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The Southeast Asian State of Fisheries and AqUaculture 2017

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Production of major species groups from freshwater aquaculture of Southeast Asian countries in 2014 by quantity. Anchovy production from different fishing areas of Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by quantity.

GLOBAL PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF FISH

World fisheries production from 2000 to 2014 by continent, which is shown in Table 2 and Figure 3, showed a continuous annual increase at an average rate of 2.6% or 4.3 million metric tons per year. For Europe, production has also fallen from 18.6 million metric tons in 2000 to about 16.0 million metric tons from 2004 onwards.

FISHERIES PRODUCTION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA

Fishery production of Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by volume (thousands of metric tons) Year Brunei. Production of Southeast Asia's fisheries sub-sectors in 2014 by volume (metric tons) and value (thousands of USD).

Figure 4. Map of Southeast Asia  (Source: Google)
Figure 4. Map of Southeast Asia (Source: Google)

MARINE CAPTURE FISHERIES PRODUCTION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA

Economically Important Marine Species The economically important marine species that provided

The region's tuna production in 2014 (Table 11) was derived mainly from FAO's main fishing areas 71 (Pacific, West-Central) and 57 (Indian Ocean, West). Small pelagic fish production of Southeast Asian countries in 2014 by quantity (metric tons) and value (US$ thousand).

Table 11. Tuna production of Southeast Asia in FAO Major Fishing Areas in 2014 by quantity (metric tons), and value   (US$ thousand)
Table 11. Tuna production of Southeast Asia in FAO Major Fishing Areas in 2014 by quantity (metric tons), and value (US$ thousand)

Fishing Vessels

Fishers and Fish Farmers

However, there is a need to make efforts to improve data availability by encouraging countries to increase data collection and reporting through registration using questionnaires. This would enable countries to compile the necessary information on fisheries, including the number of fishermen and fish farmers, as well as the number of vessels and fishing gear.

INLAND CAPTURE FISHERIES PRODUCTION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA

Inland catch fishery production in Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by volume (metric tons (MT)) Year Brunei. Inland catch fishery production in Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by value (US$ thousand) Year Brunei.

Table 20. Inland capture fisheries production of the Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons (MT)) Year Brunei
Table 20. Inland capture fisheries production of the Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons (MT)) Year Brunei

AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA

Mariculture

Mariculture production of major groups of species in Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2014, by quantity (metric tons). Trends in mariculture production of major groups of species in Southeast Asia, by quantity.

Table 30. Mariculture production of major groups of species of Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons)
Table 30. Mariculture production of major groups of species of Southeast Asia from 2000 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons)

Freshwater Aquaculture

Freshwater aquaculture production in Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by volume (tons) Year Brunei. Production of major groups of species from freshwater aquaculture in Southeast Asian countries in 2014 by volume (tons).

Table 36. Freshwater aquaculture production of the Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons) Year Brunei
Table 36. Freshwater aquaculture production of the Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons) Year Brunei

FISH PROCESSING INDUSTRY

The fish processing industry has been identified as one of the most sustainable industrial sectors contributing to the economies of countries in the Southeast Asian region, although the majority of processed fish products are consumed domestically. In addition, most of the fish are also used to produce the most important traditional fish products in the region, i.e.

FISH TRADE

Global Trading of Fish and Fishery Products The international trade in fish and fishery products in

Exports of fish and fishery products from each continent from 2000 to 2013 in quantity (metric tons). Exports of fish and fishery products from each continent from 2000 to 2013 by value (thousand dollars).

Table 42. Export of fish and fishery products of each continent from 2000 to 2013 by quantity (metric tons)
Table 42. Export of fish and fishery products of each continent from 2000 to 2013 by quantity (metric tons)

Southeast Asian Export-Import of Fish and Fishery Products

Export of fish and fishery products of the Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2013 by quantity (metric tons) Year Brunei. Trade in fish and fishery products of the Southeast Asian countries in 2013 by quantity (metric tons).

Table 48. Export of fish and fishery products of the Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2013 by value (US$ thousand) Year Brunei
Table 48. Export of fish and fishery products of the Southeast Asian countries from 2000 to 2013 by value (US$ thousand) Year Brunei

MARINE FISHERY RESOURCES

  • Important Pelagic Fishery Resources
  • Important Demersal Fishery Resources The most economically important demersal fishes
  • Challenges and Future Direction

Main features of the Regional Plan of Action on Sustainable Exploitation of Neritic Tunas in the ASEAN Region (RPOA-Neritic Tunas). Regional Plan of Action on Sustainable Utilization of Neritic Tunas in the ASEAN Region (continued). Mackerel is caught more predominantly in the Andaman Sea than in the South China Sea.

Value of anchovy production in the South China Sea and Andaman Sea from 2002 to 2013 (US$). Anchovy fishing in the Southeast Asian region, especially in the South China Sea, is very active.

