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This report maps the African Open Science landscape – with a focus on Open Data as a subset of Open Science. Alignment at the continental level is crucial for the success of the future Pan-African African Open Science Platform.

INTRODUCTION: THE AFRICAN OPEN SCIENCE PLATFORM AND THE LANDSCAPE STUDY . 15

  • Role-players
  • Data activity
  • Projects
  • Funding
  • Advancing Open Science
  • Barriers to Open Science

Collaborative Projects – The largest category includes a number of collaborative projects that may be disciplinary, regional or service delivery specific. Advocacy includes creating awareness of the benefits offered by Open Science and data sharing through various forums, as well as the need for more collaboration and resource sharing.

Figure 1. Broad categories of data-intensive projects in Africa
Figure 1. Broad categories of data-intensive projects in Africa

AOSP PILOT RESEARCH INTO THE AFRICAN OPEN SCIENCE LANDSCAPE

  • Political willingness
  • Stakeholder consultation
  • Workshops and meetings
    • National workshops
    • Stakeholder workshops
  • Registry
    • Role-players – Network and dialogue
    • Academies as champions
    • Funding agencies

Participation in 44 conferences to further contribute to advocacy for Open Science and create awareness for the African Open Science Platform and to support the branding of the initiative. The Botswana ODOS (Open Data Open Science) National Committee drives the Open Science Open Data initiative, and the Draft White Paper on Open Research Data Strategy is an important outcome of the work done by ODOS. Uganda34 – The Uganda National Dialogue on Open Science and Open Data (25–27 April 2018) was convened in partnership with the African Union of Conservationists.

34 Report of the Uganda National Dialogue on Open Science and Open Data https://drive.google.com/open?id=1lvNMDmobnT2U0f72bb6JlVcPfs-v7N_Q. Therefore, it is important to involve the national young science academies (15 in total in Africa) in championing Open Science and data sharing on the continent.

Figure 7. Map 30  of countries represented by participants and presenters,  during AOSP meetings and workshops
Figure 7. Map 30 of countries represented by participants and presenters, during AOSP meetings and workshops

STATUS OF OPEN SCIENCE ACTIVITIES AND CAPACITIES IN AFRICA

Policies

It will be important for AOSP to engage with African governments, ministries and research institutions and where possible contribute to the development of policies that support FAIR research data management and Open Science. Open government/statistical data initiatives (see Section 6) related to the SDGs have had some success on the continent, and at times it seemed that African governments and policy makers are more interested and consider open government data more urgent compared to research data. Public data and research data should coexist in a world where the contribution of one compared to the other – when it comes to the great contribution it can make to science – should not be overlooked.

It is reasonable to assume that access to research data is also covered by this report, although not explicitly mentioned at the time. Botswana - Draft White Paper on Open Research Data Strategy Madagascar - Lobbying for Open Data Policy.

E-Infrastructure (including Stewardship)

  • Internet bandwidth and connectivity
  • High Performance Computing
  • Data Stewardship and Repositories
  • Science Gateways

The challenges identified within the landscape study are listed as part of section 6.1. See the maps for connectivity (Figure 8) and IT infrastructure (Figure 9) on the African continent for a visual representation of the data discussed in this section. The remaining 20% ​​of funding was provided by the East and Southern African partners on a cost-sharing model.

Ideally, all data repositories should be included in the Registry of Research Data Repositories76 and meet the requirements of the CoreTrustSeal77. The majority of the identified data repositories are standalone web pages or databases, with the exception of those data repositories that are part of science gateways.

Table 3. NREN status of African countries (Foley, 2016; Greaves, 2009)
Table 3. NREN status of African countries (Foley, 2016; Greaves, 2009)

Education and Skills

The project also participated in and funded the first AOSP Data Science School in collaboration with CODATA and RDA in June 2019 in Addis Ababa, Egypt. World Data System (WDS) Training Resources – https://www.icsuwds.org/services/training-resources-guide/. Carpentries88 – teaching basic coding and data science skills to researchers worldwide – updated trained 19 instructors from Africa, presented 110 workshops on the continent and trained 1,577 delegates from Africa.

