The Difference Between Successful and Unsuccessful Learners in The Use of Learning Strategies in Listening Skill

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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL LEARNERS IN THE USE OF LEARNING STRATEGIES IN LISTENING

SKILL

By

MUHAMMAD REZA FEBRIAN

This present study aimed to investigate whether (1) there is any significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different learning strategies in English listening skill, (2) learning strategy that is most

effective in students’ listening ability, and (3) learning strategies most frequently used by the students in listening at the second year students of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung. There are three classifications of learning strategies used in this present study namely metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and social strategies.

This is a quantitative study. The independent variable is learning strategies and the dependent variable is learners’ listening skill. The samples of the study were the

learners at the second grade of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung. For the instruments, the researcher used Language Listening Strategy Questionnaire and objective listening test. The data were obtained from both test. Independent t-test

was used to analyze the data of learners’ listening skill and learning strategies.. The hypothesis was computed by SPSS 19 at the significant level of 0.05.

The result showed that (1) there is significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using cognitive and social learning strategies in English listening skill. Yet, this study found that there is no significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using metacognitive in English listening skill (2) The most effective learning strategies can be used by the students in listening ability is metacognitive strategies (3) Social strategy is the type of language learning strategies mostly used by the students in English listening ability. On the metacognitive, it was resulted that t value is 2,254 and its two tailed significance showed p>0.05 (p=0.065). Moreover, on the cognitive table resultedthat t value is 6,215 and its two tailed significance showed p<0.05 (p=0.02). On the social, t value is 3,545 and its two tailed significance showed p<0.05 (p=0.02). The highest mean of students’ listening score is achieved in metacognitive learning strategies, both in successful (83,8) and unsuccessful learners (73,67). The present study showed that there are 8 students (22.2%) who use metacognitive strategy, 7 students (19,4%) use cognitive strategy, and 21 students (58,4%) use social strategy.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the name of Allah SWT, the most Merciful God, the writer praises his

thankfulness for the blessing so that the writer was able to finish this work. This

research entitled “The Difference Between Successful and Unsuccessful Learners in the Use of Different Learning Strategies in English Listening Skill”. This

research is submitted as a compulsory fulfillment of the requirements for S-1

Degree of English Education Study Program in Language and Art Education

Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty at Lampung University.

Gratitude and honor are addressed to all people who have helped and supported

the writer to complete this research. Since, it is necessary to be known that this

research will never have come into its existence without any supports,

encouragements, and assistances by several outstanding people and institutions.

Therefore, the writer would like to acknowledge his respect and sincere gratitude

to:

1. Prof. Ag. BambangSetiyadi, M.A., Ph.D. as the first advisor, for whose

guidance, advice, and assistance were invaluably useful.

2. Drs. RamlanGintingSuka as the second advisor for his assistance, ideas,

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vii added a lot to the entire research project.

4. Dr. Ari Nurweni, M.A. as the Chief of English Education Study Program

and all lecturers of English Education Study Program who have

contributed their guidance during the completion process until

accomplishing this research.

5. Mam Susan as the English teacher of SMAN 14Bandar Lampungwho has

given the full support for this research.

6. The writer’s beloved parents, Muhammad Gufron,S.Pd. and Dra. Hanifah,

M.Pd who have always been in writer’s mind and heart.

7. The writer’s brother, Muhammad Kevin Naufal, who has supported the writer.

8. The writer’s special one at this moment, KetrinViollitaS.Pd., who always encourages, motivates and inspires the writer to finish the study soon.

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Finally, similar to other novice research, the writer believes that his writing is still

far from perfection. There may be drawbacks and weaknesses in the research.

Thus, comments, critiques, and suggestions are always welcomed for the purpose

of better research. Somehow, the writer hopes this research would give a positive

contribution to the educational development, the reader, and to those who want to

accomplish further research.

Bandar Lampung, December 2014

The writer,

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MOTTO

Never stop dreaming even if you keep falling.

Because unconsciously you will be standing far

from where you were at the first time.

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CURRICULUM VITAE

The writer’s name is Muhammad Reza Febrian. He was born on February 9th 1992

in Pekalongan. He is the first child of Muhammad Gufron, S.Pd. and Dra.

Hanifah, M.Pd.

He began his formal educational institution for the first time at TK Ismariain 1996

and graduated in 1997. He continued his study at SD Al Kautsar Bandar

Lampungand graduated in 2003. Then he continued to study at SMPN 2 Bandar

Lampung and graduated in 2006. After that he pursued his study at SMAN 2

Bandar Lampung and graduated in 2009. At the same year, in 2009he was

registered as a student of English Education Study Program in Language and Art

Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Lampung

University.

From July02nd to September 10th 2011, he carried out Teaching Practice Program

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DEDICATION

I dedicate this humble work to:

My dearest parents

Muhammad Gufron, S.Pd. and Dra.Hanifah, M.P

My Brother M. KevinNauval

My FianceeKetrinViollita, S.Pd.

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3.2. Population and Sample ... 37

4.3. Result of the Listening Test Reliability ... 54

4.4. Normality Test ... 56

4.5. Hypothesis Testing of the Research ... 58

4.6. The Most Effective Learning Strategies in Students’ Listening Ability ... 60

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LIST OF TABLES

TablePage

1. Specification Table of Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire….. 42

2. Specification of Listening Test ... 42

3. The Result of First Test and Second Test of Listening Test………. 55

4. The Result of Descriptive Statistic Frequencies Analysis for Learning Strategies and Listening Ability Data ... 56

5. The Comparison Between Skweness Value and Std. Error of Skweness and the Comparison between Kurtosis Value and St. Error Kurtosis Value ... 57

6. The comparison of means between successful and unsuccessful learners 60 7. The Frequency of Learning Strategies Questionnaire ... 63

LIST OF APPENDICES

10.Level of Difficulty & Discrimination Power ... 109

11.Normality Test ... 110

12.Hypothesis Testing ... 112

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I. INTRODUCTION

This chapter discuss about introduction of the research that is used in this study

such as; background of the problem, formulation of the problems, objective of the

research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and definition of terms.

