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Journal of Applied Sciences 13 (3): 401-408, 2013

ISSN 1812-5654 I DOI: QP N SYRSX。ウ N RP Q SNTPQNTセ@

0 2013

Asian

Network for Scientific Information

Characterization of Redistilled Liquid Smoke ofOil-pabn Shells and

its

Application as Fish Preservatives

1

$.S.

Achmadi,

2N.R. Mubarik. 'R.

Nursyamsi and

'P.

Septiaji

1Department of Chemistry,

2Department of Biology, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus

Dramaga,

Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Abstract: Oil-pahn shells as an agricultural waste can be pyrolysed producing gaseous material that can

be

condensed into liquid smoke. Redistilled liquid smoke has been proven effective

as

fresh

fish

preservative

due

to its antibacterial activity. In the present study, the redistilled liquid smoke is evaluated as fish preservative

of fresh catch and as

fly

repellent

in

fish salting-fem1enting process. The tests inc.luded total volatile

base-nitrogen levels in fish muscle

and

antibacterial activity using agar diffusion methcxl The content of various

organic acids in liquid smoke reached 9.2%, mainly consisting of acetic acid and phenolics, at pH of 3.2. There

were no harmful compounds such as tar

and

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The redistilled liquid smoke

concentrations of 8, 9, and 10% were able to maintain the freslmess of porn.fret fish up to 24 h In these levels

of redistilled liquid smoke solution, diameters of clear zone formed on the antibacterial test ranged 10-20 mm,

meaning

that

the liquid smoke fell into

strong

antibacterial category. It is suggested that the content

of

carboxylic acids, phenolic compounds and carbonyl serve as a natural preservative to replace th.e use of

synthetic preservatives in sahing fermented

fish.

1Key words: Antinucrobe, fish preservative, flies repellant, liquid smoke, oil-palm shells

INTRODUCTION

.

,

'

CUrreritly,

charcoal mdustries in Indonesia use

charcoal' as the main product,

and

the rest of

approx.tmately 70-80% is

in

the form of wasted gas that is

released to the atmosphere as air pollutant. AUempt to

increase added value of the smoke to be an

environmentally friendly has been done, in various

studies on the liquid smoke, which is commonly called as wood vinegar or liquid smoke. The prcxluction of liquid

smoke can

pe

integrated

with

charcoal making

(Nurhayati.and Sofyan, 2005). The liqllld smoke is widely used as antibactenal and antioxidant by many food technologists.

Pyrolysis of coconut shells bas been reported to

produce liquid smoke with phenolic level of 9.36%, carbonyls 8.34%, and organic acids 6.38i>/o. The clistiJled

liquid smoke at lower than l 00°C yields lower quantity of

phenolics (3.90%) and lower tar (0.290/o) as compared with

the distilled products at higher temperatures

(Darmadj i, 2002). Solution of 2.5% liquid smoke made of

coconut shell extends the shelf life of fish ball from I 6

to 32 hours at room temperature (Zuraida et al., 2011 ) .

Liquid smoke of oil-palm shells has been stated

to inhibit the growth ·of

Psedoumonas f111orescens ,

Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and

Bacillus suhtilis bacteria. The activity of biopreservative

toward S. aureus is exhibited at 0.6% concentration and

towardE. coli at 0.8%

(Halim

et al., 2006). Tamaela (2003)

and Yanti and Rochima (2009) also found that liquid

smoke of coconut shells is potential as an altemative in

fish preservation. The potency can be used for various

processing and storage technology

for

fish products, so

that Ll1e potency of liquid smoke derived from oil-pahn

shells, which is abmdanlly found in oil pahn plantation, should be evaluated as fish preservative of fresh catch

and as fly repellent in fish ウ。ャエゥョァ M ヲッイュ・ョエャセ@ process.

MATERIALS AND MEIBODS

Materials: Materials used were crude Jjquid smoke of

oil-palm shells extracted from pyrolysis product at the

temperature of 400°C (provided by PT Global Deorub

Indusuy), Staphyloooccus aureus and Escherichia coli

(available from the Laboratory of 1.ficrobiology Culture Collection, the Department of Biology, Boger Agricultural U niversity), fresh water pomfret fish, patin fish

(Pangasi11s hypophthalmus), Ch1ysoma megalocephoda

flies and bnne shrimp larvae Artemia salina. The

experiment was done in 201 I -2012. Chemicals used were

Corresponding Author: S.S. Achmadi, Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

(8)

J.AppliedSci., 13 (3): 401-408, 2013

Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, Tashiro indicator solution, cblorampbenicol in powder

form,

liquid media ofTxyptic Soy Broth (TSB) and solid medium of Nutrient Agar (NA).

