THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN
TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
AT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL
A Case Study in a Senior High School Using the 2013 Curriculum in Bandar Lampung
Submitted as a partial fulfillment of the requirement
for a Master’s Degree
ACHMAD YUDI WAHYUDIN
ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES
INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
STATEMENT OF AUTHORIZATION
I hereby certify that this paper, entitled “THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL”, is totally my own work. To the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no elements of plagiarism. I am fully aware that I have quoted some statements and ideas from some sources and that they are approximately acknowledged.
Bandung, August 31st, 2015
PAGE OF APPROVAL
This thesis entitled
The Implementation of Scientific Method in Teaching English as a Foreign
Language at Senior High School Level
(A Case Study in a Senior High School using the 2013 Curriculum in Bandar Lampung)
has been approved by
Prof. Dr. Didi Sukyadi, M.A.
The Head of English Education Study Program
Pupung Purnawarman, M.S.Ed., Ph.D.
The integration of scientific method in teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) in Indonesia has become a controversial issue as the 2013 Curriculum requires teachers to follow each step of scientific method in the classroom practice. Since some experts believe that there is no literature in the history of TEFL/SL that supports the use of scientific-based learning to teach English, EFL teachers, particularly at schools using the 2013 Curriculum in Indonesia, are faced with a dilemmatic condition where they need to follow the recent curriculum demand. In relation to this issue, the present study attempts to portray the
teacher’s effort in conducting EFL classroom practice by following each step of
scientific method. Involving an English teacher and 30 students of eleventh grade majoring in Science class, the researcher employed classroom observation, interview, and questionnaire form to collect the data in a case study to explore (1) whether or not the teacher is able to implement scientific method to EFL classroom practice; (2) how the teacher interprets scientific method; and (3) the
students’ perception towards scientific-based learning activity. The collected data result in findings that (1) scientific method could not seemingly be applied by the teacher effectively since she only executed three or four steps out of five steps of scientific method in the classroom process but it somehow bore an indication of
potential contribution to the students’ participation, confidence, and critical
thinking; (2) the teacher was able to define five stages of scientific method and aware of the benefit and challenge of using scientific method although she misinterprets scientific method as a similar learning model developed in the previous curriculum; (3) scientific method is also perceived positively by the Science class students to be a useful method to improve their interest, confidence, critical thinking, and communication skill. However, the effect of scientific
method to students’ language skills was not really given careful attention due to limitations of the study. Thus, this study might be the window for further studies to explore the potential benefit and challenge of scientific method in teaching EFL students, particularly for senior high school level.
Integrasi penerapan pendekatan saintifik terhadap pengajaran Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing telah menjadi sebuah isu yang kontroversial di Indonesia. Sejak para ahli dan praktisi mengemukakan bahwa tidak adanya kajian pustaka atau studi mendalam mengenai penggunaan pendekatan saintifik dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing atau bahasa kedua, para pengajar bahasa Inggris terutama guru di sekolah-sekolah yang menerapkan kurikulum 2013 dihadapkan pada kondisi dilematis dimana kurikulum 2013 tersebut mengharuskan guru untuk menerapkan pendekatan saintifik di kelas. Dengan mempertimbangkam isu tersebut, penelitian ini ditujukan untuk memotret penerapan saintifik yang dilakukan oleh guru di kelas. Dengan mengikut sertakan seorang guru dan 30 siswa kelas XI jurusan IPA, peneliti mengadakan sebuah studi kasus yang bertujuan untuk: (1) untuk mengkaji penerapan pendekatan saintifik di kelas dan sejauh mana guru tersebut dapat mengikuti tiap tahapan pendekatan saintifik; (2) bagaimana guru menginterpretasikan pendekatan saintifik; (3) persepsi siswa-siswa terhadap aktifitas yang berlandaskan pendekatan saintifik di kelas. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari observasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner, telah ditemukan bahwa: (1) Guru terlihat tidak dapat menerapkan pendekatan saintifik dengan efektif jika ditinjau dari kemampuan guru yang hanya mengikuti tiga atau empat tahap dari total lima tahap pendekatan saintifik; (2) guru sebenarnya dapat mendefinisikan pendekatan saintifik dan sadar akan kelebihan dan kekurangan dari pendekatan saintifik, namun, terjadi kesalahpahaman dimana ia menganggap pendekatan saintifik sama dengan model pembelajaran pada kurikulum sebelumnya; (3) Siswa-siswa memiliki pandangan positif terhadap pendekatan saintifik dimana mayoritas dari siswa setuju bahwa pendekatan saintifik dapat meningkatkan kepercayaan diri, minat, dan cara berpikir kritis mereka. Akan tetapi penelitian ini tidak terfokus pada efek penerapan pendekatan saintifik pada kemampuan komunikasi siswa akibat adanya keterbatasan penelitian ini. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dapat dijadikan acuan sebagai studi pendahulu bagi studi atau penelitian yang akan datang untuk mengkaji lebih dalam efek penerapan pendekatan saintifik terhadap pengajaran bahasa Inggris di kelas terutama pada tingkat Sekolah menengah atas.