1.1. Background of the Problem

English teaching has been conducted in every school in Indonesia. It starts from

elementary school to university level as a compulsory subject. In order to come to

the objectives of English learning effectively, various learning strategies are

needed by the students. Since different learners may use different learning

strategies, they need to be aware of choosing appropriate and effective strategies

in order to be able to successfully learn English and to easily face several tasks

given. The success or failure in English learning is affected by the learning

strategies used by students. As Rubin (1975:41) states:

The different success of second or foreign language suggests a need to examine in detail what strategies successful language learners employ. An indication is given of what these strategies might consist of and a list of several widely recognized good learner strategies are given. Teachers can improve their performance by paying more attention to learner strategies already seen as productive.

The statement stated above means that language learning strategies used are

crucial aspect for learners in English learning because the success of learning a

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learners. The learners can develop their language skills in a better way if they

have a capability in using a wide variety in language strategies. The more frequent

students use a greater variety and number of learning strategies, the more

proficient they would be. Thus, it is essential to know the strategies students have

in language learning.

Specifically, language learning strategies play important roles in one of receptive

skills i.e listening skill. According to Griffee (1986), listening can be considered

as the first step in learning a language. Besides that, McIntosh (1979:65) stated

that listening is one of the most important and fundamental of the four skills in

language learning because listening gives the students information from which to

complete the learners’ knowledge in using English. The strategies employed by the students in comprehending the message in listening will determine how the

students achieve the objectives. It is assumed that the students who use good

strategies will be able to answer the listening test items and to comprehend the

received message well. In other words, using an appropriate learning strategy

might result in the success of study particularly in listening. Moreover, it can be

assumed that in some cases using appropriate learning strategy has correlation

towards students’ listening achievement. Even so, many students of all ages seem

relatively uninformed about effective learning strategies (Barnett, 2001; Pintrich &

De Groot, 1990; Prawat, 1989; Schommer, 1994a).

As indicated by Cohen (2000), many researchers in the field of second and foreign

language (L2) listening agree on the idea that listeners do not often utilize these

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learners may be not aware of what and how the strategies they have to use in

facing several tasks, especially in listening skill.

Based on the researcher pre- observation, it was found that students’ has a very limited knowledge of learning strategy. Most of them had no idea of what learning

strategy is and how can it be applied trough out their studies even though they are

using it unconsciously. This assumption is in line with theory of Chamot et al that

learning strategy is some classified habits of people’s natural behavior in learning.

This present study focuses on learning strategies used by successful and

unsuccessful learners. Successful learners then can be defined as the learners who

have good preparation before the class is started, a great curiosity on what is being

learned, and they also achieve above average- grades. Meanwhile unsuccessful

learners are often carelessly prepared, are forced to attend the class, and they earn

low average grades. Concerning the fact above, the researcher would like to

evidence and to classify the students learning strategies used in by the second

grade of SMAN 14 Bandar Lampung and analyze the difference of listening skills

among successful and unsuccessful learners in using language learning strategies,

and the use of their different learning strategies will characterize their

achievement.

The writer chooses senior high school students because they have more capability

in understanding how they learn so the research will be more reliable.

Furthermore, by identifying learners’ strategies and analyze the difference of listening skills among successful and unsuccessful users in using language

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language learning, especially in listening process. This research will also give the

information of which learning strategies is the most effective in listening learning

process. The teacher then will be able to make a positive effort to prevent or

reduce the students’ problem which is related to the learning strategies traits

especially in mastering listening subject.

Therefore, this research attempts to investigate whether there is any significant

difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in using different

learning strategies in English listening comprehension ability at the second year

students of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung.

1.2. Formulation of the Problems

Based on the identification of the probem above, the researcher formulates the

problem as follow

1. Is there any significant difference between successful and unsuccessful

learners in using different learning strategies in English listening

comprehension ability?

2. Which learning strategy is the most effective in students’ listening ability? 3. What type of language learning strategies do the learners use most frequently

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1.3. Objective of the Research

The objectives of this research are:

1.3.1 To find out whether there is any significant difference between successful

and unsuccessful learners in using different learning strategies in English

listening comprehension ability.

1.3.2 To find out which learning strategy that is most effective in students’ listening ability.

1.3.3 To explore learning strategies most frequently used by the students in

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1.4. Significance of the Research

The significances of this research are:

Theoretically, this present research can be used to:

1. Verify and contribute the previous studies and theories related to theories in

this research

2. Be used as a reference for further research

Practically, this present research can be used to:

1. Encourage English teachers and learners in applying learning strategies in

their learning process, especially in listening.

2. Persuade learners to use appropriate and effective strategies in listening

comprehension.

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1.5. Scope of the Research

This research is quantitative in nature. The independent variable is learning

strategies. There are three major learning strategies that were investigated namely

cognitive, metacognitive, and social strategies. Meanwhile, the dependent variable

is learners’ listening ability. The focus of this research covers the identification of learning strategies used by the students and their achievement in listening ability.

This research also intends to answer which strategies mostly used by the students in

their listening and which is the most effective. This research was conducted at the

second grade students of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar Lampung which consists of 36

students in academic year 2013/2014. The researcher determined the sample by

using simple random sampling and chose one class by using lottery as the sample.

The measurement of learners’ learning strategies is based on the questionnaire proposed by Setiyadi called Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (LLSQ). The students’ listening comprehension was measured by narrative text of

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1.6. Definition of Terms

Based on the description above, the researcher provides several definitions of

terms that can across often during the research. The term below will guide the

reader in reading and understanding the thesis.

