THE APPLICATION OF PRESENTATION, PRACTICE AND PRODUCTION (PPP) METHOD TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY ( A RESEARCH CONDUCTED AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF MAN BATUDAA IN 2012/2013
ACADEMIC YEARS) presentation, practice and production (PPP) method to increase students’ speaking ability. (A research is conducted in MAN Batudaa). The advisor are; (1) Karmila Machmud, M.A, Ph.D, (2) Magvirah El Walidayni Kau, S.Pd, M.Pd.
The objective of this research is to know whether presentation, practice, production (PPP) method can increase students’ ability in speaking skill or not. It is conducted at the tenth grade students of MAN Batudaa. The sample is chosen by using purposive sampling technique, they are class D. This research uses quantitative method, namely pre-experimental method. The data are collected by using rubric speaking and audio record, and they are analyzed by using t-test. The criteria used to verify the hypothesis is rejected Ho if tcount is bigger than tlist ( tcount ≥ tlist ). The result shows that tcount (6,29) ≥ tlist (2,014) with the level significance α = 0,05 and df = ( n1 + n2 – 2 ) = ( 24 + 24 -2 ) = 46. It means that, the hypothesis is acceptable. It means that, the application of presentation, practice, production method can increase students’ speaking ability with the influence of presentation, practice, and production method from pre-test to post-test is 7,35%.
Key words: students’ ability, speaking and presentation practice production method.
Teaching and learning language is dealing with the language skills and language components, which consist of four basic skills, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. In this research, the researcher only focuses in one skill namely speaking. Speaking is important skill used by teacher, and students in teaching-learning English. It has to be use directly in communication. Brook in Tarigan (1990, p.4) defines: “speaking is an activity that direct two-way communication is face to face communication”. As a human being, we always need communication to express our idea to do everything, what is more as a students or learners they have to speak with their teacher as long as in learning process to express their idea.
method, because, a method is one of important aspect in teaching process. Antony in Richard (2001, p.19) states that method is an overall plan for orderly presentation of language material. Related to the explanation previous, there is one method that can be used in learning process, namely PPP (presentation, practice and production). This is a popular method in teaching language as a foreign language. Harmer (2007, p.64) added that PPP is a method for teaching in a foreign language, especially in communicative teaching learning.
In this method, the teacher presents the target language by explaining and demonstrating to the students in communicative learning teaching. Then the students will practice the language in a controlled manned before doing the production stage. Presentation stage, involves explaining the aim of the lesson include that students know what they will learn and why. For a good presentation, the teachers can use song, game, or story. Practice stage, the goal is to help the students use the new language. The teacher can ask the students to produce sentences or answer question to demonstrate they understand how to use the language correctly. Production stage, this stage can help motivate students to communicate meaning with new language. Students should have the opportunity to experiment with the language. Therefore, PPP is a good method to use in English teaching especially in speaking skill.
This research made based on the researcher initial observation at Senior high school, especially in 10th grade of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Batudaa. It is also as the researcher’s location of teaching practice II. The researcher found that; first, in English class, the researcher was teaching speaking skill. At that time, researcher gave assignment to retell their own experience whatever they want to tell. Some students can do that, but some of them cannot. Second, students are still afraid to explore what they want to ask that relate with the material. Third, students are still afraid to make a mistake if they will speak. Forth, the students rarely practice to use English in their daily communication. Fifth, the method or technique that teacher use quite the same in every class meeting.
Considering the previous explanation, the researcher wants to apply PPP method in teaching speaking. Those, the researcher formulate this research is “The application presentation, practice and production (PPP) method to increase students speaking ability”.
LITERATURE REVIEWS Concept of Speaking
should be involve four factors, there are, teacher, language teaching, teaching method and lesson material. In language learning, the four skills are described in terms of their direction. Language generated by the learner (in speech or writing) is referred to as productive. Language directed at the learner (in reading or listening) is called receptive. Another important idea is the channel, which refers to medium of the massage (aural/oral or written). Thus, speaking is the production aural/oral skill.
Tarigan (1990, p.15) states that, speaking is skill the speech sound of the word, and the ability to express the idea, message, and feeling. In addition, speaking is described as the ability to express our self in life situations, or the ability to converse, to sequence of ideas fluently (Lado, 1999, p.240).
Components of Speaking
According to Harmer (2007,p.343) speaking is a complex skill because at least it is concerned with components of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, fluency and comprehension. Speaking has some important components, there are:
Leech (1982, p.4) states that grammar is a set of rules which describe how we use a language. The aim of grammar is also to learn the correct way to gain expertise in language in oral written form. Therefore, grammar is needed for students to arrange a correct sentence in conversation.
