and did not realize that I had in fact accomplished them.

• The experience of creating the portfolio helped me bring closure to my education at Saint Michael’s College and look forward to the future. • This portfolio exemplifies the work and knowledge I have acquired

throughout my four years as a student. Through reflecting on the goals of the business department, I have described the vast amount of knowledge I have gained through both in-class and outside experiences.

• This portfolio does not serve to exhibit all of the work I have done, nor does it show the most important work either. It shows the progression of steps I have taken in achieving my business degree from a liberal arts college.

• This portfolio is a combination of different core competencies

demonstrated through my years at Saint Michael’s College and in the work world. I hope it gives you a taste of my commitment to lifelong learning and what I was competent in pursuing during my education.

Implications for Leadership Educators



Dreher, D. (1996). The tao of personal leadership. New York: HarperCollins. George, B., Sims, P., McLean, A. N., & Mayer, D. (2007). Discovering your

authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review, February 2007, 129-138. Giuliano, F. J. (1997). Practical professional portfolios. Science Teacher, 64,


Green, J. E., & Smyser, S. O. (1995). Changing conceptions about teaching: The use of portfolios with pre-service teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 22, 43-53.

Guillaume, A. M., & Yopp, H. K. (1995). Professional portfolios for student teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 22, 93-101.

Haas, H. G., & Tamarkin, B. (1992). The leaders within: an empowering path of self-discovery. New York: HarperBusiness.

Hughes, R. L., & Beatty, K.C. (2005). Becoming a strategic leader. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leadership challenge: fourth edition. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Lipman-Blumen, J. (1996). The connective edge: leading in an interdependent world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Appendix I

Portfolio Contents a. Title Page: Include name, major, and date.

b. Table of Contents: List and enable readers to easily find contents. c. Introduction to the Portfolio: Preview the contents of the portfolio for

the reader.

d. Transcript or List of Courses: List of all of the courses taken and are currently enrolled with credit hours. Grades do not need to be listed. e. Résumé: A one or two-page summary of your educational and

professional background.

f. Certificates, awards, professional licenses, and trainings (if applicable).

g. Letters of Recommendation: Employment and/or graduate school recommendation letters from faculty and/or employers.

h. Business Department Goals Accomplishment and Application: Evidence demonstrating the achievement of the goals of the Business Administration major should be discussed. State in what courses or through which experiences you achieved the goal and secondly, what was learned from the courses and/or experiences. Evidence of accomplishment of the goals, which includes research papers, reports, examinations, video presentations and/or slides, and case analyses, should be included in appendices. Address the following goals in this section:

1. Conduct themselves and their businesses in a way that is informed by the central themes of the mission of the College. This includes an understanding of what it means to lead a moral/ethical life and an ongoing commitment to the service of others.

2. Possess basic competencies necessary to operate and lead in an organizational environment. This includes the areas of group dynamics and operations, financial and quantitative applications and analysis, technology, and problem solving.

3. Develop an in-depth understanding of at least one of the core areas of business.

4. Be able to effectively research, write, present and defend concepts and proposals related to business and administration issues.

5. Develop a sensitivity for how external factors, such as the global economy, international politics, social, technological, and ecological trends can impact a business’ or nonprofit organization’s plans and operations.


i. Portfolio Summary: Present a summary statement of the contents of the portfolio. Include in what ways it reflects experiences in the major and comments about the process of developing the portfolio and how it contributed to your growth and development as a leader.

j. References.




Empowering Community Members for Civic Leadership:

The Institute for Community Leadership

Willis M. Watt, Ph.D.

Director, Organizational Communication & Leadership Methodist University

5400 Ramsey Street Fayetteville NC 28311-1498

910-630-7191 wmwatt@methodist.edu Andrew H. Ziegler, Jr., Ph.D.

Executive Director, Institute for Community Leadership Director, Lura S. Tally Center for Leadership Development

Chair, Department of Government Studies Methodist University

5400 Ramsey Street Fayetteville NC 28311-1498

910-630-7488 aziegler@methodist.edu


Leaders emerge from some very unlikely situations. They come in all ages, sizes, shapes, and from both genders. In this paper we discuss the relationship between the theoretic and practical applications evidenced by the Institute for Community Leadership’s (ICL) efforts to prepare people for civic leadership. We present background information about ICL including the Institute’s purposes and goals, an examination of its past achievements, current activities, and future projections, and we conclude with a discussion of “conditions for success in collaborative public ventures” (Hackman & Johnson, 2009, p. 293) as it relates to the Institute’s efforts to prepare people for community leadership.

Rationale and Background: Institute for Community Leadership

“The ICL program opened my eyes to the idea of community leadership. I was unsure at the beginning of the program what it meant to be a


to the things that I have learned in this program I would love to join a community board in order to better my community.”

Mr. Chris Coats, Institute for Community Leadership, Class 4 (2007-2008)

Leaders emerge from some very unlikely situations, and they often need help honing their skills and encouragement to identify service opportunities. Leaders come in all ages, sizes, shapes, and from both genders.