Kata Kunci: pendekatan saintifik, sekolah menengah atas, praktek pengajaran bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing
TABLE OF CONTENTS
STATEMENT OF AUTHORIZATION ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
PREFACE... Error! Bookmark not defined.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... Error! Bookmark not defined.
ABSTRACT ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...1
LIST OF TABLES ... Error! Bookmark not defined. LIST OF FIGURES ... Error! Bookmark not defined. LIST OF APPENDICES ... Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study...Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.2 Purpose of the Study... 5
1.3 Research Questions ... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.4 Research Methodology ... 6
1.5 Significance of the Study ... 6
1.6 Clarification of Key Terms... 7
1.7 Outline of the Thesis... 8
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Overview of National Curriculum for Senior High School...9
2.1.1 Definition and Rationale of 2013 Curriculum...11
2.1.2 Philosophical Foundation of 2013 Curriculum ...13
2.1.3 Structure of 2013 Curriculum for Senior High School ...15
2.2 Notion of Approach , Method, and Technique ...20
2.3 Notion of Scientific Method ...23
2.3.1 Definition of Scientific Method...23
2.3.2 Basic Principle of Scientific Method in Learning ...25
2.3.3 Procedure of Scientific Method in Learning ...28
2.4 Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia ...35
2.5 Scientific Method to Language Teaching ...37
2.6 Notion of Perception in Relation to Learning...40
2.7 Report of Previous Related Studies ...42
3.1 Sites and Participants ...45
3.2 Design ...46
3.3 Data Collecting Techniques ...46
3.3.1 Classroom Observation ...46
3.3.2 Interview ...47
3.3.3 Questionnaire ...48
3.4 Instrument of the Study...49
3.5 Procedure of Collecting the Data ...50
3.6 Data Analysis...51
3.6.1 Data Reduction ...53
3.6.2 Data Display...53
3.6.3 Conclusion Drawing and Verification...53
CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Teacher’s Implementation of Scientific Method in the Classroom Practice ... 54
4.1.1 Observing Stage...57
4.1.2 Questioning Stage ...63
4.1.3 Experimenting Stage ...69
4.1.4 Associating Stage ...73
4.1.5 Communicating Stage ...75
4.2 Teacher’s Interpretation of Scientific method ... 79
4.2.1 Teacher’s general belief about 2013 Curriculum ...80
4.2.2 Teacher’s conceptual understanding about scientific method...81
4.2.3 Problems during the implementation of scientific method ...84
4.3 Students’ Perception towards Scientific method ... 86
4.3.1 Students’ attitude towards English lesson ...87
4.3.2 Students’ perception towards the materials given during teaching learning process ...89
4.3.3 Students’ perception towards scientific-based activities ...91
4.3.4 Students’ perception towards the impact of the scientific-based activities ...94
5.2 Limitations of the Study... 99 5.3 Recommendations ... 101
In this introductory chapter, the background to the present study and the current issue in teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) in Indonesia will be provided along with the report of related studies. This chapter will also set out the objectives of the study guided by the associated research questions that the thesis attempts to answer. The justification of practical and theoretical contribution of the study will be described along with a brief overview of the research methodology and clarification of some key terms used in this study. Finally, an outline of the structure of the paper is also included in this chapter to provide a brief summary of the content of this thesis.
1.1 Background of the Study
This study is concerned with investigating a teacher’s implementation of scientific method to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom at senior high school level as it is required by the 2013 English curriculum.
