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EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT IN AN INTEGRATED AND HOLISTIC MANNER

THROUGH AN INTEGRATIVE HOLISTIC APPROACH AT KINDERGARTEN

MUTIARA BUNDA KABUPATEN LIMA PULUH KOTA

Aristia Dewi

Graduate Student of Early Childhood Education in Universitas Negeri Padang aristyadewi91@gmail.com

Abstract

This research is motivated by learning to develop the overall capability of children group B TK pearl mother of fifty cities that still need to be improved learning. It is still seen that many children are still not fully developed. Therefore, developing children's overall capability in the right way, one of them by using holistic integrative approach. The purpose of this research is to know how to develop early childhood in an integrated and holistic with holistic integrative approach. Data were collected by interview in learning and documentation support.

Keywords: early childhood development, integrated, holistic approach

INTRODUCTION

Before talking about education first will be discussed about early childhood. As for the meaning of early childhood is as follows: (Depdiknas: 2002) Early childhood is a group of people aged 0-6 years (in Indonesia based on Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System), as for berdasrkan the experts of education children, the group of people aged 9-8 years. Early childhood is a group of children who are in the process of growth and development that is unique, in the sense of having a pattern of growth and development (fine and coarse motor coordination), intelligence (thinking power, creativity, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence), emotional social (attitudes and behaviors and religion), language and communications that are specific to the child's growth and development. Based on the uniqueness of growth and development, early childhood is divided into three stages, namely (a) the period of birth to 12 months, (b) toddler (toddler) age 1-3 years, (c) preschool age 3-6 years , (d) the initial grade of SD 6-8 years. The growth and development of early childhood needs to be directed to laying the right foundations for the growth and development of the full human being, namely the growth and development of physical, intellectual, creative, emotional, social, language and balanced communication as the basis of intact personal formation.(Bambang Hartoyo:2004)

Early childhood education is an effort to stimulate, guide, nurture and provide learning activities that will result in the abilities and skills of the child. Early childhood education is an education conducted in newborns up to eight years old. Education at this stage focuses on physical, intelligence, emotional, social education.

In accordance with the uniqueness and growth of early childhood, the implementation of education for early childhood adjusted to the stages of development passed by early childhood. PAUD effort is not only from the educational aspect, but also includes efforts to provide nutrition and child health so that in the implementation of early childhood is done in an integrated and comprehensive

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uniqueness of children and adjust to the child's developmental stage of personality. Example: If a child is accustomed to praying before doing activities both at home and in the school environment in the most understandable way of the child, little by little the child will be accustomed to pray even if not accompanied by their parents or teachers. (Yuliani Nurani Sujiono: 2009)

In Suryana, D. (2013). Early childhood has five aspects of development, namely the development of religious and moral values, cognitive, language, motor, physical and social-emotional (Minister of National Education Regulation number 58 of 2009). These aspects of development must obtain optimal stimulation from the surrounding environment. Stimulation of learning done in school is one stimulus that can develop aspects mentioned above. Eliason and Jenkins (2008) suggest that cognitive development, language, and literacy can shape thinking and build understanding. All aspects of the above development should get maximum stimulation and optimal through learning activities that are meaningful for children involving parents, teachers and schools. Early childhood learning activities can be done in various forms of service. A typical ministry for children aged four to six years is provided at the Kindergarten level. Kindergarten is a formal child service agency (article 28 paragraph 3 of the Republic of Indonesia's Regulation No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System). 1. Integrated Early Childhood Development

Catron and Allen (1999: 23-26) mentioned that there are six aspects of early childhood development: personal awareness, emotional health, socialization, communication, cognition and motor skills are essential and should be considered as interaction functions. Creativity is not seen as an additional development, but as an integral component of a creative playing environment. The growth of children in the following six developmental aspects forms the central focus and development of play curricula in early childhood.

a. Personal Awareness

Creative play enables the development of personal awareness. Play supports children to grow independently and have control over their environment. Through child play can discover new

Through child play can learn to accept, express and solve problems in a positive way. Play also provides an opportunity for children to know themselves and to develop a pattern of satisfactory behavior in life.

c. Building Socialization

Play provides a way for children's social development when sharing with other children. Playing can grow and enhance the sense of socialization of children. d. Development of communication

Playing is the most powerful tool for teaching children's language skills. Through this communication children can broaden their vocabulary and develop their acceptance and expression of language skills through interaction with other children and adults in spontaneous play situations.

e. Cognitive Development

Playing can meet the needs of the child to be actively involved with the environment, to play and work in producing a work, as well as to fulfill

other cognitive development

tasks.While playing, the child receives new experiences, manipulates materials and tools, interacts with others and starts feel their world.

f. Development of Motor Capability The wide opportunity to move, the learning experience to discover, the motor sensory activity that includes the use of large and small muscles allows the child to meet the motorist's developmental perceptual.