Research Culture (barriers and incentives)

  • Publication-focused metrics
  • Traditional authorship attribution structures
  • Shortages of Resources
  • Lack of Awareness, Skill Shortages and Shortage of Training
  • Diversity of Practices and Policies
  • Intellectual Property Concerns
  • Ethical Concerns
  • Infrastructure
  • Lack of Hardware and Software
  • Research Cultures
  • Awards

Funding for data sharing activities varies considerably, and many research grants still lack specific funding for Open Data activities. A lack of dedicated resources for data sharing activities, together with concerns about the longevity of digital repositories (Tenopir et al., 2011; Leonelli, Spichtinger and Prainsack, 2013) pose significant barriers to the evolution of Open Data practices. The challenges that resource-poor environments pose to data sharing practices are exacerbated by the design of the Open Data tools themselves.

Converting existing practices to Open Data thus poses significant challenges for researchers, and is still intensively debated (Knoppers et al., 2011; Kaye et al. Despite a growing amount of support for Open Data, awareness of the Open Data movement exists low within African academia.

Table 4. Challenges to Open Data relating to research cultures
Table 4. Challenges to Open Data relating to research cultures

African Open Science activities

  • Open Access journals
  • Open Access repositories (institutional)
  • Open Access policies
  • Open Data repositories and science gateways

Through an ambassador initiative from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), progress is slowly being made. Open Science and Open Access in Arab countries such as Algeria is run by the DGRSDT (National Council of Scientific Research and Technology of Algeria)103. The vast majority of the total of 359 Algerian scientific journals are only available in print, of which 21 are available as Open Access and registered in DOAJ.

The Register of Open Access Repositories Mandates and Policies (ROARMAP)119 presents the growing number of open access mandates and policies adopted by universities, research institutions and research funders that require or require their researchers to provide Open Access in the results of their peer-reviewed research articles. by depositing it in an open access repository. The Good Practice Guide to University Open Access Policies120 by Suber and Shieber (2019) focuses on rights preservation policies.

Figure 10. Map of Open Science activities and initiatives on the African continent
Figure 10. Map of Open Science activities and initiatives on the African continent

OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA AND OPEN GOVERNANCE

Political and related development challenges

Data in data repositories – for global participation – must adhere to international standards and principles, such as the CoreTrustSeal for trusted data repositories (only one continental data repository holds the seal of excellence); the OECD principles and guidelines for access to publicly funded research data (2007) and the FAIR principles126. Furthermore, data repositories should also apply open standards for interoperability to ensure reusability across platforms, for sharing data to advance science. Eight projects focus on agriculture; eight in health, four are climate-related, five in the field of oceanography, eighteen in the field of biodiversity, with another thirteen focused on geography and five in the field of meteorology.

These projects are presented in Annex 1 with full lists of participating countries in relation to the SDGs. In addition, Open Data are also available for astronomy and space sciences through the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) and SKA; word corpora through the SADiLaR Linguistic Resources Management Agency; and resilience studies through the Atlas of Resilience in relation to livelihoods, production systems and ecosystems; stressors and shocks; and factors affecting vulnerability.

Charters and declarations

12 Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa. The leaders of the G8 signed an agreement committing to promoting Open Data in their respective countries. This report assesses the current state of Open Data efforts in these countries and finds substantial differences in their progress.

Moving forward, countries have many opportunities to improve their Open Data capabilities, such as by increasing international cooperation, better educating policymakers about the benefits of Open Data, and working closely with civil society on Open Data initiatives. The Open Data Barometer is a global measure of how governments are publishing and using Open Data for accountability, innovation and social impact.

National government data initiatives

  • Open Data Barometer
  • African Information Highway
  • Other initiatives

The Open Data Barometer132 ranks governments based on three criteria: (i) Readiness for Open Data initiatives; (ii) Implementation of Open Data programs; and (iii) Impact that Open Data has on business, politics and civil society. It helps inform the government for better decision-making in the advancement of Open Data policies and practices. South Africa is included as an automatic adopter as part of the G20 and therefore the G20 Anti-Corruption Open Data Principles134.