The term “scientific method” has come along in the development of English language teaching for junior high school, senior high school, and vocational high school since the introduction of the 2013 curriculum as the new “umbrella” of schooling system in Indonesia. Scientific method in learning is considered the procedure of acquiring learning outcomes which values much on the process of learning and student-centeredness so that it can facilitate and develop students’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor capability. As the new curriculum has been initiated, the use of scientific method becomes prominent with regards to the decree of Minister of Education and Culture No. 69/2013 that requires the integration of scientific method into all subjects including English language teaching. Consequently, English teachers currently are required to conduct successful instruction through scientific method in order to help students gain their target language mastery.
method. Scientific method is defined as a logical orderly approach that involves gathering data, formulating and testing hypothesis, and proposing theories (Wicander & Monroe, 2006). Scientific method is also the process of asking questions and making experiments to find the answers (McMurry & Fay, 2008). From a psychology textbook, “scientific method refers to a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and making conclusions” (Hockenburry & Hockenburry, 2000). In short, scientific method is regarded as a body of techniques consisted of several procedures intended to investigate phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
Scientific method has been long used in the field of teaching Science (See Rusbutlt, 1997; Godfrey-Smith, 2003; Wieman, 2006) but it has never been used in the teaching of second or foreign language. Thus, many practitioners and experts in English language teaching skeptically responded the curriculum maker’s decision in integrating scientific method in language teaching (Chodijah, 2013 cited in Prathivi, 2013; Natahdibrata, 2013, Richards, 2014). The most critiques have been delivered in the forum of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia (TEFLIN) International Conference held in Solo at October 7th – 9th, 2014. In the panel discussion, Richards (2014) stated that there is no literature that supports the use of scientific method in language teaching. Thus, he questioned the practicality and the effectiveness of scientific method to serve the nature and the purpose of language learning and teaching. The teachers also considered it difficult in applying scientific method to the language classroom because they are not familiar with scientific method and they argue that some of them did not get enough training and professional development (Mulyasa, 2013). Consequently, this condition has led classroom teachers to own different beliefs and perceptions regarding the implementation of scientific method in classroom practice.
phase when the students observe the model of text; (2) questioning is when the students are able to find something they need to answer (e.g., what is the feature of the text? for what purpose? and how is it constructed?) based on their
observation; (3) experimenting is the phase when they are trying to seek the answer through guiding tasks (e.g., interviewing someone, watching video, discuss the topic by referring to the book, etc.); (4) associating is when the students begin to draw conclusions to answer questions by classifying, identifying, and comparing the information they get; and (5) communicating is the stage where students are presenting the knowledge they have constructed to the class in oral or written communication.
Concerning scientific-based learning activities that require the students to do activities such as comprehending the given information, expressing and deliberating some questions, collecting and noting piece of information and presenting their ideas to the peers, the researcher views that the model of teaching through scientific method shares similar characteristic to cognitive approach to language teaching which integrates stimulating tasks to be dealt by students in learning the target language (See: Skehan,1998; Nunan, 2004), problem-based learning (Larson, 2001; Tan, 2003), project-based learning (Kotti, 2008; Nunan, 2004) and inquiry learning (Alfiery et al., 2010; Balim, 2009) in which apparently, those models have been long used as alternatives of English language teaching practice in other countries (See Larsson, 2001; Fragoulis, 2009; Masrom and Yusof, 2013). Similarly, the integrated language learning has also been the feature of many alternative language instructions which have been already known in the literature of TEFL and TESL such as content-based instruction, theme-based instruction, and task-theme-based teaching (See Krahnke, 1987; Brown, 2001).
(2011) revealed that teachers’ knowledge in developing syllabus was not satisfying. Further, Sundayana et. al, (2012) found out that teacher’s conceptual understanding of designing, developing, and applying syllabus and lesson plan did not reach the expectation. During the first year of the implementation of the 2013 Curriculum, it was noticed that some teachers faced difficult time in administering the instruction based on scientific method so that they were not likely to teach English effectively in the classroom (See Kompas: Suasana Kelas Belum Sesuai Harapan, 2014). Instead, they showed some resistance and keep
teaching by using the technique they are already comfortable with.
Moreover, from the observation carried out in a junior high school and senior High School in Bandar Lampung prior to the present study, the researcher noticed that scientific method could not be used to teach certain language expressions such as giving suggestion and offer, giving and asking for opinion, and making a wish. Instead, the scientific method was generally used to teach type of texts such as narrative, recount, report, procedure, and description. When the teacher used the scientific method in the classroom practice, several points of weakness had been noted by the researcher. In the main activity, sometimes the teacher did not give enough time for the observing and questioning stage. Instead, the teacher took much time in the experimenting as it was noticed that the group discussion required more time than other stages. As the task cannot be accomplished by the students in the same time, the teacher sometime missed the communicating stage. Consequently, the students did not get enough time for communicating with peers and it might disrupt the attainment of the learning objectives.
the instruction. It is also added by Shofiya (2014) that some teachers had some trouble with doing assessment along with the application of “scientific steps” in the classroom.