It is true that you can identify a leader by how well the followers perform; however, a truly superior leader is one who recognizes the responsibility of empowering others to lead. According to Maxwell (1993), “The one who

influences others to follow only is a leader with certain limitations. The one who influences others to lead others is a leader without limitations” (p. 113). Covey (1991) points out that “real leadership power comes from an honorable character and from the exercise of certain power tools and principles” (p. 101).

It was out of an awareness of the importance of empowering others to assume leadership roles within the community that the Institute for Community Leadership (ICL) was created and established in Fayetteville, North Carolina. “Informed citizens are a valuable resource for a community. They also make the local government’s job easier. To inform citizens and to attract and train future community leaders, communities throughout the country are establishing citizen academies” (IQ Report, 2001).

In this paper we provide background information concerning ICL including the Institute’s purposes and goals, an examination of its past achievements, current activities, and future projections. We conclude with a discussion of Hackman and Johnson’s (2009) “conditions for success in collaborative public ventures” (p. 293) as they relate to the Institute’s efforts to prepare people for community leadership.

Relationship between Theoretic and Practical Applications

The authors and concepts of leadership examined in this section provide the theoretical rationale for the development of the Institute for Community Leadership.

Leadership is a topic of historical and contemporary interest. “Over the last century, there has been a plethora of research and scholarship devoted to the leader agency in the leadership process” (Bratton, Grint, & Nelson, 2005, p. 87). Some argue the importance of leadership is overstated. “Yet, we remain


Table 1
Table 1 . View in document p.51
Table 2 Participation

Table 2.

Participation . View in document p.53
Table 1 Statements Relating to Support from Parents

Table 1.

Statements Relating to Support from Parents . View in document p.118
Table 2 Statements Regarding Relationship with Mother

Table 2.

Statements Regarding Relationship with Mother . View in document p.119
Table 3 Gender Neutral or Pro-Feminist Statements

Table 3.

Gender Neutral or Pro Feminist Statements . View in document p.120
Table 4 Sample Statements About Positive Impact of being an Alpha Female

Table 4.

Sample Statements About Positive Impact of being an Alpha Female . View in document p.121
Table 5 Statements Related to Identity as Leader

Table 5.

Statements Related to Identity as Leader . View in document p.122
Table 8 Challenges in Intimate Relationships

Table 8.

Challenges in Intimate Relationships . View in document p.125
Table 1 Percentage of Respondents by Major

Table 1.

Percentage of Respondents by Major . View in document p.136
Table 3 Responses of Membership in Collegiate Student Organizations (n=789)

Table 3.

Responses of Membership in Collegiate Student Organizations n 789 . View in document p.137
Table 4 “Officer” and “Non-officer” Responses to Statements Related to Participation in

Table 4.

Officer and Non officer Responses to Statements Related to Participation in . View in document p.138
Table 1
Table 1 . View in document p.154
Table 2
Table 2 . View in document p.155
Table 3 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Table 3.

Demographic Characteristics of Respondents . View in document p.157
Table 5
Table 5 . View in document p.158
Table 6
Table 6 . View in document p.160
Table 7
Table 7 . View in document p.163
Table 7 (continued)
Table 7 continued . View in document p.164
Table 8
Table 8 . View in document p.166
Table 2 Analysis of Variance in Critical Thinking Disposition Scores by Gender (n=177)

Table 2.

Analysis of Variance in Critical Thinking Disposition Scores by Gender n 177 . View in document p.222
Table 4
Table 4 . View in document p.224
Table 1 Youth Serving Organizations with Foci on Leadership through Positive Youth

Table 1.

Youth Serving Organizations with Foci on Leadership through Positive Youth . View in document p.262
Table 2 Frequency and Demographics of Participants in the Study (N = 164)

Table 2.

Frequency and Demographics of Participants in the Study N 164 . View in document p.265
Table 3 Perceptions toward Youth Leadership and Youth-Adult Relationships

Table 3.

Perceptions toward Youth Leadership and Youth Adult Relationships . View in document p.267
Table 5 Youth Perceptions based on Level of Volunteer Participation

Table 5.

Youth Perceptions based on Level of Volunteer Participation . View in document p.268
Table 6 Perception of Non-Volunteering Youth

Table 6.

Perception of Non Volunteering Youth . View in document p.269
Table 2 Means and Standard Deviations of the Overall and Each of the Five Dimensions

Table 2.

Means and Standard Deviations of the Overall and Each of the Five Dimensions . View in document p.287
Table 3 The Differences between Male and Female Teachers in Each Dimension of LPI

Table 3.

The Differences between Male and Female Teachers in Each Dimension of LPI . View in document p.288
Table 4
Table 4 . View in document p.289
Table 5 The Differences among the Three Experience Level Groups (New Hiring, Middle

Table 5.

The Differences among the Three Experience Level Groups New Hiring Middle . View in document p.290