There are currently 28 African Open Data repositories being built towards the African Information Highway (AIH): Open Data for Africa Data Catalogue135. LEMINGS IN THE AFRICAN OPEN DATA/OPEN SCIENCE LANDSCAPE AND THE WAY FORWARD The preceding sections of this report dealt with the landscape of activity and.

Figure 12. Government Open Data ranking
Figure 12. Government Open Data ranking

GAPS IN THE AFRICAN OPEN DATA/OPEN SCIENCE LANDSCAPE

  • Infrastructure (incl. Stewardship)
  • Policies
  • Education and skills
  • Research culture (barriers and incentives)
  • Concerns by researchers

Many African NRENs lack policy and legal recognition and must rely heavily on funding from member organisations. There is a general lack of data science skills among the various stakeholders who support and are involved in the research process. There is a general lack of awareness among teachers and researchers about open science and open data and relevant practices.

Research environments are often not conducive to data sharing, and the lack of infrastructure makes it impossible to collaborate and share data. There is already a lack of publication support for research articles and even more so for data.

Discipline-specific data initiatives

12 Burkinaa Faasoo, Ayvoorii Koost, Itoophiyaa, Gaanaa, Keeniyaa, Maalaawii, Moozaambiik, Naayijeeriyaa, Senegaal, Afrikaa Kibbaa, Taanzaaniyaa, Yugaandaa. Biqiltoota Afrikaa Dhihaa 16 Beeniin, Burkinaa Faasoo, Keep Verde, Ayvoorii Koost, Gaambiyaa, Gaanaa, Giinii, Giinii Bisaawu, Laayibeeriyaa, Maalii, Mooriitaaniyaa, Niijar, Naayijeeriyaa, Senegaal, Seeraaliyoon, Toogoo (Afrikaa Dhihaa Madagaskaar osoo hin dabalatin). Biqiltoota Afrikaa Dhihaa 12 Beeniin, Burkinaa Faasoo, Kaameeruun, Ayvoorii Koost, Gaanaa, Keeniyaa, Maalii, Senegaal, Niijer, Naayijeeriyaa, Yugaandaa.

26 Aljeeriyaa, Angoolaa, Beeniin, Bootswaanaa, Burkinaa Faasoo, Burundii, Keep Verde, Kaameeruun, Rippabiliika Giddugaleessa Afrikaa, Chaad, Koomoroos, Ayivoorii Koost, Rippabiliika Dimookiraatawaa. 17 Beeniin, Burkinaa Faasoo, Kaameeruun, Rippabiliika Giddugaleessa Afrikaa, Chaad, Koomoroos, Ayivoorii Koost, Rippabiliika Dimookiraatawaa Koongoo, Ikuwaatooriyaal Giinii, Gaaboon, Giinii, Giinii-Bisaawu, Maalii, Niijer, Rippabiliika Koongoo, Senegaal, Toogoo.

African support for international statements, declarations and initiatives

13 signatory countries from Angola, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, eSwatini, Lesotho, Guinea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, South Sudan 2015 Nairobi Principles of Data Sharing. 2016 Dakar Declaration on Open Science in Africa (Sci-GaIA) The goal of the Sci-GaIA initiative is to create a sustainable foundation of educational materials and processes for the development and management of Science Gateways and e-. Expression of interest in advancing the adoption of open data principles through the Botswana Open Data Open Science Forum, RDA, CODATA, WDS, AOSP.

100 is not much for you': open science and neglected accessibility to scientific research in Africa. The future of science and the science of the future: vision and strategy for the African Open Science Platform (v02).

Table 9. Summary of the most important statements and declarations requiring signatory  support
Table 9. Summary of the most important statements and declarations requiring signatory support

Gambar

Figure 1. Broad categories of data-intensive projects in Africa
Figure 2. Responses to survey question on “Which of the following applies to the Data  Activity?”
Table 1. Specific fields of projects identified by the survey
Figure 4. Survey responses to “What can be done to promote Open Science?”
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