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STRATEGIES USED IN TEACHING WRITING AT SMK

MUHAMMADIYAH 1 MALANG

THESIS

By:

SITI NURHOLELA

09360226

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

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STRATEGIES USED IN TEACHING WRITING AT SMK

MUHAMMADIYAH 1 MALANG

THESIS

By:

SITI NURHOLELA

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

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STRATEGIES USED IN TEACHING WRITING AT SMK

MUHAMMADIYAH 1 MALANG

THESIS

This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve

Sarjana Degree in English Education

By:

SITI NURHOLELA

09360226

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

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MOTTO AND DEDICATION

|Respect Yourself First And Respect Others| Siti Nurholela

|The past cannot be changed. The future is yet in your power |

Mary Pickford

|Light tomorrow with today|

Elizabeth Barrett Browning

DEDICATION:

I dedicated this thesis to:

My beloved and wonderful late father and mother,

My friends,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.1 Background of Study ... 1

1.2 Statement of Problem ... 5

1.3 Purpose of Study ... 6

1.4 Significance of Study ... 6

1.5 Scope and Limitation ... 7

1.6 Definition of Key Terms ... 7

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 The Teaching of Writing ... 8

2.2 The Stage in Teaching Writing ... 10

2.2.1 Prewriting (Planning) ... 11

2.2.2 Drafting ... 11

2.2.3 Editing (Relecting and Revising) ... 12

2.2.4 Final Version ... 12

2.3 Strategy of Teaching Writing... 13

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2.3.2 Modelling ... 13

2.3.3 Scaffold Students Learning of Strategy ... 14

2.3.4 Repeated Practice and Reinforcement ... 14

2.4 The Problems in Implementing the Strategy ... 15

2.5 Problems Solving Strategies ... 15

A. Understand the Problems ... 16

B. Devising a Plan... 16

C. Carriying Out the Plan... 17

D. Looking back... 17

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Research Findings ... 23

4.1.1 Strategies Used By the Teacher in Teaching Writing ... 23

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c. Post Activity...28

4.1.1.3 Repeated Practice and Reinforcement Strategy...28

a. Pre Activity...28

b. Whils Activity...29

c. Post Activity...30

4.1.2 The Teacher s Problems in Implementing the Strategies in Teaching Writing... 30

4.1.2.1 Limited Facilities ... 30

4.1.2.2 Big Size of Class ... 30

4.1.6 TheTeacher s Solutions to the Problems in Using Strategies in Teaching Writing ... 31

4.2 Discussion ... 32

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusion ... 35

5.2 Suggestion ... 36

5.2.1 For English Teacher... ... 36

5.2.2 For Headmasters... 37

5.2.3 For The Next Reseachers...37

REFERENCES... 38

APPENDICES Appendix I: Interview Transcript... 39

Appendix II: First Observation ... 42

Appendix III: Second Observation ... 47

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REFERENCES

Akyuni, Kurata. 2007. The Teaching Strategies Used By The Teacher In Teaching English At SDN Dinoyo 1 Malang. Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan. Fakultas keguruan dan ilmu pendidikan. Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

Kurniastuti, Hertina. 2008.The Problems Faced By The Teacher In teaching Writing II To The Fourth Semester Students Of English Department Of The University Of Muhammadiyah Malang.Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan. Fakultas keguruan dan ilmu pendidikan. Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

Putri, Ika Suci. 2010. Employing Responses Journal Writing Strategy To Improve Students Writing Skill At The Second Year Of SMPN 2 Batu. Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan. Fakultas keguruan dan ilmu pendidikan. Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

Rahayu, Ika Septiani. 2009. An Analisys Of Erin Gruwell Taching Writing Strategies Found In The Freedom Writer Diary Novel. Skripsi tidak dipublikasikan. Fakultas keguruan dan ilmu pendidikan. Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

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1 ✘ ✒✏✎✑✖✕quirement for participation in civic life and in the global economy.

Students learn to write by writing. They need regular opportunities at school

to write in all subjects. A consistent approach to the writing process in all subject

areas and explicit intruction on the writing process by the subject teacher help

students become better writers (Graham, 2007 in putri 2010). According to Perin

(2007 in Putri 2010):

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Rahmah (2007 in Rahayu 2009) states that writing is not only a matter of

putting ideas in a written form but also organizing words and grammar structure and

selecting the appropriate diction in order to make the writing more meaningful. Most

students are confused when they begin to write. They might take much time to write

their ideas, as well as focus primarily on surface level aspects of writing, struggling

with form over meaning (Gebhard, 1996:235 in Rahayu 2009) . So, as a writer it is

important to improve and develop the ability in writing skill. As the civilization of

human being develops, however, writing has become more and more important in

communication. To help students write, the teacher should be more creative to find

out appropriate techniques and strategies in teaching writing.

It is incredibly easier to read something than it is to write in a foreign

language. In order to read, all people really need is a decent vocabulary and a basic

sense of grammar. The writers need to choose the words and phrases and somehow

put them all in a good order. Since writing is much more difficult, most learners do

not practice it as much as they should. Developing Many approaches and methods are

available to be suited and used as the basic for teaching and learning in language

class. The strategies rooted from those approaches and methods are abundantly

varied. Lots of variations and techniques can be applied to reach the learning

objectives. The learning objectives are the basic for the decision of what approach,

method, and strategy that is going to be used in the process of teaching and learning.

Therefore, teacher should consider the goals that she wants the students to reach.