Rezikin (2007, p.5) states that aside grammar, the other component which is important is vocabulary. Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in communication. Without having a sufficient vocabulary, one cannot communicate effectively or express their ideas in both oral and written form.
Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately. Fluency in speaking is the aim of many language learners. Signs of fluency include a reasonably fast speed of speaking and only a small number of pauses and “ums” or “ers”. These signs indicate that the speaker does not have to spend a lot of time searching for the language items needed to express the message (Brown, 1997, p.4). Comprehension.
Comprehension also is the one components of speaking. Hornby (2000, p.194) states that comprehension is the mind, act power of understanding exercise aimed in improving is testing ones. There are four components of speaking that must to attention by the students if they want to speak well.
Concept of Teaching Speaking
According to Hornby (1995, p.37) teaching means giving the instruction to (a person) give a person (knowledge skill, etc). While, speaking means to make use of words in an ordinary voice. So, teaching speaking is giving instruction to a person in order to communicate. Tarigan (1990, p.3-4) states that speaking is a language skill that is developed in child life, which is preceded by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is learned. It means that speaking is the basic language. The goal of teaching speaking skills is to communicate efficiency.
Based on several arguments previous, teaching speaking in the researcher’s opinion, is the way how students to express their ideas, emotions or feeling, and interact to other person in any situation.
How to Evaluate Speaking
Assessment of speaking is the activities undertaken to acquire and streamline the information about the speaking learning outcomes of the students at grade level during and after the teaching and learning activities. According to Brown (2004, p.172-173) the procedure evaluate speaking based on pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, fluency and comprehension. The procedures as follow:
Oral proficiency scoring categories (Brown, 2004, p.172-173), there are follows:
Pronunciation : 1 – 5
Grammar : 1 – 5
Fluency : 1 – 5
Comprehension : 1 – 5
Concept of Presentation, Practice and Production Method
Presentation here refers to the introduction to a new subject or lesson. It requires creating a realistic situation in which the target language would be taught and acquired. Usually, this is done through using pictures, dialogues and actual classroom situations.
Practice where the students practice the target language in one to three activities that progress from very structured (students are given activities that provide little possibility for error) to less-structured (as they master the material). These activities should include as much “student talk” as possible and not focus on written activities, though written activities can provide a structure for the verbal practices.
Production is the stage of the lesson where the students take the target language and use it in conversations that they structure (ideally) and use it to talk about themselves or their daily lives or situations. Practice should involve student talk at as much as 90% of the time – and this component of the lesson can/should take as much as 20-30% of the lesson time. Procedures of Presentation, Practice and Production Method
Harmer (2007, p.65-66) states that there are the procedures of presentation, practice and production method, as follows:
The process of presenting the lesson focuses on teacher giving information to the students. The goal of presentation stage is to introduce the new material to the learners, for example; Short & simple explanations, a brief description of the new topic/idea, pictures / video / music / demonstrations / acting to illustrate the new, material.
The practice process is focused on teacher and students working and interacting together to put the new material into practice. For example; brainstorming, exercise (on the board worksheet completed with the teacher), question & answer comprehension exercises, games that involve the teacher, drills / repetition, and demonstration / role playing.
students need additional support. In this process the teacher is; receiving information and indirectly students mistakes, monitoring the students as they complete exercises / activities that enable them to demonstrate comprehension without giving the answers (supporting those students who need extra one-on-one help).
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS Description of Pre-Test Data
The following are the data description of pre-test. First, the lowest score is 48 and the highest score is 87. The data statistical calculation of pre-test is obtained as follows: the interval (R) is 36, set amount of class (K) is 5, and the wide of interval class (P) is 8, clearly (see appendix 8 on page 55). Therefore, from the calculation of data in pre-test found out that the mean score ( ̅ ) is 67,17, while the standard deviation (S) is 9,58.
The students’ speaking ability in pre-test, there are 3 students (12,5%) who got the scores in the range 48-55; 4 students (16,67%) got the scores in the range 56-63; 5 students (20,83%) got the scores in the range 64-71; 10 students (41,67%) got the scores in the range 72-79; 2 students (8,33%) who got the scores in the range 80-87.
Based on previous explanation and based on these intervals, the researcher can conclude that the most of students’ scores in the pre-test is the scores from 72-79 or 41,67%.