Preparation of

liquid

smoke: Crude liquid smoke

of oil-pahn shells (20 L) was placed in a large container and distilled

using

a concentration boule type TA62D at 80±5°C.

The

distil.late

in

the fonn of liquid smoke was then collected

in

a closed container. Total Acid Assay

was

measured by titration (AOAC, 2005). Phenolics Determination was canied out using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (Waterhouse, 2002).

GC-MS analysis: Chemical compounds in the redistilled liquid smoke were identified

using

gas chromatography· mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument equipped with 60-meter HP5 column Detector temperature, initial column temperature and final column temperature were 250, 280 and 290°C, respectively. The carrier gas was helium with flow rate of 23.7 mL min-'. at 17.56 psi pressure. The liquid smoke sample injected

was

l

µL.

Toxicity assay was performed on A. salina and calculat.ed based on the percent mortality using probit scale (Manila! et al., 2009).

l・ カ セ i@ of T VB-N Assay (Standar Nasional Indonesia 2354.8:2009): Samples of fresh-cut pomfret fish (10 g each)

that

had been immersed

in

various concentrations G_セ@ liquid smoke were placed in beaker glass. To each beaker glass was added 90 mL perchloric acid 6%: TI1e content of the beaker glass was stirred for 2

min

and filtered.

The

filtrate (50mL)

was

transferred into a dis ti Uation

tube,

added a

few

drops of phenolphthaJein indicator and antifoaming silicon. The distillation tube was mourited one steam distillation apparatus and I 0 mL NaOII 200/o

was

added A collecting erleruneyer was prepared, containmg

l

00

mL H

3

B0

4 3%

ru"l<l

3-5 drops of

Tashiro indicator (violet solution). Steam distillation was performed

for

ap{lroximately 10

min

until 100

mL

distillate was collected and the

final

volume was approximately

200 mL

(green solution). Distillation of blank solution was

performed

in

a

similar

way

using 50

mL

perchloric acid 6%.

The distilled samples as well as the blank were titrated

using solution ofHCl 0.02 N. The end point of titration was indicated by reforming the violet color. The analysis was carried out every 8

h

until the permissible total vo!aule base nitrogen (TVB-N) value was reached. The experiment was repeated twice.

QvbMn H セ I M Hv」Mv「Iクn@ X14.007x100

LOOg w

where,

v.

is the volume of HCI for titration on sample, Vb

1s the volume of HCl for bJank titration, N is the normahty of HCl solution, Wis sample weight (g), 14.007 is the atomic weight of nitrogen

and

2 is the dilution factor.

Inhibition Assay on Bacteria was carried out as reported by Fitrial et al.

(2008). The

NA medium containing bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli, ±J 5 mL) was poured into the petri dish that already coll18ined solid NA medium (the first layer). The mixture was homogenized and the second layer was left to solidify. In the first step, five wells were conditioned aseptically, 6 mm diameter each. Into each weU, the liquid smoke solution (8, 9 and 10% concentrations), a positive control (solution of 100 PF!Il chlorarnphenicol) and negative control (sterilized distilled water) were transferred,

60

µL each. Each of the bacteria, i.e . were tested with five replicatiom. Diameters of the measurab le inhibition zone (replicated

three

times) were converted to inhibition index. P reparation of Dried -fermented Fish followed Ariyani

et al.

(2007) method Patin fish was used in this experiment.

In

the

salting

process, 30% of salt (based

on

the

fish

weight), was applied. Some salts were put into the

fah abdominal cavity and the rest of salts were dlssolved

into a saturated solution and fermented for 48

h.

Assay for Repellency toward Chrysoma megalocephoda Flies (Yuliani

et al.,

2005). The testing was performed using 25 llies that were caged in a 60x40x30

cm

glass tank.

The

treated

fish

were put into this glass

tank.

