THESIS THE ROLE OF RELIGION, IDEA AND IDENTITY IN TALIBAN ALLIANCE WITH AL QAEDA IN AFGHANISTAN

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THESIS

THE ROLE OF RELIGION, IDEA AND IDENTITY IN TALIBAN ALLIANCE WITH AL QAEDA IN AFGHANISTAN

BY:

MOHAMMAD AYUB MIRDAD NIM. 071414553004

MASTER PROGRAM INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS FACULTY OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF AIRLANGGA SURABAYA

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THE ROLE OF RELIGION, IDEA AND IDENTITY IN TALIBAN ALLIANCE WITH AL QAEDA IN AFGHANISTAN

Thesis

Submitted as One of Requirements to Complete Magister Study The Master Program in International Relations

Faculty of Social and Political Sciences University of Airlangga

BY:

MOHAMMAD AYUB MIRDAD NIM. 071414553004

MASTER PROGRAM INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS FACULTY OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF AIRLANGGA SURABAYA

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ACCEPTANCE PAGE

Thesis titled

The Role of Religion, Idea and Identity in Taliban Alliance with Al Qaeda in Afghanistan

It Has Been Approved For Submission to the Commission Examiner Surabaya, 22 December 2015

Supervisor Sub Supervisor

Vinsensio MA Dugis, MA., Ph.D Ahmad Safril, M.Hub.Int. NIP. 19650113 199101 1 001 NIP. 198109172014041001

Dsicover,

Chairman of the Masters Program in International Relations Department of International Relations

Faculty of Social and Political Scinces University of Airlangga

Baiq LSW Wardhani, MA., Ph.D NIP. 19640331 198810 2 001

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ENDORSEMENT PAGE

Thesis with the title The Role of Religion, Idea and Identity in Taliban Alliance with Al Qaeda in Afghanistan has been defended in the presence of examiners commission on Monday, 11 January 2016, at 9:00-11:00 WIB in room 203 of bulding A Faculty of

Social and Political Scinces University of Airlangga

Examiners Commission Head,

M. Muttaqien, MA., Ph.D NIP. 19730130 199903 1 001

Member Member

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DECLARATION OF THESIS ORIGINALITY

Part or all of the contents of the thesis, entitled The Role of Religion, Idea and Identity in the Taliban Alliance with Al Qaeda in Afghanistan was never asked to obtain a degree the academic field of study and/or another university and never published/written by individuals other than the author unless written the citation format in the thesis.

If there is evidence that my statement is not true, and then I am willing sanctioned according to applicable regulations at University of Airlangga.

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DEDICATION PAGE

I DEDICATED THIS

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MOTTO PAGE

It Always Seems Impossible Until It’s Done

N.M

A Nation of Sheep Will Beget a Government of Wolves

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Glossary

Al Qaeda: The original Al Qaeda, also known as AQ central previously under the leadership

of Usama Bin Ladin and now Ayman al Zawahiri.

Tliban: Insurgent, non-state actor, terrorist, transnational, violent, also known as (De

Afghanistan Islami Emarat, De Talebano Islami Ghurdzang, Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Islamic Movement of Taliban, Students of Islamic Knowledge Movement, Tahrike Islami‟a Taliban, Taleban, Taliban Islamic Movement, Talibano Islami Tahrik), previously under leadership of Mulah Omar and now Akhtar Mohammad Mansoor.

Caliphate: A form of Islamic government, often controlled by a Caliph, a leader of the entire

Muslim community.

Fatwa: The learned opinion on Islamic Law.

Jihad: Often translated to Holy War, refers to a struggle or resistance and is often claimed as

a religious duty for Muslims.

Qur’an: The sacred book of Islam.

Mujahidin – Those who participate in Jehad (Islamic Holy War) "Soldiers of Islam.

Sharia: The Islamic moral code and religious law.

Sunni: The largest of the Islamic branches, referred to as the common, original Islam, follows

Muhammed.

Shia: One of two major branches in Islam, follows Muhammeds son-in-law Ali as rightful

leader.

Tawhid: Stands for the “oneness” of God, the monotheistic base of Islam that there is only

one God.

Ummah: Refers to a collective Muslim nation or community.

Shura: A council.

Pashto: The language of the Pashtun ethnic group. Pashtun: An ethnic group of Afghanistan.

Madrasas: Religious (Islamic) schools in Pakistan.

Burqa: A head to toe covering for women that has only a mesh cloth to see and breathe through.

Ulama: Group of educated religious leaders with the authority to make decisions on behalf of a community.

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Amir al-mu’minin: The Leader of the Faithful. Title given to Mullah Omar in 1996 when he was appointed leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

Chador: A veil that is culturally specific and variable among different Islamic countries. Hijab: Modest clothing (for women or men) that is culturally specific and variable among different Islamic countries.

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Abbreviations TTP: Tehrike Taliban Pakistan.

ISAF: International Security Assistance Force. FATA: Federally Administered Tribal Areas. ISI: Inter Services Intelligence, Pakistan.

NATO: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization. IED: Improvised Explosive Device.

NWFP: North-West Frontier Province. OEF: Operation Enduring Freedom.

TNSM: Tehreek-i-Nifaz-i-Shariat-i-Muhammadi. IMU: Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.

HiG: Hizb-i-Islami Gulbuddin.

ETIM: Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement. LeT: Lashkar-e-Tayyibo.

U.S: United States.

ANA: Afghan National Army.