Language Learning Strategy is a term that refers to particular thoughts and behaviors used in the purpose of attaining learning objectives independently.

Cognitive strategy

It deals with the all activities that take place in the brain in order to acquire a

foreign language.

Metacognitive strategy

It refers to the study of the ways in which people monitor and control their own

cognitive strategy.

Social strategy

It concerned with the nature and form of social interaction and how people come

to influence one another’s behavior.

Listening is an active skill requiring listeners to deal with a variety of complicated tasks, such as discriminating between sounds and interpreting stress

and intonation.

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Successful learners is a group of students which categorized by their high achievement in listening ability (upper group from the median score).

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II. LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter discusses about the literature review used in this study such as:

concept of learning strategies, concept of metacognitive learning strategies,

concept of listening, concept of listening comprehension, the correlation between metacognitive learning strategies and students’ listening comprehension,

theoritical assumptions and hypothesis.

2.1. Concept of Learning Strategies

English is a compulsory subject that must be taught since it is a global language

that have to be mastered by the students as a means of communication. However,

some of the students have difficulties in English both oral and written. There were

many approaches introduced to motivate students in learning English. However,

those approaches are not enough for mastering English if the students do not have

the effective strategies that can boost up their ability in learning English. Students

should have the effective strategies that can make them learn the language more

effectively.

In real definition, “strategy” is often used in military which means preparation and

management of troops in order to reach victory in war. Meanwhile, in teaching

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learning goal. The use of language learning strategies significantly predicts

success on learning English. Setiyadi (2011:45) says that teachers should

introduce learning strategies to their students and provide opportunity for their

students to implement the strategies which have been proved to be more effective

than other strategies. Learning is the conscious process used by the learners to

achieve the objectives, while learning strategy is the steps taken by language

learners to enhance any aspect of their language.

The researcher assumes that students’ learning strategies can be one of the best

approach in getting new information and knowledge in order to achieve the

learning objectives. O’ Malley and Chamot (1990: 1) in Brown (2005: 5) defines

learning strategies as the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information. Supporting O’ Malley and

Chamot’s definition, Bialystok’s early definition (1978: 71) points out about

learning strategies in the concept of second language. Learning strategies is

optimal means for exploiting available information to improve competence in a

second language, while Oxford (2004) defines that learning strategies are specific

behaviors or thought processes that students use to enhance their own L2 learning.

These concepts imply that learning strategies can be used by the students to

exploit more knowledge in language acquisition and to have better result in students’ achievement.

By having appropriate language learning strategies, the researcher assumes that

the students will be easier to get new information and to acquire the language.

Besides, language learning strategies are also able to lead the students learning

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states that language learning strategies refers to language learning behaviors that

learners actually engage in to learn and regulate the learning of second or foreign

language. The research also pointed out that learner who uses learning strategies

becomes more effective learner. Therefore the use of appropriate language

learning strategies often results in improving proficiency or achievement overall

or specific skills area (Thompson and Rubin in Oxford 1990). .

Several researchers might have different classification of learning strategies due to

a lot of learning strategies categorization proposed. Yet, they basically have the

same point of view in classifying learning strategies. According to O’Malley, et

al. (1985: 582-584) in Hismanoglu (2000), typical strategies are divided into three

categories, i.e. metacognitive, cognitive, and social strategy. Metacognitive

strategies is a term to express executive function, strategies which require

planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place,

monitoring of one’s production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. Cognitive strategies are strategies which refer to the

steps or operations used in learning or problem- solving that requires direct

analysis, transformation, or synthesis of learning materials. Cognitive strategies

are more limited to specific learning tasks and they involve more direct

manipulation of the learning material itself, for instance repetition, resourcing,

translation, grouping, note taking etc. The last is social strategies which are

related to social-mediating activity and transacting with others. Cooperation and

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Based on the explanations and classifications of learning strategies above, it can

be inferred that it is worth noting that the students have to be independent learners

since they do not always need the teacher around to guide them. In order to reach

that, the students are to have suitable strategies in their learning so that they can

learn easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, and more effective in

order to reach greater self-confidence, involvement, and proficiency. Besides, the

researcher also concludes learning strategy as a term that refers to particular

thoughts and attitudes used in the purpose of achieving learning goals

independently. The thoughts and attitudes can be categorized into metacognitive,

e.g. managing the learning objectives; cognitive, like summarizing; and social,

such as sharing ideas and thoughts to peers.

2.2. Concept of Listening

Listening is an action requiring participation on the part of listener in gaining and

comprehend the whole message. According to Margaret (1988:19) listening is an

active process in which the listener plays a very active part in constructing the

overall message that is actually exchanged between the listener and speaker. The

idea above indicates that the listeners are usually playing an active role because

they should have ability to digest the message of the speaker. Underwood

(1985:1) stated that listening is the activity of paying attention to and trying to get

meaning from something we hear. He also states that the essence of listening is

the listener; the listener should be encouraged to engage in active process of

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Moreover, Nation (1985:17) adds that listening is not only the way of learning

language that can give the learner information from which to build up the

knowledge necessary for using the language but also the way to get information or

to understand the sense of communication which will be sent in oral. The importance of listening can be seen from Oliver’s statement (1962:227) who says

that some studies indicate that we spent about 9 percent of our communication

time writing, 16 percent reading, 30 percent speaking, and 45 percent listening.

Referring to the statement above, it can be concluded that listening has the largest

proportion in communication than other skills.

According to Brown (2007: 308) there are two skills required in listening process,

they are; macro and micro skills. Macro skills would be directly related to

candidates needs or to course objective, and might include: (1) listening for

specific information, (2) obtaining gist of what is being said, (3) following

directions. Micro skills might include: (1) interpretation of intonation patterns

(recognition of sarcasm, etc), (2) recognition of function of structures (such as interrogative as request, for example, Could you pass the salt?).