Decision of which approach and method that will be used as the basis for using a

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Developing teaching writing strategies is a must for the teachers in order to

make the students easy in learning the material. The strategies may help the students

enjoy the teaching and learning process. Caswell and Mahler (1998 in Rahayu 2009)

said that strategies for teaching writing need action tools in order to make writing in

the classroom manageable. The tools provide a step-by-step approach to teaching the

writing process. The tools include complete how-to-use instructions, suggestions,

classroom examples and cross-curricular activities. Using the tools, teachers can grant

students time to write, to process their thoughts and develop a way to analyze their

thinking using cognitive reasoning instead of impromtu thought. The action tools also

provide teachers with assessment strategies to assess students participation and

progress at each stage of the writing process.

Vocational school as a special school that teaches the students the skills

needed to perform a particular job has long been the attention of the government. In

Indonesia, vocational education is recognized in secondary program of education that

is SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan). A demand on more specialized labors that

have higher level of skills triggers government of Indonesia to increasingly encourage

and invest in the future of vocational education through public vocational schools that

perform international standard. Therefore, English which has been the first

requirement to join the work field has to be mastered by the students.

The goal of teaching English to the Nursing students of SMK Muhammadiyah

1 Malang is to develop a communicative ability in English which involves the four

skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. In fact, the students have difficulties

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and other constraints they face during the teaching and learning process. And they get

the English lesson just in the school without trying to use English in their daily

activities. So, the teacher tries to explain the material step by step. It may be done by

selecting proper materials for the students. The teaching-learning programs may be

useless if it is not done properly. Teachers should select the materials that are relevant

to the students needs and interests.

In this research, the researcher focuses on the teaching-learning process of

writing in English for vocational school of SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang for the

Nursing students in order to provide a description or explanation about the teacher

and students behaviour in the teaching and learning process of writing. Based on the

writer s preliminary observation, it was found out that generally the students of SMK

Muhammadiyah 1 Malang have a great potential in English, but most of them have

the same opinion that studying English is very difficult because they have limited

knowledge about English vocabulary. Based on this condition, the English teachers

of SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang try to use better strategies in teaching English in

order to build the enthusiasm of the students.

Based on the researcher s preliminary interview, one of the English teachers

of SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang said that there were several problems that the

teacher faced during teaching English process, such as the students had low grade in

English and limited teaching learning activities. Besides, the curriculum contained

too many materials, while the teaching media were not provided. The students also

faced the linguistic problems such as the difficulty in using correct grammar and in

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atmosphere was not good, the facility was not enough, the students did not like

English, and the teaching method was not interesting.

It is also conducted by Putri (2010), in her thesis Employing Response

Journal Writing Strategy To Improve Students Writing Skill At The Second Year Of

SMPN 2 Batu only discuss about the strategy of journal writing, the writer just focus

on the one strategy to improve writing skill at the second year. The result of this

study is that the journal writing strategy can improve the students writing skill.

There is differences between the previous thesis above that is, in preivious

thesis the writer only investigating the teachers attitudes towards writing practice and

also just focus on one strategy. In this thesis the writer expalin about the strategies in

teaching writing, the teacher s problems in implementing the strategies in teaching

writing, and the solution to the problem in implementing the strategies.

Based on the explanation above the writer is interested in conducting a

research entitled STRATEGIES USED IN TEACHING WRITING AT SMK

MUHAMMADIYAH 1 MALANG . This study is expected to be meaningful in

giving information and description of the teaching writing strategy.

✳✴✵✶✷✸✷ ✹✺✹ ✻✷ ✼✽ ✾✷✿✹❀❁✽ ❂❃✹✺ ✼

Based on the background of the study presented above, this thesis study tries

to answer the following questions:

1) What strategies does the teacher use in teaching writing at SMK

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2) What are the teacher s problems in implementing the strategies of teaching

writing at SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang?

3) How does the teacher solve the problems in using strategies in teaching

writing at SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang?

❄❅❆❇ ❈❉❊ ❋● ❉❍■❏❑ ❉▲▼■ ❈❉◆ ■❖P◗

This study has some purposes as follows:

1) To describe the strategies used by the teacher in teaching writing at SMK

Muhammadiyah 1 Malang.

2) To describe the teacher s problems in implementing the strategies of

teaching writing at SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang.

3) To describe the teacher s solution of the problems in implementing the

strategies in teaching writing at SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang.

❄❅❘◆ ❏❙ ❚❏▼ ❏❍❯ ❚❍❉▲▼■ ❈❉◆ ■❖P◗

It is expected that the result of this study will be useful for the teacher. By

knowing the kind of strategies in teaching writing, the teacher will be able to choose

and determine the best strategy to teach writing to their students in order that the goal

of teaching writing will be reached. Second, the result of this study is expected to

give contribution to the students in order that they know the best strategy in their

process of learning writing and to encourage them to improve their competence.

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additional important information to investigate and analyze the other aspects of the

strategy in teaching writing.

❱❲❳❨❩❬ ❭❪❫❴❵❛ ❜❝ ❜❞❡❞❜❬ ❴

In this study the reseacher focuses on the use of strategies in teaching writing.

This study is limited to one English teacher who teaches nursing students in the

eleven grade at SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Malang.

❱❲❢❣❪❤❜❴❜❞ ❜❬❴❬❤❞✐❪❥❪❦❧❪♠❝♥

In order to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation the writer presents

some definition of the terms used in this study:

Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn,

setting the condition for learning (Brown 2007:7 in Putri 2010). In this study,

teaching is the teachers activities in guiding and facilitating the students in learning

writing.

Writing is drafting to give ideas shape and form in the symbols of written

language (Olson 1992 in Putri 2010). In this study writing is the activities of pouring

the ideas in the word form.

Teaching strategy refers to the teacher's teaching stlye, what and how

the teachers instruction should aim to include all types of learners (Marcella 2007 in

Putri 2010). In this study, teaching strategy is the teacher's own way of trying their

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