Observation was started after l min by counting the number of fly perch on the dried-fenneoted

fish

every minute

until 60 min

The e>.-periments were

replicated three times for each concentration of 5, I 0, 15 and 200/o and the percem repellency was calcuJated.

Statistical analysis: The observed data on inhibition index and fly repellency were subjected to arialysis of variance (ANOVA). If there was any significant difference, the difference among treatment mean'> was determined by Duncan' s multiple range test at

p"'

0 .05.

RESULTS

The redistilled liquid smoke of oil-palm shells at 80"C gave clear acidic liquid, containing 63% of simple carboxylic acids and to

a

lesser extern were pbenolics, with no indication of tox ic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The liquid was also a strong antibactenal toward S. aureus and E. coli, which would be a beneficial property for fish preservative. The low TVB-N values

of

fish muscles immersed in the Liquid indicated good inhibition of protein putrefaction until 24 h and l 0% concentration of the gave significant effect on avoiding fly infestation in salting-fermentation process.

(9)

J.

ApplitdSci., 13 (3): 401-408, 2013 [image:9.622.22.553.102.474.2]

(•)

Fig. 1

(a-b): (a)

Appearance of

crude

liquid smoke and

(b)

Redistilled

liquid

smoke of oil-

palm

shells at 8<1'C

Table l : GC-MS anaJ!sill oo li!J!!id smoke of oil-l!alm sbclls wi1h 90o/osimilarity

Retettioo lime Hュセス@ aイ・。セ@ MW

.s.o.s

4147 60

.S.31 1.00 74

6.24 3.31 96

7.03 0.66 82

7.99 26.13 94

8.73 1.33 !OS

8.9.5 l.06 109

9.11

s . .so

124

972 032 Ill

10.04 0.21 138

10.19' 2.42 138

11.04 U9 1.52

Jl.72 0.43 154

11.89 016 166

MW= molecular weiaht

'

yellowish brown liquid (Fig. 1 ). The liquid smoke of

oil-palm shells has specific

odor

and volatile. There

is an

indication

that the redistillation of

the liquid smoke

at

80±5°C

IS

able

to

reduce P

AHs content that has boil mg

point

of

more

than

300CC.

Three parameters

o f

liquid

smoke

were

ob<lervcd

organic acid

content,

total phcnolics and pl I. The

redistilled

liquid,

smoke of the

oil-palm

shells exhibits

organic acids of

9.14%,

total phenolics of 2.6% end

pH 3.2. The GC-MS

analysis on the redisuJled

liquid

smoke identified some

chemicals as

shown

Ul Table I .

These compounds have more than 90% simiJarily with

those

in

the

GC-MS instrument's

library.

The highest

constituenl (

41

%)

was

acetic acid. followed

by

phenol (260/o). Other consutuents with sumlanty

more

than 95% beloog to

phenol.Jes,

i.e. 3-methylphenol, 2-methylphenol,

2-methoxyphenol and 3,

5-dimethylphenol.

Toxicity of the l"edistilled liquid smoke: Dat.11 of the toxicity

test toward

brine shrimp larvae and the corresponding

LCse

are

exh1b1ted

in

Fig

2.

There are

increasing numbers of dead

laivae with the

increasing

concentrations of

the liquid

smoke. Afterwards,

the

values are derived

in

the fonn of

relation

between-log

Comoound sゥュゥャセセャ@

Acetic acid 90

Propmx>ic acid 90

Furfural 91

RMセ」ャッーュエ・ョMQMッッ@ 91

Alcnol 91

2-Methylphenol 97

3-Methylphenol 96

2· Mcthoxyphenol 97

3,.S·Dimdhylphenol

en

2-Mdhoxy-3-methyl pht:ool 91

2-Mdhoxy-4-mdhyl phenol 9S

4-Elllyl-l-mctlloxy phenol 9S

2,6-Dimdhoicyphr:nol 93

2-Mdhoxy-4-propyl phmol 91

concentration

of the

hqwd

smoke and

percent

of

dead larvae.