As mentioned on the paragraph above, there are some types of macro skill in

listening. Listening for specific information means that the students try to find

clear information from the source. For example, the students try to get information

about weather from the weather forecast in the television. Then, listening of gist

refers to understanding what the speaker said in a general way. For example, the

students try to find the main topic of what the speaker had said. Listening by

following directions means that the students should listen spoken direction from

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do the activity based on the direction from the native speaker. Moreover, there are

also some types of micro skill in listening. Interpretation of intonation patterns

means that the students try to understand the meaning of the speaker said based on

the intonation whether it is normal conversation or it is a sarcasm. Then,

recognition of function structures means that the students have to identify what

the speaker said based on the function of structures. In this case, the writer choose

to put more focus on macro skill since it is not really difficult to understand and it

also more appropriate for the level of senior high school students.

Concerning the explanation above, it reveals that listening in main skills is not

easy since the listener should seriously pay attention, interpret, and be able to

understand what the speaker said in order to comprehend the message. Listening

effectively to others can be the most fundamental and powerful communication

tool of all. When someone is willing to focus without talking then begin truly

listening to others, all of their interactions become easier, and communication

problem can be eliminated.

Based on the several previous paragraphs, it can be stated that listening is an

active skill requiring listeners to deal with a variety of complicated tasks, such as

discriminating between sounds and interpreting stress and intonation. To face this

listening process, the students should have appropriate strategies in order to get

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2.3. Concept of Listening Comprehension

Listening, being an invisible mental process, is difficult to describe, for listeners

must discriminate between sounds, understand vocabulary and grammatical

structures, and interpret stress and intention within the immediate utterance.

Listening was commonly viewed as a receptive language skill in which listeners

passively assimilated the messages they got from oral input, but in fact it involves

a more complex process. In the last two decades, listening has been found to play

an important role in language acquisition and has thus been described as an ―interactive, interpretive process in which listeners engage in a dynamic

construction of meaning (Murphy, 1991, p. 56).

Listening involves linguistic knowledge, background knowledge, and meaning

construction. Rost (2011, p. 2) defines listening, in its broadest sense, as a process

of receiving what the speaker actually says (receptive orientation); constructing

and representing meaning (constructive orientation); negotiating meaning with the

speaker and responding (collaborative orientation); and, creating meaning through

involvement, imagination and empathy (transformative orientation).

Oral texts exist in real time and need to be processed quickly; when an oral text is

over, only a mental representation remains. As a result of this, listening is the least

explicit of the four language skills and the most difficult skill to learn. Listening

involves physiological and cognitive processes at different levels (Field, 2002;

Lynch, 2002; Rost, 2011). Several theories have been advanced to account for

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Anderson (1983, 1995) proposed a cognitive framework presenting listening as a

three-stage process of Perceptual Processing, Parsing, and Utilization. In the

perceptual processing phase, attention is focused entirely on the text, and

phonemes are segmented from the speech stream (1995, p. 137). Therefore, such

listening strategies as ―selective attention (attending to specific language aspects

while listening) and ―directed attention (maintaining attention while listening)

are crucial in this stage (Vandergrift, 2003a). In the parsing stage, meaning

representations are formed from words and phrases by matching them with

linguistic information stored in the listener‘s long-term memory to construct

meaning mental representations. ―Grouping (classifying information in a listening tasks) and ―inferencing (using text information or context to guess the

meanings of unfamiliar language items) strategies are dominant in the parsing

stage. And finally in the utilization phase, information collected from the previous

two stages is linked with the schema — the previous knowledge of the listener. As

a factor related to the present study, schema is further reviewed later in this

chapter. Listeners use their prior knowledge to aid comprehension and recall. At this stage, ―elaboration (using prior knowledge or context to fill in missing

information) strategy is a crucial strategy (Vandergrift, 2003a).

This model has the advantage in that it provides recognizable stages in the process

of listening, and thus facilitates research into each of the stages (as in O'Malley,

Chamot, & Kupper, 1989). Nevertheless, as argued by Graham & Macaro (2008, p. 748), ―it is perfectly possible for listeners to start by utilizing fragments of

parsed text and then draw incorrect inferences. In light of the parallel processing

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convincing, recursive model was suggested in which listeners operate within more

than one of the listening stages — an interactive top-down and bottom-up

processing model of listening. Listeners use ―bottom- upprocesses when they use

linguistic knowledge of sounds and word forms and build up to more complex

lexical items and grammatical relationships to interpret the input. Listeners use

bottom-up processes when they construct meaning by accretion, gradually

combining increasingly larger units of meaning from the phoneme-level up to

discourse- level features. Listeners also use ―top-down processes when they

employ familiarity with the listening context and prior knowledge (topic, genre,

culture, and other schema knowledge in long-term memory) to build a conceptual

framework for comprehension. Listeners use content words and contextual clues

to form hypotheses in an exploratory manner.

Listening comprehension is not just top-down or just bottom-up processing, but

an interactive and interpretive process in which listeners use both linguistic

knowledge and prior knowledge to understand messages. In other words, the

listener comes to a listening task with two sets of resources: his/her own linguistic

and schematic knowledge (Rumelhart, 1980) and the information contained in the

actual listening text. Within an interactive model, a listener might begin by

activating his/her schemata as a result of knowing the topic of the text, or of

understanding a few words of the text, and thus perceive, parse and match the

incoming speech stream with the elaborations that he/she previously activated

(Graham & Macaro, 2008). Also, while these processes interact in some form of

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more than the other will depend on their knowledge of the language, familiarity

with the topic or the purpose for listening. Research (e.g., McClelland &

Rumelhart, 1986; O'Malley, Chamot, & Kupper, 1989) on these cognitive

processes suggests that L2 listeners need to learn how to use both processes to

their advantage, depending on their purpose for listening. For example, listening

for gist involves primarily top-down processing, whereas listening for specific

information, as in a weather broadcast, involves primarily bottom-up processing

to comprehend all the details. The above research has also shown that successful

and less successful listener process input quite differently.