Even though the research mentioned above have explored the teacher’s perception and problem regarding the implementation of 2013 English curriculum, little has been known regarding to what extent teachers are able to apply scientific method in classroom practice, particularly in senior high school level as it is required by the 2013 curriculum. Also, there is no further exploration of how the teachers interpret scientific method in relation to their teaching practice. Therefore, there is a need for further study documenting the implementation of discovery skill or scientific-based learning in EFL classroom practice. It is believed that a case study in a school implementing the 2013 curriculum served the purpose of this study since the teaching English as a foreign language is very specific in terms of context and situation.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
1.3 Research Questions
In relation to the purposes of the study concerned with the teacher’s effort in implementing scientific method in classroom practice, three research questions are formulated in order to guide the inquiry process. They are presented as follows.
1. How does the English teacher implement scientific method to EFL classroom practice?
2. How does the teacher interpret scientific method?
3. How do the students perceive scientific method activity in EFL classroom?
1.4 Research Methodology
In order to answer the research questions presented initially, case study was carried out in a senior high school which is piloting 2013 English curriculum. The participants involved in this study was English teacher who is trying to teach English through scientific method-based learning in EFL classroom, particularly grade 11 who have been taught under the 2013 curriculum. Questionnaire was also distributed to the students in order to reveal how they perceive scientific method activity during English lesson. The procedure of collecting the data followed the principles of qualitative study which seeks to understand this contextual case in a natural setting.
1.5 Significance of the Study
those who concern the benefit and challenge of scientific method in the context of EFL classroom practice in Indonesia.
1.6 Clarification of Key Terms
In relation to the report of this thesis, there are several key terms necessary to clarify in order to provide clear understanding. Those key terms include the 2013 Curriculum, scientific method, pilot school of 2013 Curriculum, and EFL classroom practice.
The first term is related to the 2013 Curriculum. The 2013 Curriculum refers to the curriculum initiated in 2013 by the decree of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 67, No. 68, No. 69 /2013 under the signature of Minister of Education and Culture in the era of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. By the time this thesis is being written, there is a transition of the government as Joko Widodo has been elected as the new president of Indonesia. The current Minister of Primary and Secondary Education takes over the control and the implementation of the 2013 Curriculum for elementary school until senior high school.
The second term is concerned with scientific method. Scientific method in this study refers to pendekatan saintifik or scientific approach stated in the document of the decree of Minister of Education and Culture No. 69/2013. The researcher uses the term scientific method rather than scientific approach because the term approach does not truly represent the procedure of teaching stated in the document of the 2013 Curriculum. In the field of language teaching, the term method is considered suitable for procedural level and approach is in theoretical level (See Anthony, 1963; Richards & Renandya, 2002; Celce-Murcia, 2001). Therefore scientific method serves pendekatan saintifik that has been stated in the 2013 Curriculum.
with the school community in implementing the 2013 curriculum, these schools become a model of the implementation of the 2013 Curriculum up until now.
The last term is associated with EFL classroom practice. This term refers to the practice of teaching English where it is considered a foreign language. It means that this language has not yet become official language and its use is limited to particular condition and circumstance. This classroom practice can be seen in the secondary and tertiary education in Indonesia since English has become a compulsory subject at those levels.
1.7 Outline of the Thesis
On this section, several points related to the methodology of the research will be elaborated. It covers research site and participant, design, data collection technique, instrumentation, procedure, and data analysis. All of sections are provided in order to serve the objectives of study, particularly to answer the overarching research questions.
3.1 Sites and Participants
The site of this study was one of the senior high schools in Bandar Lampung. It is important that the selection of site and participants is not taken for granted, but decided on purpose to provide appropriate data embracing the research problems under examination (Creswell, 2007). Therefore, there are three reasonable considerations in selecting the site and participant: current school curriculum, practicality, and the ease of getting access.
Firstly, the site has been piloting 2013 English curriculum in Bandar Lampung. In reference to Minister of Education and Culture Regulation No. 160/2014, the school has been appointed to proceed with the implementation of the 2013 Curriculum. Therefore, it serves the context in which the present study is administered. Secondly, the reason this school was chosen as the site of the research is due to its location which is reachable so that it supports the practicality and feasibility of the research. At last, on the basis of mutual trust that has been
established since the researcher had been an alumna and teacher’s assistant in the
site, it was assumed that the researcher can get access to the participants. The necessity of getting access is considered important point since it could support the researcher to get the expected data required in this study (Heigham & Croker, 2009).
learning process since the 2013 curriculum was initiated. Thus, the learning process being observed serves as the data required to answer the research questions of this study. Besides, eleventh grade students were chosen as the group of participant being observed since they have been taught under the 2013 Curriculum for three semesters. Their respond towards the implementation of scientific method may be meaningful insight for challenge and benefit of the integration of scientific method in EFL classroom. In other words, eleventh grade level are considered potential source of data in order to serve the objective of the study.