The LCso

value

of

0.2147%

is obtained

from

a line equation

y

=

-1 6662x + 4. 9456

with

R1

=

0.8527

TVB-N

values:

TVB-N values of pomfret fish that

have

been preserved for 30 min

using the red.isrilled

hqmd

smoke

are shown in Fig. 3. The

concentrations

of

the

liquid

smoke

were 0, 8, 9 and 1

()''lo

a.nd

the

TVB-N values

were determined every 8 hours at room-temperature

storage. Increasn'l; TVB-N

values

are

caused by the

acuon

of

degradmg

bactena

on the

fish muscular tissues

thal produces mainly ammorua, tnmethylamine and

dimethylamine. With prolonging the storage time, the TVB-N

values

also increasing.

Analysis

on

bour-8

shows that immersion in I 0% concentrauoo

of

liqU1d ウュッォ セ@

produces !he

lowest TVB-N value ( 4 mg/I 00 g) among

the

three

other treatments,

as

well as those observed at

hour-16 Analysis on hour-24 shows

that

TVB-N value for the control (38 mg/I 00 g) has exceeded the max imwn

permissible

value,

whereas

those treatments with the

8-10% concentration of liquid

smoke

are still below

the
(10)

J. Applied Sci., 13 (3): 401-408. 2013

:!

.3

11

..

"Cl

...

0

セ@

120

100

go

60

40

20

0

y -166.6>ct494.5

R'-O.a51

0. 0.50 J.00 I.SO 2-00 2.50 3.00 3.SO

-20 -lo! conccnrraticn

Fig. 2: Relation between -log concentration of liquid

smoke

and

percent of dead larvae

so

-45

40

セオ@

セ@

30

l

1s

セ@

20

セ@ 15 10

'

8 16 24 32

• ' • Siotagc tim.: (h)

Fig. 3: Total volatile base rutrogen (TVB-N) values of

pomfret

fish

preserved with various

concentrations of

liquid

smoke

8%, 9%, I 00/o and

control

values that are lower than that without liquid smoke

treatment, indicating that the fish arc well preserved by

the

redisulled

hq1.11d

smoke.

Antibacterial properties: Two species for assay on

anlibact.enal activity were used, namely S. aureus

(rcp-esenu.ng Gram positive) and £. coli (representing

Gram negative).1\ntibecterial activity of the liquid smoke

can

be

seen from

the clear rone formed surrounding the

corresponding

well (Fig. 4). The clear

zone fonned on

S. aureus is more clistinct es compared with that on

E. coli Tlus is related to the effects of the

hquid

smoke on

the bacterial growth. Based on the diameter of formed

clear zooe, tbe

hquid

of oil -palm shells has antibacterial

ac11v1ty in strong category The strength of antibactenal

activity

is designated as follow:

inhibition

area >20 mm is

very strong,

inhibition

area of I 0-20 mm is strong,

inhibition area of 5-10 mm

is

moderate and inhibition area

<5 mm 1s in weak category (Dav.is

and

Stout, 1971).

Fig.

4(

a-b ): A nu bacterial acllv ity of rcd.istl lied liquid

smoke derived from oil-palm shells toward (a)

S. aureus and (b) E. coli

Table 2· lnhibiticn indices of liCJlid smoke of oil-palm shells as compared With C0011'1lCJCiaJ •lllbiot1CS

Avcngcofimibition index

Treauncnt Sltlp/rvlocOCl'u..r nurtur Escl1trichia coli

Blank O O' O O'

8% liquid woke l 'i' 0 セ@

9% liquid smoke l.'i' 1.1'

ャセャゥアオゥ、@ smoke 14' l.Z'

Chl<n!!!lhcnicol IOO ppm 1.8' - --'0--'0' _ _ _ _

Value widl different lctt# m the same column is significantly different at

p<0.05

Data of the formed clear zone diameter were further

cor.verted into inhibition

mdex

(Table 2>.

The

カ。ャオセ@ o f

inhibition

index exhibited

by the

liquid smoke

of

concenl.ration 0, 8, 9 and I 00/. are also compared with lhat

of 100 ppm chloramphenicol. The average of inhibi11on

index by the liquid smoke toward S. aureus shows higher

value than

that

toward E . coli for the same concentration.