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educational tendencies in the West that view man as only body and mind. Body and mind activities are separated in learning activities. Learning is very rigid. In addition individual learning is highly emphasized. The scientific way of thinking is very important. The role of print media in learning as the main source book is highly emphasized.

a. Teori Dave Meier

From his research, Dave Meier argues that humans have four dimensions: body or somatic (S), auditory or auditory (A), sight or visual (V), and thought or intellect (I). Based on this view he proposes an active learning model abbreviated as SAVI (somatic, auditory, visual and intellectual). With this understanding he proposes a number of fundamental principles in learning, namely:

1) Learning involves the whole body and mind

2) Learning is creative, not consuming.

3) Cooperation helps the learning process.

4) Learning takes place on many levels simultaneously.

5) Learning comes from doing the work itself.

6) Positive emotions really help learning.

7) Brain-image absorbs information directly and automatically.

b. Wilhelm Dilthey's Theory

The term holistic can be traced from the view of the German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911). Dilthey lived in a time when Hegel's idealism of philosophy was falling and subverted by positivism. Thought science that marked the method of erklaren (eksplanasi) into thinking that dominates the entire scientific building. Dilthey then developed a thought about verstehen (understanding) as a form of lawsuit in a science that is too

positivistic. Verstehen was born in the framework of historical criticism and the endeavor of human science. c. Dilthey Theory

According Dilthey, holistic is a circular relationship between part (part) and whole (whole). It defines holistic as the rotation between part and whole in understanding something. Part (part) can be understood when direlasikan with other parts to form totality or whole (whole). Diltey's thoughts about holistic became an important part of his explanation of the hermeneutical circle. Referring to Webster's Dictionary, holistic is also used in the realm of biology and health. Holistic interpreted as the theory of the importance of seeing all aspects of the human body both concerning physical, mental, to social conditions in the prevention of disease. Holistic is a totality of the whole physical and nonphysical aspects of man. The assumption is that part of the human body can not stand alone, but has a relationship (a very close relationship with other body parts.

In the scientific realm, the holistic concept is widely used as a form of criticism in Cartesian-Newtonian perspectives that always see nature as something separated or dispersed. This Cartesian-Newtonian perspective does not see the universe and human beings as being integrated or closely connected. The presence of a holistic perspective as a counter-discourse form and provides an understanding of the interconnected aspects of human and nature as well as an understanding of the melting of the tight boundaries between disciplines of science.

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between various aspects in explaining about human and society. In the realm of social science, holistic begins with ideas that thrive in biological disciplines. The English social scientist, Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) built a holistic analogy on biology and applied to see society. His thinking is often referred to as an organic analogy. He says that social progress is a consequence of the evolution of the social system. Spencer sees growing societies like animals or plant organisms.

He analyzes the social and cultural adaptive subjects of social, economic, religious and political organizations. According to him, these four elements have an analogy with the human body biological aspects of politics with the nervous system, the economy with the digestive system, social organization with the circulatory system, to religion with the respiratory system. This thought sees that each organ in humans has a link between each structure and function. There are relationships or relationships that are functional. Spencer's thought of the relationship between structure and function becomes one of the arguments of the functional structural flow in anthropology. The thinking of this biological aspect also influences the thinking of the founder of the structural functionalist stream in anthropology AR Radcliffe Brown. Brown argues in every habit and belief in society to have a certain function, which aims to preserve the structure of the society concerned - the orderly arrangement of its parts - so that the community can remain sustainable.

3. The Implications of the Theory of the Holistic Learning Approach In Praxis Learning

a. A holistic paradigm

The holistic paradigm takes into

account various factors as a whole, not just partial.

For example, to handle floods during the rainy season and drought during the dry season on Java, one should see that the main factor is that the population of the island of Java has already exceeded its carrying capacity so that environmental conservation efforts, and river normalization are very difficult.

The pemecahanya should look entirely as well as other problems, such as traffic congestion and the mounting of

waste / pollution.