Description of Post-Test Data
The following are the data description of post-test. First, the lowest score is 64 and high and the highest score is 96. The data statistical calculation of post-test is obtained as follows: the interval (R) is 36, set amount of class (K) is 5, and the wide of interval class (P) is 8. Clearer can be seen in (appendix 8 on page 55). Therefore, from the calculation of data in pre-test found out that the mean score ( ̅ ) is 77,83, while the standard deviation (S) is 10,21.
The students’ speaking ability in post-test, there are 4 students (16,67%) who got the scores in the range 60-67; 5 students (20,83%) got the scores in the range 68-75; 6 students (25%) got the scores in the range 76-83; 5 students (20,83%) got the scores in the range 84-91; 4 students (16,67%) who got the scores in the range 82-99.
show an improvement in their ability. It can be said that students’ score in post-test is increased because of treatment.
The result of normality testing of pre-test
Based on the result of pre-test and the analysis result. The researcher found that L0 is 0,0955. For level significant α = 0,05 and total of sample (n) = 24, found that Llist is 0,1764. It is visible that L0(count) < Llist or 0,0955 < 0,1764. Therefore the researcher can conclude that the hypothesis H0 is received, it is mean the sample is from the population normal distribute. The result of normality testing of post-test
Based on the result of post-test and the analysis result in appendix 12 on page 60. The researcher found that L0is 0,0907. For level significant α = 0,05 and total of sample (n) = 24, found that Llist is 0,1764. It is visible that L0(count) < Llist or 0,0907 < 0,1764. Therefore the researcher can conclude that the hypothesis H0 is received, it is mean the sample is population normal distribute.
The hypothesis of this research is “the application of PPP method in teaching speaking can increase the tenth grade students’ speaking ability.
The hypothesis verification is done after analyzing the normality of post-test and pre-test. The hypothesis verification is done after analyzing the normality of post-test and pre-test. The hypothesis is analyzed by using the criteria as follows:
H0 will be received if -t ( 1 - ⁄ ) < t < t ( 1 - ⁄
H0 will be rejected if -t ( 1 - ⁄ ) > t > t ( 1 - ⁄ )
In this research hypothesis testing was doing with used T-test. Based on calculation found that tcountis 6,29 for level significant α = 0,05 and degree of freedom (df = n1 + n2– 2 = 24 + 24 – 2 = 46) found that t(t (1 –½ α )(df) = t (0,975)(46) = 2,014. From that result shows that tcount > tlist or 6,29 > 2,014.
So that, the result of this calculation shows the hypothesis “the application of PPP method can increase students’ speaking ability”.
The pre-test was giving before applying the PPP method. The topic in the pre-test is about describing animals. The researcher order them to make simple paragraph about animals based on their basically knowledge.
After giving the pre-test, the researcher did the treatment of the application of PPP method. The treatment conducted in three meetings. The topic in first meeting is describing person, second meetings is describing building and the third meetings is describing about place.
After applying several treatments the students’ ability in speaking especially in five components of speaking was increased. It is proved by in pronunciation, the students in pronounce was better. In addition, the students’ grammar was batter too it is because they could make a simple sentence correctly. Then, the students’ vocabulary was increase. Students’ fluency also increase, then the students’ comprehension was better after giving the treatment.
Last step is post-test. The post-test was giving after the treatment by applying PPP method. The topic in the post-test is same on pre-test it is about describing animals. The result data in post-test is higher than pre-test data. The result was agreement with Harmer (2007, p.64) that states the PPP method is a method for teaching as a foreign language, especially in communicative learning teaching.
After using the PPP method, there is the increasing value of the students in speaking especially in description. It is the data post-test is higher that pre-test data. Based that, the students had on opportunity to express their ideas, and gave the motivation to the students to speak up.
Based on the result of this research, Based on the previous analysis, by seeing the hypothesis verification and data analysis, it showed that their ability in speaking can increase in the result of post-test. So that, it can be concluded that presentation, practice and production method can increase the students’ speaking ability.
There is the different between the result in before treatment and the after the treatment by applying. It is proved at the result of hypothesis is tcount = 6,29 and H0 is rejected. The influence of PPP method is 7,35%.
post-test are 467. The mean score of students’ ability in speaking before treatment is 67,17 and the mean score of students’ ability after treatment is 77,83.
This research focused on the students’ ability in component of speaking. They can produce well of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, fluency and comprehension if they focus on those component itself. By applying presentation, practice and production method in teaching learning English process, the students’ ability is better than before.
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