Since this research only focuses on particular instance of educational practice which is associated with the implementation of scientific method in a classroom practice, the single case study was employed as the design of the research (Nunan & Bailey, 2009; Hood, 2009; Mackey & Gass, 2005). Therefore, the principles of qualitative approach that puts forward naturalistic and interpretive ways of understanding the phenomena was really taken into account. The portrait of single
classroom activity was required in order to get teacher’s effort in applying scientific method to English classroom practice as well as students’ perception towards it. This study required multiple data collection techniques in order to enhance the credibility of the findings.
3.3 Data Collecting Techniques
Given that the purpose of the study is to gain a comprehensive description of the implementation of scientific method in a classroom practice as well as
teacher’s interpretation of scientific-based learning and students’ perception towards the learning process, the researcher employed several data collecting techniques presented as follows.
3.3.1 Classroom Observation
Since this study requires the natural process of classroom practice, observation was regarded as the best technique in gaining the picture of
teacher’s effort in applying scientific method (Nunan & Bailey, 2009). In this
teaching in a week by using video recorder. During observation the researcher played observer-as-participant role (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2006; Alwasilah, 2000) where he could note the detail and descriptions of what happened in the classroom. However, the disadvantage of using video recorder while observing might be disruptive as teacher and students may act in ways that are not typical of their usual classroom behavior. Thus, in order to reduce this observer’s paradox (Labov, 1972 cited in Nunan & Bailey, 2009), the researcher spent more time in the site so that the participants in the context become familiar with and accept the presence of researcher in the classroom. This classroom observation was conducted five times until the data collected is sufficient to answer the initial research questions. During the observation, the researcher used observation plan developed from the idea stated by Syahmadi (2013) in order to guide the researcher to classify and categorize
the teacher’s teaching practice.
To support the validity of data collection, interview was administered to the teacher. Interview is used as directive means of finding what people are thinking, feeling, and doing (Given, 2008). In other words, it is intended to know what happen to people. According to Cohen, Manion, and Morrison
(2007), interviews functions to look into participants’ experience and concern
of situations from their own point of view. Thus, in order to gain teachers’ perception towards scientific method and problems in applying scientific method that are not observable during the classroom practice, semi-structured interview (Mackey & Gass, 2005; Given, 2008 )was utilized in this study.
The teacher was interviewed when she has done teaching during break time. In addition, the interview was simultaneously carried out with audiotaping. Creswell (2007) and Given (2008) mention taking audiotape while interviewing the participants has a number of benefits. First, researchers are free to think creatively while the interviews are taking place, in case making notes is needed. Second, tape-recording the interviews allows
researchers to later analyze interviewees’ statement thoroughly, comparing
others as well. Furthermore, recording participants’ words ensures reliability
of the data as the whole data are recorded. As a result, audiotaping
participants’ interviews make researchers more assured that they are
capturing “the true essence of interviewees’ intents” (Given, 2008). The questions/items for interview are basically made in relation to Curriculum 2013 and scientific method and it is developed from the guideline stated by Anjaniputra (2013).
Table 3.1 Guideline of the Interview
No Details Item number
1. Identifying teacher’s general perception towards the 2013
Curriculum 1, 2
2. Identifying teacher’s conceptual understanding about scientific
method 3, 4, 5,6,7
3. The problems faced by teacher during teaching learning process 7
Modified from Anjaniputra (2013)
The questionnaire was administered to the students in order to explore their response towards the implementation of scientific method. Questionnaire is used in the present study developed based on the theory of perception stated by Kara (2009) and Weichselgartner & Sperling (1987) to
cover all students’ perception in the classroom. The distribution of questionnaire was done by the researcher at the end of meeting of the classroom observation.
In relation to the questionnaire form, it consists of Likert-Scale comprising 35 close-ended statements. The statements were provided in Bahasa Indonesia in order to help the students express their thoughts and
towards lesson content, strategies, and the impact of the teacher’s application of scientific method during classroom practice. The categorization of each statement is presented in the framework of students’ questionnaire modified from Anjaniputra (2012) below.