Figure 40. Pacific Ocean: FAO Fishing Area 57 (South China  Sea) and Indian Ocean: FAO Fishing Area 71 (Andaman  Sea-Southeast Asia) where stocks of neritic tunas are assumed to  be found
Figure 40. Pacific Ocean: FAO Fishing Area 57 (South China Sea) and Indian Ocean: FAO Fishing Area 71 (Andaman Sea-Southeast Asia) where stocks of neritic tunas are assumed to be found

INLAND FISHERY RESOURCES

  • Status, Issues, and Concern
  • Challenges and Future Direction

In addition to inland capture fisheries, freshwater aquaculture also contributes to fish production and nutritional needs of people in the Southeast Asian region. However, the total production and recent growth rates of inland capture fisheries and freshwater aquaculture show differences in the trends. To mitigate the impact caused by human activities (fisheries and non-fisheries sectors) on the sustainability of inland capture fisheries and ensure that the sub-sector will continue to make a significant contribution to food security and livelihoods of people in the region to deliver, there are several approaches that must be taken into account.

Inland capture fisheries in the Southeast Asian region are increasingly threatened by river development projects, including the construction of cross-river barriers that create barriers to fish migration. The rapidly increasing freshwater aquaculture activities may negatively affect the inland capture fisheries and freshwater environment.

Figure 64. Production trend of inland capture fisheries and  freshwater aquaculture in Southeast Asia
Figure 64. Production trend of inland capture fisheries and freshwater aquaculture in Southeast Asia

MARINE SPECIES UNDER INTERNATIONAL CONCERN

  • Sharks and Rays
  • Eels
  • Sea Turtles
  • Sea Cucumbers
  • Seahorses
  • Coral Reef Ornamental Species
  • Challenges and Future Direction

The Southeast Asian region has one of the largest sea turtle nesting populations in the world. However, data and accuracy on Anguillid eel catch statistics in the region were insufficient (Honda et al., in press). The collection of sea cucumbers in Malaysia has been mainly from the eastern regions of Sabah on the island of Borneo.

Of the more than 100 species of sea cucumbers in the Philippines, about 25 are regularly caught and processed as trepang (Schoppe, 2000). In light of the lack of strong local government, international regulations that control trade, such as

Table 58. Production of sharks of the Southeast Asian countries from 2008 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons)
Table 58. Production of sharks of the Southeast Asian countries from 2008 to 2014 by quantity (metric tons)

UTILIZATION OF FISHERY RESOURCES

  • Status, Issues, and Concerns
  • Way Forward

GAP-FF is a positive step forward in the implementation of traceability in Singapore's aquaculture sector. The aim of the project is to increase the competitiveness of aquaculture products in the region through the implementation of a traceability system, not only in aquaculture production but also throughout the supply chain. In the AMSs, the aquaculture product supply chain consists largely of individual small-scale stakeholders, i.e.

Another issue facing the implementation of traceability system for aquaculture products in the AMSs is lack of awareness or knowledge of the importance of tracing their products. The key stakeholders in the supply chain of aquaculture products are unaware of the advantages and benefits of traceability system in their.

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

  • Management of Fishing Capacity and Combating IUU Fishing
  • Management of Inland Capture Fisheries Fish resources are renewable natural resources that can be
  • Responsible Fishing Practices
  • Community-based Fisheries Management Approach
  • Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management
  • Habitat Protection and Coastal Fishery Resource Enhancement
  • Challenges and Future Direction

The licensing of commercial fishing vessels falls under the mandate of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), while the licensing of municipal fishing vessels is the purview of the Local Government Units (LGUs). Improving the traceability of fish and fishery products from capture fisheries through the implementation of the. This was followed by conducting EAFM training courses involving relevant stakeholders of the country's fisheries management program on the implementation of fisheries protection zones.

Furthermore, capacity building in EAFM has been promoted in many areas of the country. The Department of Livestock and Fisheries is responsible for the management of the country's natural water resources.

Table 64. Catch certification needs of the Southeast Asian  countries
Table 64. Catch certification needs of the Southeast Asian countries

AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT

  • Control and Prevention of Present and Emerging Transboundary Aquatic Animal
  • Overcoming the Fish Meal Dependence in Aquaculture
  • Production and Dissemination of Good Quality Seedstock
  • Producing Safe and Quality Aquaculture Products
  • Addressing Concerns Due to Intensification of Aquaculture and Climate Change

HPH, like EHP, is not included in the OIE list of reportable diseases (Thitamadee et al., 2016). Uniform implementation of the ban in Southeast Asian countries will be helpful in limiting the use of this chemical in aquaculture. Each country's monitoring agencies should be more vigilant and play a greater role in implementing the guidelines.

In the review article by Ellison (2000), he cited that although most of the objectives of restoration projects were for forest products, coastal protection and stabilization, two South East Asian countries set their objectives for fisheries maintenance or sustainability (Malaysia) and habitat provision for wildlife (Vietnam). In the end, it is still the state of the environment that defines the state of the earth.

