Improving Students' Reading Comprehension of Report Text through SQ3R Technique (A Classroom Action Research at the Eleventh Grade Students of SMAN 1 Parung))

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(A Classroom Action Research at the Eleventh Grade Students of SMAN 1 Parung in 2016/2017 Academic Year)

A “Skripsi”

Presented to the Faculty of Educational Sciences in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of S.Pd. (S-1)

in English Education

Akira Puteri






In the name of Allah, the Beneficent and the Merciful

All praises be to Allah, the Lord of the world, who has given the writer His mercy, guidance and strength to finish this research paper. Peace and salutation be upon to the prophet Muhammad, his family, his companions, as well as his followers.

In this occasion, the writer would like to express her greatest appreciation, honor, and gratitude to her beloved parents for all support, motivation and guidance during doing this research.

Secondly, the writer would like to address her thank and great gratitude to the advisors, Nasifudin Jalil, M.Ag. and Devi Yusnita, M.Pd. for the valuable advice, suggestion, comment and support during conducting this research.

Thirdly, the writer thought that she would never finish this research paper without their supports and helps. Therefore, her sincere gratitude also goes to:

1. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Thib Raya, M.A., as the Dean of the Faculty of Educational Sciences.

2. Dr. Alek, M.Pd., as the Head of Department of English Education.

3. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., as the Secretary of Department of English Education.

4. Ikhwan Setiawan, S.Pd., as the Headmaster of SMAN 1 Parung for giving permission to the writer to conduct the research.

5. H. Badrudin, S.Pd., as the English Teacher of SMAN 1 Parung, for all sincere help, time and guidance.

6. The students of XI IPS 1who are willing to contribute their effort during this research.



the writer’s life during the study in university.

9. All members of Barbar family; Fadhilah Nur Rohmah, Ummi Nurul Hasanah, Desrinna Noer Lailitsani, Inten Mujizat, Siti Nur Solikha, Nur Millah Mutsliah, Rizxi Amaliyah, Syara Shidrati and Iyan Cahriyani who always support the writer to finish this research.

9. All of people, whose name cannot be mentioned for their contribution to the writer during finishing this research.

Finally, the writer admits that her writing is still far from being perfect. Therefore, she hopes some suggestion and constructive critique from the reader for this better research paper. Hopefully, this research paper will be useful not only for the writer, but also for the reader.

Ciputat, Oktober 10th, 2016 The Writer



AKIRA PUTERI (1112014000006), Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension of Report Text through SQ3R Technique (A Classroom Action Research at the Eleventh Grade Students of SMAN 1 Parung in 2016/2017 Academic Year), Skripsi”, Department of English Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2016.

Keywords : SQ3R Technique, Reading Comprehension



AKIRA PUTERI (1112014000006), Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension of Report Text through SQ3R Technique (A Classroom Action Research at the

Eleventh Grade Students of SMAN 1 Parung in 2016/2017 Academic Year), Skripsi, Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2016.

Kata Kunci : Teknik SQ3R, Pemahaman Membaca







ABSTRACT ... vii

ABSTRAK ... viii






A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Identification of the Problem ... 4