Peterson (2001) states that less successful listeners tend to rely primarily on either

top-down or bottom-up processing and spend a great amount of conscious effort

on perceptual activity (e.g., identifying boundaries, recognizing meaningful sound

units) so little is left over for high- level operations (e.g., relating new information

to information stored in long-term memory). In contrast, higher-proficiency

listeners use both top-down and bottom-up processes to understand oral input,

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2.4 Characteristics of Successful and Unsuccessful Learners

Every learner has particular characteristics on how they process their learning and

achieve their goals. In the same line, the things usually done by the learners play

important role on how they can successfully or unsuccessfully get their best

achievement in the academic field. Below are the characteristics of successful

and unsuccessful learners.

Characteristics Successful Unsuccessful

Preparation SSs are prepared. Their

assignments are complete, accurate, and carefully written. They complete their assigned readings, and their attention to details.

The work of USs is often carelessly-prepared, incomplete, inaccurate, inconsistent, late, or not submitted at all. Their obvious lack of preparation..

Curiosity SSs show interest in their classes

and their subject matter. They look up what they don't understand, ask questions, and make thoughtful comments in their classes.

past learning experiences with the present, and use these experiences to help them understand new material. They are willing to learn how to think critically (i.e., to comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information) , and they understand how these skills can benefit them in school and in their future careers.

When USs study, they

concentrate more on memorizing than comprehending. Their idea of studying is to memorize terms

SSs earn above-average grades. They learn from the feedback they receive from their teachers, their performance increases steadily once they understand what is expected of them.

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2.5 Categories of Learning Strategies

Different researchers might use different taxonomy of language learning

strategies, since there are many classifications of language learning strategies

proposed. Oxford (1990:8) states that learning strategy is specific actions taken by

the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed,

more effective and more transferrable to new situations. It means that to know the learners’ successful in target learning, it can be observed by their strategies

because by using strategies their teaching learning activity become easier, faster

and more enjoyable. Besides, students can use the strategies in any situations.

Many researchers classify the learning strategy into four categorizations, namely

cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, social strategies, and affective

strategies (Naiman, dkk., 1978; O'Malley dan Chamot, 1990; ) 1990; Oxford,

1990). Cognitive strategies relate to the learners’ thinking in processing English materials. Metacognitive strategies relate to the learner’s way in facing and processing the english materials. Social strategies relate to how the learners and their

friends work together to reach the learning goal. And affective strategies relate to the

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2.5.1 Rubin’s Classification of Learning Strategies

First classification of learning strategy was proposed by Rubin. Rubin (1975:45-8)

classifies language learning strategies into seven categories of good (successful) language learners’ use in learning language skill, they are:

1. The good language learner is a willing and accurate guesser.

2. The good learner has a strong drive to communicate, or to learn from a

communication.

3. The good learner is often not inhibited; he is willing to appear foolish if

reasonable communication results.

4. The good language learner is constantly looking for patterns in the language.

5. The good language learner practices.

6. The good language learner monitors his own and the speech of others.

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2.5.2 Naiman’s Classification of learning strategies

The second classification of learning strategy was proposed by Naiman et al.

Similar to Rubin‟s study, the study of Naiman et al. (1978) also focused on the

strategies of successful language learners used in learning a second language

categorized into five common strategies. The strategies are:

1. The active task approach,

2. The realization of language as a system,

3. The realization of language as a means of communication and interaction

4. Management of affective demands,

5. Monitoring of L2 performance.

Based on the description above, it can be inferred that the good learners have their

own strategies in mastering the skill that they want to achieve. Green and Oxford

(1995) define strategies as a specific actions or techniques that students use to

improve their progress in developing L2 skills. By using proper strategies,

students know what they are doing and what they are supposed to do in the

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2.5.3 Fillmore’s Classification of Learning Strategies

The third classification of learning strategy was proposed by Fillmore. Fillmore

(1979) classifies language learning strategies under two categories, the first

category was called social strategy and the second was called cognitive strategy.

In general, different studies have uncovered different findings. It can be argued

that the different studies of language learning strategies have revealed what

language learners do to acquire a foreign language (Setiyadi, 2011:19).

2.5.4 O’ Malley’s Classification of Learning Strategies

O'Malley et al. (1985:582-584) divide language learning strategies into three main

subcategories namely metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and social

strategies.

Metacognitive is a term to express executive function, strategies which require

planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place,

monitoring of one's production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an

activity is completed. Among the main metacognitive strategies, it is possible to

include advance organizers, directed attention, selective attention,

management, functional planning, monitoring, delayed production,

self-evaluation.

Besides metacognitive strategies, there is other strategy called cognitive

strategies. Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and they

involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself. Repetition,

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auditory representation, key word, contextualization, elaboration, transfer,

inferencing are among the most important cognitive strategies.

The last strategies proposed by O’Malley is socioaffective strategies. As to the

socio-affective strategies, it can be stated that they are related with

social-mediating activity and transacting with others. Cooperation and question for

clarification are the main socio-affective strategies (Brown 1987:93-94)

2.5.5 Oxford.’s Classification of Learning Strategies

Besides those experts in classifying language learning strategies, the next

classification of learning strategies was discovered by Oxford.