2. Students’ response towards the materials given during learning process
3 Students’ response towards the process of learning English through scientific method
4. Students’ response towards the impact of scientific method
Modified from Anjaniputra (2013)
3.4 Instrument of the Study
Considering the principle of qualitative research which is a naturalistic approach and interpretive ways of inquiry, researcher is regarded as the main instrument in this study. The researcher interpreted and analyzed the data based on the appropriate theoretical construct of understanding related practical case. In addition, in order to help the researcher in understanding the phenomena related to the focus of the research, the principle and the belief about 2013 English curriculum was the basis and guideline in portraying the classroom practice.
Besides, numerous research instruments such as video recorder, interview guidelines were employed in order to help the researcher gain the data necessary for the study. First, the reason of using video recorder is based on the ease of capturing classroom process. Thus, by using video the researcher would not only
be able to take a note of teacher’s teaching practice during real classroom process,
students were also employed to guide the researcher in collecting the data required for the study.
3.5 Procedure of Collecting the Data
In this study, the role of the researcher is non-participant observer. It means that the researcher played as an outsider who collected the data as it is situated in natural context without talking, interrupting, and suggesting. This is considered reasonable way to serve the purpose of this study. To make it clear, the procedure of collecting the data can be illustrated in the following order: getting access, observing classroom activity, collecting related document, conducting interview, administering questioner.
After deciding to choose the research site through numeral reasons stated previously, the first step of collecting the data is getting an access to the research site by asking permission from the school principal. Given that the school would also get benefit from the proposed study, the researcher was granted access. One of the English teachers of 11th grade participated voluntarily after being informed by the principal regarding the nature and objective of the proposed study. Then, the schedule of the research was discussed with the teacher as a participant.
In the second step, Observing classroom activity was carried out. In this step, video tape recorder was utilized to observe the classroom activity. As has been stated earlier, one meeting observation is divided into five stages: observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. On each stage,
teacher’s effort in applying those steps was analyzed. The duration of the
recording was one time meeting which is around 80 minutes.
In the third step, the researcher collected related document in order to ensure that the practice of scientific method required by the 2013 English curriculum is
also reflected in the teacher’s teaching plan or the lesson plan and teahcer’s implementation of scientific method to classroom practice. Therefore, the documents collected may be in the form of teacher’s syllabus and lesson plan.
method during classroom activity and particularly problems in applying each step of scientific method.
Finally, the researcher distributed the questionnaire to students in order to explore their perception towards the implementation of scientific-based learning while they are studying English in the classroom.
All of the steps above were conducted chronologically in relation to the purposes of the study. The data then was analyzed by following certain procedures that can be seen in the next subsection.
3.6 Data Analysis
Data analysis is very important to make sense of or to give meaning to the data. It may come about simultaneously since researchers begin to undertake data collection up until the purposes of the research are pursued and completed (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998; Fraenkel and Wallen, 2006; Creswell, 2008). It implies that data analysis is interrelated to data collection and considered as an ongoing process throughout research investigation.
Having collected the data, several steps were undertaken to analyze the data gained. The steps undertaken for data analysis were divided into three main parts, which were analyzing video of classroom observation, analyzing interview data from the teacher, and analyzing questionnaire data from students. The first step to do before analyzing the data was to transcribe the data from classroom observation (observation fieldnote and observation check-list), and from interviews administered to the teacher. Then, this transcription was reviewed line by line, labeled, and categorized by the researcher assisted by another colleague with similar understanding and capability towards the case being investigated. In transcribing the data, the researcher used some abbreviations such as (T: Teacher;
Ss: Students, S1, S2, etc.). The same procedure was applied in analyzing the data
collected from interview. The data from classroom observation and interview with the teacher were then categorized into broader themes, which were intended to identify and describe the procedure of teaching English by integrating scientific method, and coding was done to make it easier to identify the strategies by
“C” for creating. In the meantime, questionnaire administered to the students was
used to portray students’ perception towards scientific-based learning activity. In addition, the lesson plan of the meeting observed was be analyzed to ascertain that the teacher has also integrated scientific method in her teaching plan as it is required by professional community. The combination of multiple data collecting techniques is considered triangulation procedure to ensure the
credibility of the findings. Finally, all data related to teacher’s effort in applying
scientific method was cross-checked against the document released by policy maker related to 2013 English curriculum in order to reveal similarity and/or dissimilarity between findings and the requirement of teaching program stated in 2013 English curriculum.