The value is also compared

with mhib1t1on by common

antibiotics chloramphemcol 100 ppm. Test on dオョ」。ョᄋセ@

multiple range gives three calegones of results,

designated as a,

b

and c. The same letter means that the

treatments

do

not give significantly clifferent results. On

S. aureus, the use of8, 9 and 10% liquid smoke give the

[image:10.634.23.312.96.735.2] [image:10.634.293.557.122.723.2]
(11)

J. Applied Sci., 13 (3): 401-408, 2013

100 セ@

-セ@

so

-セ@

60

t

.!I

t

..

40

Cf.

セ@

0

0 g Q lO

Conaaiioo of liquid セ@ {%)

Fig, 5: Fly

repellency on the dried-fermented fish with

different application o f redistilled Jiqujd smoke

T@ble 3: Sjcnjficanct of fly rq>el!ency based oo Dwcao's ®lliP!c Cl!12C

Level of liguid smoke(%) A verase af rcpellcncy

0 71.7.:S'

8 Yセ N PRG@

9 セセ@

JO

<.»fd-Value will! different lct1cr 111 lhc same column is signi6i:a11tly diffcrctt al p<0.0.:S

diffe,ent with that of chlorampherucol l 00 ppm (letter c)

and the blank (letter a) The 8% concentration of

liquid

smoke (letter b) glves mh.ibition differently with that of 9

and I

0'% concentration

(Jetter c)

toward£ coli. The

ll$e

of

chlorampher;iicol·

foo

ppm. does not

inhibit

the growth of

this panJ<;ular bacteria, just similar to the blank (letter a).

Repellenc:y to flies: Observation on repellency of the

liquid smoke toward flies

is

slLown in Fig. 5. lncrc.asing

repellency is linearly correl.ited wilh the mcreasing concent.rauon o f the applied liquid smoke ' I he best repellency of the liquid smoke applied on the fermented salted fish was analy1.ed using Duncan's mulLiple range (Table 3). The first step was to determine the highest

value of all treatments. The highest value was 99.69, obtallled from concentration of I 00.4 hquid smoke. The

next step considers the letters corres1xmding to the

treatment. All of lhe average of rcpcllcocy is followed by

different letter. This cneans that every tr.:atment

bas

sigruficant effect, differently from one to another. Therefore, the average of the highest repellent. (10%

conccnlration of liquid smoke) is the best treat.mcnl

DISCUSS I OK

Physical and chemical properties and toxicity: From the

appearance aspect, color of the reclistilled liquid smoke is

no longer dark. The recbstillation turns the previous dark

color liquid

smoke

to bright

yellowish-browrL

This

physical property shall give good effect for its utilization

iri

foodstuff.

The redistiJled

liquid

smoke of oil-palm shells

mainly

contains organic acids and phenolics. Lower organic

acids are weak acids with pK. of approxID1ately 5.

However, the crganic

ac1<h

are more acidic

as compared

with the phenolics, particularly due to resonance

stabilization of the carboxylic

anioos

(RCO;).

These acidic

compounds play important role in creating the low pH of

the liquid smoke (pH 3.2). In addition, the low pH value

reiresents a

high

quality

of

liquid smoke particularly

in

its

utilizatioo as

food

preservatives (Wijaya

et al.,

2008;

Theron

and Lues, 2011 ).

Furthermore, compounds of

P AHs faro

ily

are

not

identified, indicating

that the

redistillation of

the

liquid

smoke al 80°C

is

effective in

eliminating

the carcinogenic

PAHs

content

OC.MS

anaJysis

on liquid smoke

is

also perfonned

in

a previous

study. Budijanto

et al.

(2008) on

his

investigation on the

safety of

liquid

smoke denved from cocorrut shells fcx

food products shows

that

there are 40 constituents

identified

by

GC-MS analysis. There are phenolic

components, such as phenol, 2-metho.xy phenol.

3,4-dimethoxy phenol.

2-metboxy-4-methyl

phenol.

Di.hydrox:y

benzoic acid, methoxybenzoic acid

and

hydroxyl benzoic

acid are present as minor components

Level of organic acids, total pbenol1cs

and

pH of our

study are different with the study by Darmadji and

Triyudiaoa (2006)

which

also

used

liqwd

smoke redistilled

below

l OO°C,

producing 12.34% organic acids

and 1.1

%

total phenolics. Therefore, the redisulled liquid smoke

from oil-palm

shells

gives lower orgwuc

ac1m

(9.14%)

but

higher total phenolics (2.6%). The difference is due to

cellulose-hem1cellulose

and ligrun

contents in

the raw

materials, from which the pyrolysis process would deter:mme the liquid smoke quality There seems to be a

clear correlation between hgnin

and

phenolics contents.