Firstly, Oxford (1990) divides the learning strategy into two categorizations,

namely direct and indirect strategy. Then the categorizations are classified again

in details, direct strategy is divided to memory strategies, cognitive strategy, and

compensation strategy; while indirect strategy is divide to metacognitive strategy,

social strategy, and affective strategy. Therefore, there are 6 broad learning

strategy categories by Oxford, namely memory strategy, cognitive strategy,

compensation strategy, metacognitive strategy, social strategy, and affective

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Figure 1. Oxford’s LLS Taxonomy (1990a)

a. Memory Strategy

Memory strategy is used by the learners by using their experience and knowledge

that they had before, such as grouping, imagery, rhyming, and structured

reviewing. This strategy use memory most, for example the learners repeat the

lesson that they had at school before, including the sound that they heard before or

the movement thet they ever seen before.

b. Cognitive Strategy

Cognitive strategy is the whole learners‟ actions in teaching learning process

relate to the use of learners‟ tthinking capacity. This strategy can be formed as

activities such as reasoning, analyzing, summarizing (all reflective of deep

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c. Compensation Strategy

Compensation strategy is used by the learners who have a very high skill. This

strategy is usually used to compensate for limited knowledge, such as guessing

meanings for the context in reading and listening and using synonyms and gestures to

convey meaning when the precise expression is not known.

d. Metacognitive Strategy

Metacognitive strategy is learners‟ actions that relate to the ways of they face and

process the teaching learning materials, such as paying

attention,consciouslysearching for practice opportunities, planning for language

tasks, self-evaluating one‟s progress, and monitoring error.

e. Affective Strategy

Affective of emotional,motivation-related strategy is the strategy which relate to

the attitude and the feeling in facing the teaching learning english process, such as

anxiety reduction, self-encouragement, and self-reward.

f. Social Strategy

Social strategy is the strategy which relates to how the learners and their friends

work together to reach the learning goal, such as asking questions, cooperating

with natives peakers of the language, and becoming culturally aware.

Based on the taxonomies above, all the learning strategies classifications cover more or less the same classification. Thus, the researcher will use the O’ Malley et

al’s (1985) study since the researcher has found on Setiyadi‟s book (2011:26). In

the book, it is stated that there are three main categories of language learning

strategies which are used in Indonesia. The three categories are cognitive,

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study. Therefore, the researcher assumes that it is better to analyze the three main

categories in students’listening ability for Indonesia students especially the

sample on this research. Those classifications are considered as the effective

learning strategies in listening.

2.6. Learning Strategies in Listening

There are many strategies that students can use to promote their language skills. In

listening skill, it was found that there are several learning strategies which can be

used by the students. Considering the focused strategy in this study, the research

will analyze the cognitive, metacognitive and social strategy as the students’

strategies in practicing listening in order to increase their listening achievement.

O’ Malley introduced categories that involved self awareness. In O’ Malley et

al’s study (1985) the classification consists of three categories, namely:

metacognitive strategy, cognitive strategy, and social strategy.

1. Metacognitive Strategy

In practicing listening skill, sometimes students relate their prior knowledge to

what they will hear. In order to monitor before they want to listen something, they

need metacognitive strategy. Oxford (1990a) states that metacognitive strategies

include: centering learning, arranging and planning learning, and evaluating

learning.

In Zakin’s study (2007) of metacognitive strategies, students are taught to

recognize the strengths and weaknesses of their own thinking processes and how

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comments as, “OK, here is where Iusually make the mistake of…” “What is the

question I need to ask myself here?” and, “I know I often confuse….with ….., so I

need to go slow now.” Once students feel comfortable with general questioning

techniques as well as those that address their specific difficulties, they would

engage in partner and small group sharing, scaffolding their peers in

self-questioning techniques tailored to individual needs. Ongoing metacognitive

training assisted by inner speech would enable students to internalize the

self-guiding, self-monitoring, and self-correcting skills required for complex problem

solving.

O’Malley and Chamot’s study (1985) as cited in Setiyadi (2011:15-16) say

that this strategy relates to the awareness of learning, it requires planning for

learning, thinking about the learning place, monitoring of one’s production of comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed.

Metacognitive strategies allow learners to control their own learning through

organizing, planning and evaluation and are employed for managing the learning

process overall.

2. Cognitive Strategy

A cognitive strategy is all activities that take place in the brain in order to acquire

a foreign language. In O’ Malley and Chamot’s study (1990) it clarified that

cognitive strategy include: rehearsal, organization, inferencing, summarizing,

deducing, imagery, transfer and elaboration. Cognitive strategy refers to all the

mental process, except processes that involve self-monitoring and self evaluating,

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The word cognitive means thought. So, “cognitive styles” refers to thought

patterns. Studies of cognitive styles suggest that people fall into open-minded and

closed-minded categories. Cognitive strategies enable the learner to understand

and produce new language.

- Practicing (for example, using formulas and patterns).

- Receiving and sending messages (for example, focusing on the main idea of a

message and outlining).

- Analyzing and reasoning (for example, analyzing expressions).

- Creating structure for input and output (for example, taking notes).

3. Social Strategy

In social strategy, students have to work with other language learners to obtain

feedback and information (cooperation). Besides, they are questioning for

clarification and self talk. Stratton and Hays (1988) states social strategy is the

nature of social interaction, how people come to influence one another’s behavior.

Social strategy is the way that students use towards their learning process that take

place in groups. Social strategy includes asking questions, cooperating with

others, and empathizing with others. Social strategies will help learners work with

and interact with other people. Asking questions (for example, asking for

clarification or verification of a confusing point), talking with a native-speaking

conversation partner, and) help the learner work with, cooperating with others (for

example, asking for help in doing a language task) and empathizing with others

(for example, developing cultural understanding and exploring cultural and social

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Social strategy includes joining a group and acts as if you understand what is

going on, give the impression with a few well chosen words that you speak the

language, and count on your friends for help (Fillmore, 1979).

2.7 The Frequency of Using Learning Strategies

In this study, students’ frequency of using learning strategies relates to amount as

of how frequent they use learning strategies will be shown by the total score of the

questionnaire. Students’ frequency of using learning strategies will become one of

the concerns of this research, because there is an assumption said that when

students use a great number of learning strategies, more proficient they will be.