Figure 77. Total world capture (red) and aquaculture (blue)  production from 1950 to 2014 by quantity; shaded areas with  different patterns represent different continents and plain  area represents Asia
Figure 77. Total world capture (red) and aquaculture (blue) production from 1950 to 2014 by quantity; shaded areas with different patterns represent different continents and plain area represents Asia

VULNERABILITY OF FISHERIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL

  • Vulnerability of Coastal and Inland Communities and Impacts on Important
  • Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Capture Fisheries
  • Impacts of Climate Change on Aquaculture Development
  • Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies to Balance the Impacts of Climate Variability
  • Reducing Carbon Footprints from Fisheries and Aquaculture

Another profound effect on stocks is food availability (as would be the case in inland waters during a prolonged dry season) as a result of climate variability and in the long term from climate change. A reversal of current trends of coastal and inland environmental degradation is an important element in efforts to reduce the effects of natural hazards and to mitigate the effects of climate variability and climate change. SEAFDEC in collaboration with cooperating agencies has implemented programs related to adaptation and mitigation of the effects of climate change in the Southeast Asian region.

In addition, awareness programs on the short-term and long-term effects of climate change on the environment should also be considered and efforts should be made to mitigate these effects. Through SEAFDEC and participating organizations, the fisheries and aquaculture sector could further strengthen its efforts to reduce carbon footprints and mitigate environmental impacts that contribute to climate change.

FISHERFOLKS AND WORKERS IN FISHING ACTIVITIES

  • Labor in the Southeast Asia Fishing Industry The FAO statistics indicated that Asia contributed the
  • Safety at Sea, Working Condition, and Safety Onboard Fishing Vessels

Specifically for sea fishing, the number of fishing boats was reported to be more than 115,000 (SEAFDEC, 2016a). Regarding working and living conditions, including the safety of the fishing crew on board the fishing vessels, most countries claim that their fishing boats provide decent working conditions for the crew. Nevertheless, the issue of safety for fishing boats should be considered a priority as this relates to relevant laws, regulations and management in the respective countries, as well as to relevant international conventions, some provisions of which apply to the Southeast Asian countries.

Although there are some guidelines for boat design and construction, none of them can be applied to fishing vessels in the Southeast Asian region. Recently, issues on working and living conditions on fishing vessels and safety at sea are among the important factors affecting the trade of fish and fishery products coming from Southeast Asian countries.

Figure 82. Nationalities of crew in Malaysian and Thai  commercial fishing boats
Figure 82. Nationalities of crew in Malaysian and Thai commercial fishing boats

COMPETITION ON USE OF WATER RESOURCES WITH OTHER SECTORS

Thailand also received an EU yellow card in 2014, and one of the measures taken by the country is to improve national legislation regarding working and living conditions and the safety of fishing boats at sea. The future challenges of the Southeast Asia region would therefore be whether countries could meet the requirements set out in the relevant international conventions and recommendations within their legal frameworks and actively take measures to improve or improve the level of working and living conditions and safety on board. fishing boats in the future. Although there is no clear evidence of morphological changes and environmental impacts of such activity in the Mekong River, faster erosion of the river banks can be observed.

One of the approaches to mitigate such conflicts is the establishment of fishing refuges, where the fisheries aim to protect the critical life cycle, e.g. Furthermore, awareness of the importance of aquatic resources in maintaining human food security and livelihoods should also be increased so that the interest in fisheries is taken into account in decision-making and trade-offs for the sustainability of the fisheries sector in the future.

GROWING DEMAND FOR FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF

  • Marine Capture Fisheries
  • Inland Capture Fisheries
  • Aquaculture
  • Cross-cutting Issues

This is one of the biggest challenges for Southeast Asian fisheries, which should be explored in the near future. Proceedings of the Symposium on Strategy for the Improvement of Fisheries Resources in the Southeast Asian Region, Pattaya, Thailand, 27-30 July 2015. Stock enhancement of mud crabs Scylla spp. in the mangroves of Naisud and Bugtong Bato, Ibajay, Aklan, Philippines.

Report on the forty-seventh meeting of the Council of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Bangkok, Thailand; p. 135-140 SEAFDEC. Fisheries Issues: Report of the First Regional Technical Consultation on Labor Aspects in the Fisheries Industry in the ASEAN Region, Bangkok, Thailand, 25-27 February 2016, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Bangkok, Thailand; 45 p.

List of Contributors to SEASOFIA 2017

The Southeast Asian State of Fisheries

Gambar

Figure 2. Global fish utilization, food supply and human  population in 2000-2014
Table 5. Production trends of the fisheries sub-sectors of Southeast Asia: 2000 to 2014 by quantity (million metric tons)
Table 6. Marine capture fisheries production of each continent from 2000 to 2014 by quantity (thousand metric tons)
Table 10. Tuna production of the Southeast Asian countries in 2014 by quantity (metric tons)
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Referensi

Dokumen terkait

THE DEMERSAL RESOURCES SEAFDEC/SCS.73: S-5 A Rational Survey Method for Evaluation of Trawl Fishing Ground by Otohiko Suzuki Marine Fisheries Research Department Southeast Asian