The liqujd smoke from oil-palm shelJs is also Jess acidic

as compared with the liquid smoke from bamboo

(3.08), Leucaena

wood

(2.9) and corn cobs (3.0)

(Swastawall et

al,

2007). Acids level ts also affected by

distillation temperature (Dannadji, 2002).

Titrce ma.in components of the liquid smoke from our

study are carboxylic acids, phenohcs and carbonyls

Ilem1celluloses

are

wood component

lhat

firstly

unJergo

pyrolysis to produce furfural,

furan.

acetic acid and

its

homologues h・ュゥ」・ャャオャッセ・ウ@ consist of ー・ョャッセ。ョウ@

(CsH,01 ) and hexosans (CJl,00 s). with the average

proportion depend on the raw matenals Pyrolysis of the

pentosans produces furfural, furan and the1r denvat1ves,

as well as carboxylic acids. Together with cellulose,

pyrolysis of hexosans also produces acetic acid and

its

(12)

J. Applied Sci., 13 (3): 401-408, 2013

decomposition at

300-4.SOOC

(Girard,

1992).

Further

process

in

the pyrolysis of cellulose will produce acetic

acid and carbonyl

compounds,

such

as

acetaldehyde,

glioxal and acreolin. Pyrolysis of lignin will produce

phenol, guaiacol and syringol, together with their

hcmologs and derivatives (Darmadji,

2002).

Phenolics contribute to the quality for modifying

color, flava-,

aroma

and odor (Sengul

et

al., 2009). Level

of total phenolics

io

the

I

iquid smoke of oil-palm shells

0.26%

(bib) is more

Ulan

20

times

higher

than

that

of

liquid smoke of teakwood, pine wood and

barn

boo

(Wijaya et al., RセIN@ Pheoolics with low boiling points

are

good as bacteriostatics. Organic acids are stronger

in

inhibiting bacterial

growth

as compared with phenolics,

however, combination of these two categcnes of

organic acids will gave

nse to

higher inhtb1tion

Pheoolics, as healthy phytochemicals, are ccmmonly used

in

food mdustries

as

antiOXIdant and antibacte11aJ

(Esekhiagbe

et

al., 2009).

Toxicity of the liquid smoke

using BSL T

method

revealed that no larvae survived on the concentrations of

0.3,

0.4 and 0.5%

LC1t

in

this

study

is

0.2147%.

A

compowd is designated to have acute toxicity if the

LC)I

is below 0.1 % (CaJ'ballo et al , 2002). Therefoce,

based

on

this assay, the redi.stilled

liqwd

smoke of oil-palm shells 1s

not considered 8l} 40xic material

'

J>oten cy ·as a n ti bacterial in fresh fis h preservation:

Redistilled liquid smoke in this study act as bacteriostatics (inhibit the growth without lethal effect) on

E. coli and bacteriocidal/bactcriolitic (lethal effect) on

S. "aureus. lnlubition on bacterial gro\vth by an

antibactenal agent can be ch.ae to the inhibition of

synthesis of cell wall, protems, nucleic acids

and disruption• of the functions of cell membranes

(Jawetz et al., 2010). Resistance of E. coli which is lugher

than that of

S.

aureus

toward antibacterial agents may

be

related to the structure of cell membranes.

E.

coli

is

a

member of Gram ョセ。エjカ・@ bacteria with layered membrane

structure, among which are lipoproteins,

lipopolysaccabarides and pcptidoghcans (Madigan et al.,

2010).

Organic acids nre food preservatives that function ll!I

acid-taste elicitoc arxt reduce bacterial growth by reducmg

pH within the food to pH level that can inhibit bactenal

growth. Pnnciple of the mhibitioo by organic acids

is

that

the undissociated part of the acids (anion moieties) can

penetrate into the cell wall of the bacteria and disrupt the

normal physiological function of the cells (Theron and

Lues, 2011 ).