In this study, students’frequency of using learning strategies will be measured by

questionnaire. The questionnaire is developed by using Likert-Scale, in which it

provides the students with these following optional answers:

1 = Never or almost never true of me. 2 = Usually not true of me.

3 = Somewhat true of me. 4 = Usually true of me.

5 = Always and almost always true of me.

The questionnaire is used to identify students’ strategies in learning speaking.

There are five chosen where 1 means never or almost never true of me; 2 means

usually not true of me; 3 somewhat true of me; 4 means usually true of me and 5

means always or almost true of me.

Students’ listening ability and learning strategies should be correlated because

using appropriate language learning strategies often results in improved

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Thompson & Rubin, 1993). Besides that, the successful language learners tend to

select strategies that work well together in a highly orchestrated way, tailored to

the requirements of the language task (Chamot & Kupper, 1989). These learners

can easily explain the strategies they use and why they employ them (O'Malley &

Chamot, 1990).

Another study states that in speaking ability, cognitive (e.g., translating,

analyzing) and metacognitive (e.g., planning, organizing) strategies are often used

together, supporting each other (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990).

2.8 Review of the Related Research

Language Proficiency and Language Learning Strategies Use

Many studies showed the relationship between language learning strategies and

language proficiency, and Juan Zhao (2004) found the result that there was a

positive correlation was found between the use of language learning strategies and

the English proficiency, which were indicated by students’ grades and

self-efficacy. The students were medium users of overall strategies, Compensation

Strategy was the most frequently used, and Memory Strategy category was the

least used. Another prove was shown in Candradewi’s study. Based on Candradewi’s study (2008), there was difference among students who were in the

level of high, medium and low mark in speaking got different score when they

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2.9 Theoritical Assumption

Referring to several literatures that have been discussed above, the researcher

assumes that students learning strategies in listening have a great contribution on

the ability of the students in comprehending the information heard in listening

process. As the first step of acquiring language, students have to be able to get the

message or the idea of the text heard. The researcher assumes that students’

learning strategies can be one of the best approach in getting new information and

knowledge in achieving the learning objectives. Thus, students have to use their

strategies in listening. There are many strategies that students can use for

increasing their ability in listening. Even so, many students of all ages seem

relatively uninformed about effective learning strategies (Barnett, 2001; Pintrich

& De Groot, 1990; Prawat, 1989; Schommer, 1994a).

As O’ Malley et all’s (1985) who categorized learning strategies into three

classification, namely: metacognitive strategy, cognitive strategy, and social

strategy, the researcher will use the O’ Malley et al’s (1985) study since the

researcher has found on Setiyadi‟s book (2011:26). In the book, it is stated that

there are three main categories of language learning strategies which are used in

Indonesia. The three categories are cognitive, metacognitive and social strategy. The classification supports O’ Malley et al’s study, thus, the researcher will

classify the student’s in three categories above by using the questionnaire

proposed by Setiyadi called Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (LLSQ).

Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result. When something is

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deep, vivid impression (Wikipedia). The researcher wants to find out which is the

most effective learning strategy in listening. In order to know that, after

classifying the students into the three different strategies the researcher analyze

their listening achievement. Furthermore separate them in two groups, successful

and unsuccessful learners.

From those frame theories above, the researcher came to the assumption that there

will be a significant difference between successful and unsuccessful learners in

the three group of learning strategies after comparing the means of their listening

achievement. But, the most effective learning strategy will be the one with no

significant difference. Because from the frame theory above, the researcher also

came into assumption that the most effective learning strategy will be the most

easy to apply in the learning process, no matter how vary the level of the learners

are. Learning strategy which has the most insignificance difference will tell us

clearly that the listening achievements between two groups (High and Low) are

both giving a satisfying result, with insignificance difference.

2.10 Hypothesis

Based on the frame of theory and the main theoretical assumption mentioned

above, the researcher would like to formulate the hypothesis that the difference

between successful and unsuccessful learners in three different learning strategies

of English listening comprehension ability may vary, with the one which has the

most insignificant difference as the most effective learning strategy in listening

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III. RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter illustrates how the research was implemented; what design of the

research is, who the population and the sample are, and how the data were

collected. It also covers the validity and realibility of the instrument, scoring

system, research procedures, data analysis, and hypothesis testing.

3.1Research Design

This research is quantitative by design. The writer used ex post facto design. In

this research, the researcher used Independent t-test study, which is one of the

kinds of ex-post facto design. The t- test is probably the most widely used

statistical test for the comparison of two means. The t-test is used to compare

means between two different groups and is taken in a different

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The design of this research could be decribed as follows:

X1 : Metacognitive Strategies’ achievement

X2 : Cognitive Strategies’ achievement

X3 : Social Strategies’ achievement

Y1 : Successful learners

Y2 : Unsuccessful learners

(Primary Data)

Meanwhile, in the data collecting, the researcher gave a listening test first in order

to see the students’ listening comprehension ability. Having done the listening

test, the students were distributed the questionnaire in order to know the learning

strategies employed by the language learners in listening comprehension and for

grouping them. Then, the researcher grouped the learners again into successful

and unsuccessful learners from their listening achievement and compared the

mean among all variables. X3

Y1

Y2

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3.2Population and Sample

3.2.1 Population

The population of this research is the second grade of SMA Negeri 14 Bandar

Lampung in academic year 2013/2014. There are six classes of the second grade

in that school. The number of the students of each class is about 36 students.

3.2.2 Sample

The sample was taken through probability sampling by using simple random

sampling, where every individual in population has a chance to be chosen as

sample. For this research, the researcher chose one class by using these

procedures :

- The researcher collected the data based on the students’ list.

- The researcher wrote down the six names of the classes in the rolled papers and

put it into a bottle.