Solving using holistic paradigm: Move the center of economics and industry to the outside of Java island so that there is natural transmigration. If this happens then the arrangement of forest preservation, the return of the catchment area, the greening and the normalization of the river will be easy to do.

1) With this understanding he

proposes a number of

fundamental principles in learning, namely: Learning involves the whole body and mind.

2) Learning is creative, not consuming.

3) Cooperation helps the learning process.

4) Learning takes place on many levels simultaneously.

5) Learning comes from doing the work itself.

6) Positive emotions really help learning.

7) Brain-image absorbs information directly and automatically.

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The answer is: Model in a process.

1) Physically move the various components in a process or system

2) Creating charts, diagrams, pictograms.

3) Demonstrate a process, system, or set of concepts.

4) Gain experience, then talk about it and reflect on it.

5) Completing a project that requires physical activity.

6) Running an active learning course (simulation, learning game, etc.) 7) Conducting a field review. Then

write, talk and talk about what's learned.

8) Interview people outside the classroom.

9) In teams, create active learning training for the whole class.

Second, auditory learning (A), listening and speaking activities. What is done in the activity?

1) Reading aloud from source material.

2) Read the paragraph and give its meaning.

3) Make your own sound recordings. 4) Telling the book read.

5) Discuss what is learned and how to apply it.

6) Ask the students to model something and explain what they did.

7) Together reading poetry, singing.

Third, visual learning (V), viewing, observing, watching. What are the activities in this approach?

1) Observe the picture and interpret it.

2) Pay attention to the graph or make it.

3) Looking at three-dimensional objects.

4) Watch videos, movies. 5) Creation of pictogram 6) Field observation

7) The decor is colorful

Fourth, intellectual learning (I), activities create, contemplate, interpret, solve problems. There are a number of activities related to this approach, including:

1) Troubleshooting

2) Analyze experience, case 3) Work on a strategic plan 4) Bring out creative ideas 5) Search and capture information 6) Formulate questions

7) Creating a mental model 8) Applying good ideas to work. 9) Creating personal meaning

10) Predict the implications of an idea. 4. Method of Holistic Learning

Holistic learning can be done with two kinds of methods:

a. Learning through the whole part of the brain: The material is studied by involving as many senses as possible; also involves various levels of

involvement, namely: senses,

emotions, and intellectuals.

b. Learning through multiple

intelligences: Students learn the subject matter by using the most prominent type of intelligence in their self.

METHOD

The method used in this research is survey

method.

Integrated

early

childhood

development

(X1),

Comprehensive

development (X2) is independent variable.

The holistic integrative approach (Y) is the

dependent variable.

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study is the entire population (Arikunto,

1998).

CONCLUSION

Holistic learning is a learning approach that focuses on understanding information and relating it to other topics in order to build a knowledge framework. In holistic learning, the principle is applied that students will learn more effectively when all of their personal aspects (mind, body and spirit) are involved in the student's experience.

Schools should be places where learners and teachers work to achieve mutually beneficial goals. Open and honest communication is important, individual differences are valued and cooperation is more important than competition.

The idea of holistic education has encouraged the formation of alternative education models, which may be very different from the education in general, one of which is homeschooling, which is currently developing, including in Indonesia.

Holistic education takes into account the needs and potentials of learners, whether in the intellectual, emotional, emotional, physical, artistic, creative, and spiritual aspects. The learning process becomes a personal responsibility and also a collective responsibility, therefore learning strategies are more directed at how to teach and how people learn.

REFERENCES

Bambang Hartoyo. 2004. Konsep Dasa r Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, Materi Tutor dan Pengelola Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, di BPPLSP Regional III Jawa Tengah.

Depdiknas, 2002. Kurikulum Hasil Bela jar Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, Depdiknas, Jakarta,

Suryadi, Ace. 2010. Pendidikan, Investasi SDM, dan Pengembangan: Isu.Teori dan Aplikasi. Pusat Informatika Balitbang Dikbud. Jakarta. Suryana, D. (2013). Pengetahuan Tentang Strategi

Pembelajaran, Sikap, dan Motivasi Guru.

Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 19(2).

Tilaar, H.A.R., 2009. Peta Perma salahan Pendidikan Dewa Ini, Perlunya Visi dan Rencana Strategi

Pendidikan dan pelatihan Nasional

berorienta si Masa Depan, Seminar Ilmiah

ISKA,

Tilaar, H.A.R., 2008. Pengembangan Sumber Daya manusia dalam Era Globalisa si, Grasindo, Jakarta.

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