To analyze data, Denzin and Lincoln (1998) propose an interactive model as this is an ongoing process throughout the whole investigation process, containing three subprocesses: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification (Miles and Huberman, 1984, 1994, as cited in Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). The procedures of data analysis can be illustrated by the figure below:
Adapted from Denzin and Lincoln (1998: 181)
Figure 3.1 Interactive Model of Data Analysis
DATA DISPLAY DATA REDUCTION
3.6.1 Data Reduction
Having gained the data from classroom observation, interviews, and questionnaire gathered, data reduction was then conducted. Data reduction functions to select the data essential and relevant to the study under investigation. In reducing the data, coding process (Creswell, 2008) was employed to go for the needed one, which, in turn, was useful in generalizing broad themes. This reduction of data was carried out based upon research questions and purpose of the research.
3.6.2 Data Display
Once the data was reduced, the next step to undertake was displaying the data. According to Denzin and Lincoln (1998), data display can be
presented in the forms of “structured summaries, synopses, vignettes, network
like or other diagrams, and matrices with text”. It enables researchers to give clear view of what was happening and of what to do in further analysis as well as conclusion drawing about its meanings. So, this step is on the point of interpreting the condensed data by relating them to the central theme of research questions, which generating the findings to answer research questions.
3.6.3 Conclusion Drawing and Verification
Having the data reduced and displayed, the last step was to draw and to verify conclusion. Conclusion drawing and verification involve interpretation of researchers to make sense of displayed data. Noting of patterns and themes are used in conclusion drawing as a part of coding process taken in the previous step of analysis. The findings are processed here and compared with one data to another. In this sense Denzin and Lincoln (1998) call it “Data
Transformation”, where data is condensed, clustered, sorted, and linked over
CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY, AND
This section provides conclusions and suggestions related to teacher’s effort in integrating scientific method to EFL classroom practice. It also provide conclusion for teacher’s perception of scientific method and students perception towards the use of scientific-based activity. Conclusions are formulated from findings and discussions of the research, and suggestions are directed to English teacher and further researcher.
The overarching finding of this study, in accordance to the result of the five observations stated in previous chapter, from five stages of scientific method planned by the teacher, it was only three or four stages executed in every meeting. During the teaching process, observing, questioning, and experimenting stage were the steps mostly applied by the teacher, whereas associating and communicating are the least stages applied by teacher in five meetings. This finding somehow confirms that there is an indication that the teacher was not likely to follow the procedure of teaching English through scientific method expected by the 2013 curriculum (Budianto, 2013). Even though the teacher was not able to follow the expected teaching procedure, some activities were found contributive in encouraging students to be involved in the learning process since the process of teaching was carried out through familiar topics that fit to the needs of students of science class. Each scientific stage is mainly used by the teacher to direct the students to find the generic structure of the text, language feature of the text, and social function of the text.
used to remind the students the material they have learned in the previous meeting. During observing, the students were often asked to take a note of what seems to be important such as, difficult words, specific information in the text, and feature of the text.
In reference to questioning stage, the teacher mainly encouraged the students to answer some questions related to the text. As they are exposed with questions the teacher provided opportunity to students to generate some questions in relation to their report. Additionally, questioning happened also in student-student interaction during questions-answers sessions in relation to the presentation. In reference to the observation data, this questioning stage somehow developed students’ critical thinking as some questions generated by students are mostly related to higher-order thinking questions even though the teacher was not intentionally asked the students to produce high-order questions.
The third stage is concerned with experimenting; the students were trying to collect information to answer the problems posed by the teacher. In relation to this stage, the teacher commonly asked the students to work in group as it assembles collaborative learning. She asked the students to work in pair and or group so that the students can work cooperatively in discovering features and structures of report text. While the students were experimenting using the target language, errors commonly happened and teacher often used explicit corrective feedback to students. The use of corrective feedback did not seem to discourage the students. Instead, feedbacks and corrections enhance students enjoying the learning process. In the associating stage, the teacher commonly play important role as a facilitator and guidance in order help the students to draw conclusion based on materials they have learned. It was also found that the teacher often used L1 to give clue and to encourage students to be actively participated in the class. She also used L1 to explain the meaning of unfamiliar words by associating one word to another relevant word. However, the finding showed that associating stage was missed by the teacher in the third, four and five meeting. This might imply the indication of ineffectiveness of the teaching process.
students were asked to present their report in front of class while the others carefully pay attention and take a note their friends’ performance. For audience it can be a process observing for them as they need to be aware of the content of information disseminated by their friend. Additionally, the process of communication happened here through questions-answer session. Although the students are lack of accuracy and fluency while they are communicating, they seem to be confident in expressing their idea and the message can be accepted well by the audience. In the last meeting, the students are required to compose report text individually as a part of communication through written language.