Phenolics

in

the

Liquid smoke of pelawan

(Tristania obovata) wood actively attack on bacterial vegetative cells, can penetrate and disrupt cell walls and

precipitate proteins

in

the microbe cells (Panagan and

Syarif, 2009). Inhibition

by

phenolics may be due to

interactioo

through

hydrogen

bonding

with some

import.ant

proteins

as

enzyme constituent

(Saravanakumar

et

al., 2009).

Fish putrefaction

is

commonly indicated by high

TVB-N

value.

The

increase

in TVB-N

values

is due

to

bacterial action as proved by

inclination

of bacterial

population Immersion

treatments

in

liquid smoke

solutions are able to reduce the rate of volatile base

fonnation as compared with the cootrol. The higher the

concentration of the liqwd smoke, the

better

the

ability

to

tnhibit the formation of

the

volatile

bases

The maximum

TVB-N

Jevel

for fresh

fish

m Japan and Australia ts 30

mg

No/o (Siagian, 2002). Dw1yitno and Riyanto (2006) in the

experiment

using

liquid smoke of coconut shells

for

preserving fresh mackerel is able to

maintain TVB-N

value

below the maximum level until 12-hour storage with

treatments using

7 .5

and

I 0%

concentrations

Based on

BSLT,

the LC,. for liqwd smoke of oil-palm

shells is 0.22%, meaning that

il

is

safe to be mcorporated

m foodstuff. Safe limit for phenol m food p-oducts is

0

0006-0.

5%

oc

0.06-5000 mg kg-1 (Girard, 1992). Therefore,

unmersion in the redisulled bqwd smoke (0 18-0.26%) will

not exceed the detennined safe limit Phenol content will

also decrease

in

further fish processing such as washing

and heating for products to be consumed.

Pote-ncy as

ny

r epellen t: Fly mfestat:ion on <lmxl

fermented fish

during

sunchying may be due to some

volatile bases such as ammonia

and

hydrogen sulfide.

These two compounds are onginated from protein degradation caused by p-oteolytic enzymes dunng

autolysis and fermentation processes (Anyani et al.,

2007). However, ttnmers1on

in

liquid smoke solution has

elicited odorous phenolici1 Fセャゥォ。「ャ・@ lo flies In addition,

the presence of 30% salt is indirectly functioning a.'\

insecticide (Ariyani

et al.,

2007). Some phenolics detected

in the redistilled liquid smoke of oil-palm shells, namely

cresol, 」イッッウッセ@ guaiacol, syringol, eugenol and

xylenol, may gave specific aroma. Furfw-al as the only member of aldehydes that 1s also detected in 11l1s particular liquid smoke has been reported as a disinfectant

(Madigan et al., 2010). Furfural gives pleasant aroma that

reduces aroma of the phenohcs that have rather sharp odors. This compotmd gJVt:s specific aroma of the Liquid

smoke

that

function as repellent Action of the liquid
(13)

J. Applied Sci., 13 (3) : 401-408, 2013

working as contact insecticide. Hence, insects that do not like poison with repellent action can quickly avoid the

baits (Yul iani et al., 2005).

CONCLUSION

Liquid smoke of oil-palm shells reclistilled al 80"C

gives clear yellowish-brown in color with specific aroma

of volatile constituents. With chemical specifications of organic acids 9.1 %, total phenolics 2.6% and pH 3 .2, the

redistilled liquid smoke is potential as a safe preservative

for fresh fish By 30 min immersion in the liquid smoke

solution, the fish freshness can be longer than that

without liquid smoke treatments, i.e.

up

to 24 h at room

temperature storage. The redi.stilled liquid smoke of

oil-palm shells is bacteriostatics

in

nature and shows

strong inhibition toward bacterial growth. The best

ITeatrnenl as antibacterial is toward S. aureus which

represents Gram posiliv.:. Immersion in the solution of

redistilled liqtnd smoke functiom as antibacterial and

fly

repellent for dl).ed-fennented

frnh

The fly-repdlency of

the treated dried-fermented fis h is excellent, wilh the

repellcncy above 95% Thus. the redistilled Liquid smoke

of dil-pahn shells can be applied as safe fish preservative

and can be combined with other preservation methods

such 。セ@ cooling and salting.

.

'

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Fig. 4( a-b ): A nu bacterial acllv ity of rcd.istl lied liquid

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