- The bottle was shaken and poured until one rolled paper came out.

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3.3 Data Collecting Technique

To collect the data, the researcher uses the following techniques:

1. Administering the listening test

Listening test is one of objective tests that is used to measure students’ listening

comprehension. Listening comprehension test consists of 40 items, with four

options each (A, B, C,and D)

2. Administering the questionnaire

The questionnaire is a list of statements and questions that are to be answered

by the students to measure students’ use of learning strategies in listening

comprehension.

3.4Research Instrument

In this present study, the researcher used two kinds of research instruments. They

are language questionnaire and listening test. Research instrument is necessary

and play important role in a research. Research instrumentis the generic term that

researchers use for a measurement device . Below is the discussion about the

questionnaire and listening test used in this present study.

3.4.1 The Questionnaire

The first instrument used in this research is the questionnaire. Since this study concerns on the students’learning strategies in listening, the researcher used Language

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20 items where each of them refers to cognitive strategies, metacognitive

strategies, and social strategies. Items 1-11aremetacognitive strategies, 12-18are

cognitive strategies, and 19-20 are social strategies. The Likert Scale was used by

the researcher in this research where each item has five alternative answers started

from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

Below is the list of statements dealing with the alternative scored:

1 = never or almost never true of me;

1. I try to guess what somebody is saying by using grammatical rules.

2. I learn English by watching English TV programs.

3. I learn English by listening to English songs or other listening

7. I concentrate on the grammar rather than on a communication.

8. I try to understand the idea by referring to previous experiences I have had.

9. I try to guess by using a word(s) that is familiar to me.

10. In Listening, I take notes to remember ideas.

11. I try to understand every individual word to understand the passage.

12. I listen to what I say to practice my listening skill.

13. Before practicing my listening skill, I prepare a topic, pronunciation or grammatical rules which give me the greatest trouble.

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15. After a listening practice, I check and recheck my understanding.

16. I correct the mistake that I produce orally.

17. I try to be aware of which sounds give the greatest trouble. In this way I can pay special attention to them while I listen and practice. 18. If I cannot understand what somebody is saying, I ask him/her to

slow down or say it again.

19. Listening to what somebody is saying improves my listening skill.

20. In a group discussion, my listening skill is improved.

Adapted from Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire (LLSQ) proposed by Setiyadi 3.4.2. Listening Test

The second instrument is listening test. It is a series of questions that was given to

the students in order to measure the students’ listening ability in understanding the

text they would hear.

3.5 Criteria of Good Test

In this research, to prove whether the test has good quality, it must be tried out

first. A listening test will be said have a good quality if it has good validity,

reliability, level of difficulty and discrimination power. The students’ strategies

questionnaire could also be called as a good test if it has good validity and

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3.6Validity of the Instrument

Validityis the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to

measure and performs as it is designed to perform. It is rare, if nearly impossible,

that an instrument be 100% valid, so validity is generally measured in degrees. As

a process, validation involves collecting and analyzing data to assess the accuracy

of an instrument. There are numerous statistical tests and measures to assess the

validity of quantitative instruments. The discussion below focuses on content and

construct validity of the two instruments; the questionnaire and the listening test.

3.6.1 The Validity of the Questionnaire

The validity of questionnaire is also measured to find if the components are

proportionally suitable and related to the relevant theories of students’ learning

strategies. According to Hatch and Farhady (1978) there are least two validity

should be fulfilled; content and construct validity. Since the questionnaire was

adopted from LLSQ constructed by Setiyadi, the researcher considered that the

construct validity of the questionnaire has been standardized. Therefore the

researcher measured the content validity only. The following table described the

aspects of learning strategies used by the L2 students based in listening developed

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Table 1. Specification Table of Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire

Aspects of Questionnaire Number of items

Metacognitive strategies 1-11

Cognitive strategies 12-17

Social strategies 18-20

It can be seen from the table above that all the aspects oflearning strategies

inlistening relate to the theories of learning strategies classification

(metacognitive, cognitive, and social strategies). The construct and content

validity of this questionnaire was proved since the researcher had asked three

raters to analyze each indicator.

3.6.2 The Validity of the Listening Test

Validity is a matter of relevance; it means that the test measures what is claimed

to measure. To measure whether the test has a good validity, it can be analyzed

from its content validity and construct validity. Content validity is concerned

whether the test is sufficiently representative for the rest of test or not. While

construct validity focuses on the relationship between indicators within the test.

Table 2 : Specification of Listening Test

No. Macro aspects of listening Item Percentage 1 Determing main idea 5 12.5 % 2 Finding specific information 15 37.5%

3 Inference 10 25 %

4 Vocabulary 10 25%

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Since the writer put focus on macro skills, the item test would be the macro

aspects of listening which consists of determining main idea, finding specific

information, inference, and vocabulary. Those macro skills aspect were classified

by Brown (2007).

3.7 The Reliability of the Instruments

Reliability can be called as a consistency. A good instrument is an instrument

which consistently measures what it is intended to measure. In other words, a

good instrument should have a good reliability. It is not possible to calculate

reliability; however, there are four general estimators can be used in the research.

a.Inter-Rater/Observer Reliability: The degree to which different raters/observers give consistent answers or estimates.

b.Test-Retest Reliability: The consistency of a measure evaluated over time.

c.Parallel-Forms Reliability: The reliability of two tests constructed the same way, from the same content.

d.Internal Consistency Reliability: The consistency of results across items, often measured with Cronbach’s Alpha.

Figur

Figure 1. Oxford’s LLS Taxonomy (1990a)

Figure 1.

Oxford’s LLS Taxonomy (1990a) p.41
Table 1. Specification Table of Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire

Table 1.

Specification Table of Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire p.57
Table 2 : Specification of Listening Test

Table 2 :

Specification of Listening Test p.57

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