In relation to the teacher’s interpretation of scientific method, the teacher seemed to be aware of potential benefit of scientific method and the 2013 curriculum demand. However, a misunderstanding regarding the concept of scientific method has been an unexpected finding where the teacher stated that scientific method is similar to the concept of EGRA which is actually a teaching model established in the previous curriculum. Consequently, she was not likely to follow each step of scientific method effectively. Additionally, the teacher also stated that each of scientific-based learning steps could not be applied in a meeting as the time is limited. Observing, questioning, experimenting, and associating takes a lot of teaching time so that the teacher needs extra meeting to give students opportunity to do communicating.
In conclusion, there are several points pointed out from this study in accordance to the teacher’s implementation of scientific method to eleventh grade students at senior high school level. First, it seems that scientific method could not be effectively applied by the teacher but somehow scientific method contributes positively to the students’ creativity and critical thinking. Scientific-based learning activity also seem to positively affect students’ confidence in using the target language though their accuracy were still average. These finding confirm the previous studies done by Herlina (2014) and Widiasih (2013) where scientific method affect positively to the students’ participation and motivation in the classroom and it also improve students’ communication ability, particularly comprehending written information. Second, the teacher was able to define five stages of scientific method and aware of the benefit and challenge of using scientific method although she misinterprets scientific method as similar to learning model developed in the previous curriculum. Third, the students of eleventh grade perceive positively scientific method to be useful in accommodating their learning needs.
At last, the findings of the study in some extent answer the doubt deliberated by some experts (Richards, 2014; Chodijah, 2013 cited in Prathivi 2013; Natahdibrata, 2013) in relation to the practicality of the use of scientific method in language teaching. Even though scientific method was not really applied effectively during the classroom practice, there is a room for improvement as the 2013 curriculum has just been initiated for one and a half years and it is assumed that the use of scientific method will be fruitful in accommodating the objective of the teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.
5.2 Limitations of the Study
The first limitation is concerned with the period of the research. As stated earlier in Chapter 3, the research was stopped at the end of the fifth meeting or observation. This was happened since there was school’s policy that requires the participants in this study to follow some agendas such as the celebration of Kartini’s Day, simulation of National Examination, and The day of National Examination. At this state, the researcher has no authority to move the schedule of the research so that the research was stopped. However, regardless the lack of observation of classroom process, five times observation is considered sufficient to serve the purpose of the study since the pattern of how the teacher conducted teaching-learning process through scientific method has been discovered. It was also noted in teacher’s lesson plan that the main learning objectives were attained at the end of observation process.
Second, the limitation of the study deals with the participant of the study. Since this study mainly focused on single case study in portraying teacher’s effort in applying scientific method in classroom practice, only a single teacher and a class of eleventh grade was observed as the participants of the study. Thus, the data portrayed in this study could not be compared and contrasted to another case. Thus the finding of this study was lack of generalizability and transferability to the other conditions. The finding of the study might only suit to the context where the research was carried out and to the participants being observed.
scientific method might affect positively to the students’ communicative competence and four language skills if it is effectively applied.
In short, the limitations of the study concerned with the period of the study, participant of the study, and the focus of the study did not affect the attainment of the purposes of the study. Instead, this finding of this study is expected to be the window of further study that concerns the potential benefit and challenge in the implementation of scientific method in EFL classroom practice.
In relation to the findings depicted in this study, it is recommended that the teacher should improve her/his effort in applying scientific method to classroom practice. The teacher is also required to fully understand the nature of scientific method and the purpose of each stage as it is expected in the 2013 Curriculum. In addition, the time management should be the concern of each English teacher during teaching process as the study has confirmed that the time constraint has been one of problems in the implementation of scientific method. The creativity is also vital for the teacher in conducting meaningful and engaging teaching practice. As the curriculum is recently initiated the textbook and other supplementary materials might not be fully provided by government. The teacher is expected to use various media and techniques in order to attain the learning objectives.
Beside the recommendation for teaching practice, there are several points necessary for further studies to concern. It is suggested that further study may be cooperated with more participants in order to enhance the generalizability and transferability of the finding of this study. It is also recommended that similar study can be conducted in different level of students such as junior high school, and vocational high school context. The different context and setting may be worth investigating as it may cover new findings and values of the implementation of scientific method.
may cover different topics and subject matter in the learning process so that the activities used by the teacher in serving the purpose of each stage of scientific method might be variously discovered. Moreover, the longer study may cover more challenge in applying scientific method in EFL classroom practice.
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