NCPJ: National Consultative Peace Jirga. HPC: High Peace Council.

APRP: Afghan Peace and Reconciliation Program. IROA: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

IEA: Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. PHR: Physicians for Human Rights

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Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Almighty ALLAH for his compassion and kindness, that I was able to complete this thesis entitled The Role of Religion, Idea and Identity in the Taliban Alliance with Al Qaeda in Afghanistan. This thesis is structured to complete the study on Master Program in International Relations Faculty of Social and Political Sciences of Airlangga University Surabaya.

This work is certainly not born in solitude, because no matter how great a human is but he will still need a touch of the other party. This work can be completed from the process of quoting and edit writings and ideas of the author another, of course by promoting ethics and academic norms. This work also not be completed without the data and information from a number of sources. As a work that was not born in solitude, for it over all humility, the writer should express his gratitude to all parties who contributed to the completion of this work, among other things to:

 First, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my beloved parents for their prayer, unconditional support and sacrifice all their time to me, and to my dearest wife who always helped me during the work on this thesis and also my parents in law for their prayer and support.

 Second, I must profoundest thankful to my thesis supervisor, Prof Vinsensio MA Dugis, MA., Ph.D for his excellent guidance, caring, patience, and providing me with an excellent atmosphere for doing this thesis, and I would like to thank to my guardian lecturer Prof Baiq LSW Wardhani, MA., Ph.D, and thanks also to Prof M. Muttaqien, MA., Ph.D and Prof I Gede Wahyu Wicaksana, M.Si., Ph.D who has guided and taught me during my study.

 Third, Thanks to the entire staff of department of International Relations University of Airlangga.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE --- i

PREREQUISITE TITLE PAGE --- ii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE --- iii

ENDORSEMENT PAGE --- iv

DECLARATION OF THESIS ORIGINALITY --- v

DEDICATION PAGE --- vi

1.5 Theoretical Framework --- 10

1.5.1 Alliances Theory --- 11

1.5.2 Constructivism Theory--- 13

1.5.3 Constructivism‟s Relevance to Terrorism --- 15

1.6 Thesis Statement --- 18

1.7 Conceptualization --- 18

1.8 Research Methodology --- 19

1.8.1 Research Type --- 19

1.8.2 Data Collection Technique --- 20

1.8.3 Time Frame --- 20

1.9 Systematic of Writing --- 20

CHAPTER II

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History of Taliban in Afghanistan --- 22

2.1. The Taliban Regime in Afghanistan --- 22

2.1.1 Religion --- 27

2.1.2 Culture --- 27

2.1.3 Pashtun Tribal Breakdown --- 29

2.1.4 Formal and Informal Organization --- 31

2.1.5 Leadership --- 33

2.1.6 Decision Making --- 34

2.1.7 Resources --- 34

2.1.8 The status of women in Afghanistan --- 36

2.1.9 Human Rights Violations --- 38

CHAPTER III Analysis of Taliban Alliance with Al Qaeda --- 41

3.1 Connectivity based on Religion --- 41

3.2 Connectivity Based on Idea --- 45

3.3 Connectivity Based on Identity --- 48

3.4 Perspective of Constructivism and NeoRealist within the Taliban and Al Qaeda Alliances --- 50

3.5 Strategic Analysis of Taliban Alliance and Al Qaeda --- 62

CHAPTER IV The Prediction of Alliance between Taliban and Al Qaeda in Afghanistan - 65 4.1 The Role of Pakistan within Their Alliance Continuation --- 66

4.2 America's presence in Afghanistan --- 71

4.3 Reconciliation with the Taliban --- 75

CHAPTER V Conclusion --- 81

BIBLIOGRAPHY--- 84

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the alliance between Taliban and Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, by exploring the factors of Religion, Idea and Identity. The theory approach that use to analyze their alliance is neorealist approach and constructivism theory. Then to collect data and information of evidence in alliance between Taliban and Al Qaeda, history and literature review was explored one by one according to the time frame and theoretical framework. Afterwards, refers to the analyze of this three mentioned factors by applying the theories within the data and evidences between Taliban and Al Qaeda found that, alliance connectivity between these two groups is exist in Afghanistan. Furthermore, this study‟s results are relevant to be able predicting their alliance in the future relates to their terrorism action in Afghanistan.

Keywords: Religion, Idea, Identity, Taliban, Al Qaeda and Afghanistan.

Abstrak

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis aliansi antara Taliban dan Al Qaeda di Afghanistan, dengan menjelajahi faktor Agama, Idea dan Identitas. Teori Pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menganalisis aliansi mereka pendekatan Neorealis dan teori konstruktivisme. Kemudian untuk mengumpulkan data dan informasi dari bukti dalam aliansi antara Taliban dan Al Qaeda, sejarah dan kajian literatur dieksplorasi satu per satu sesuai dengan kerangka waktu dan kerangka teoritis. Setelah itu, mengacu pada analisa ini ketiga faktor tersebut dengan menerapkan teori-teori dalam data dan bukti-bukti antara Taliban dan Al Qaeda menemukan bahwa, konektivitas aliansi antara dua kelompok ini ada di Afghanistan. Selanjutnya, hasil penelitian ini relevan untuk dapat memprediksi aliansi mereka di masa depan berkaitan dengan aksi terorisme mereka di Afghanistan.

Kata kunci: Agama, Ide, Identitas, Taliban, Al Qaeda dan Afghanistan.

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