C. Research Focus ... 4

D. Research Questions ... 4

E. Objective of the Study ... 4

F. Significances of the Study ... 5


A. Reading ... 6

1. Definition of Reading ... 6



4. Reading Activities ... 9

5. Teaching Reading ... 10

B. SQ3R Technique ... 11

1. Definition of SQ3R Technique ... 11

2. The Steps of SQ3R Technique ... 11

3. The Advantages of Using SQ3R Technique ... 14

4. The Disadvantages of Using SQ3R Technique ... 14

C. Report Text ... 14

1. Definition of Report Text ... 14

2. Purposes of Report Text ... 15

3. The Generic Structure of Report Text ... 15

D. The Previous Study ... 17

E. Thinking Framework ... 18


A. The Place and Time of the Study ... 20

B. The Method and Design of the Study ... 21

C. The Subject of the Study ... 21

D. The Writer’s Role on the Study ... 22

E. The Research Procedure ... 22

F. The Technique of Data Collecting ... 24

G. The Technique of Data Analysis ... 25

H. Trustworthiness ... 27




A. Research Finding ... 28

1. Pre-Implementing the Action ... 28

2. The Implementation of Classroom Action Research ... 32

3. Post-Implementing the Action ... 42

B. Research Interpretation ... 49

1. Pre-Implementing the Action ... 49

2. The Implementation of Classroom Action Research ... 50

3. Post-Implementing the Action ... 52


A. Conclusion ... 54

B. Suggestion ... 55






Table 3.1 The Schedule of the Study ... 20

Table 4.1 Students’ Score in Pre-Action Test ... 31

Table 4.2 The Comparison Scores of Pre-Action Test, Post-Action Test 1 and Post-Action Test 2 ... 47




Figures 3.1 Kurt Lewin’s Classroom Action Research Design ... 21

Figures 4.1 The Percentage of Successful and Unsuccessful Students Passing the KKM ... 45

Figures 4.2 The Students’ Score Improvement ... 47




Appendix 1 Syllabus ... 59

Appendix 2 Classroom Observation Checklist ... 80

Appendix 3 Transcription of Classroom Observation ... 82

Appendix 4 Interview Guidelines Before and After CAR) ... 88

Appendix 5 Interview Transcript ... 92

Appendix 6 Examples of Report text ... 100

Appendix 7 Pre-Test ... 105

Appendix 8 Post-Test 1 ... 106

Appendix 9 Post-Test 2 ... 107

Appendix 10 SQ3R Worksheet ... 108

Appendix 11 SQ3R Scoring Rubric ... 110

Appendix 12 Students’ Score ... 112

Appendix 13 Lesson Plan ... 115

Appendix 14 Surat Bimbingan Skripsi ... 123

Appendix 15 Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian ... 124

Appendix 16 Surat Keterangan Pelaksanaan Penelitian ... 125

Appendix 17 References Examination Paper ... 126


1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study

In Indonesia, the growing demand of English as International language is high, it is reasonable that Indonesian government places English as a crucial subject in education system. Therefore, English is learnt as a local-content subject for elementary school, and as a compulsory subject for secondary school. There are many objectives of teaching English subject stated both in school-based curriculum (KTSP) and 2013 curriculum. One of the objectives is that students are able to communicate using the language in written and oral forms in the four basic language skills: listening, speaking, writing, and reading.

Reading is one of the basic language skills that the students need to develop in learning English. The ability to read in English becomes one of the important requirements for those who need to update their knowledge about everything, as a lot of media present information in English. Therefore, having a good reading skill is a must for the students nowadays. In addition, in the syllabus 2013 curriculum, reading skill is also determined as one of basic competencies in English lesson. For the eleventh grade students, they have to comprehend the content of various types of text, such as procedure, exposition, biography, and report.

Report text is one of types of text that the students have to comprehend. It is stated in English syllabus of eleventh grade point 3.9 and 4.14. “Analyzing text structure and linguistic features to conduct social function of report text by telling and asking about short and simple factual report text of people, animals, things, natural and social phenomenon, related to another lesson in grade 11” and “Comprehending oral, written and simple factual report text of people, animals, things, natural and social phenomenon, related to another lesson in grade 11”.1

However, students often have barriers to comprehend the report text they read.



There are some barriers faced by students in reading based on the preliminary study in SMAN 1 Parung. The first factor is lacking of motivation and reading interest. Lacking of interest in reading makes the reader unmotivated to go to the whole text. Therefore, reader’s motivation and interest are an important aspect. In comprehending a text, reader should have those aspects in the content being read. Motivation and reading interest affect how readers read and how successful those reading experiences are.2 The second factor is that the students do not have any sufficient vocabularies that make them difficult to guess the meaning from the text. The more words in a text that students do not know, or the more difficult the vocabulary, the more likely they will not fully comprehend what they have read. The third factor is the low fluency of the student. Inadequate fluency makes the reader difficult in figuring out words of the text that they had read. In addition, their brain cannot attend to the meaning of what they read well.3 In short, there are many barriers faced by the students in learning reading that becomes the teacher’s obligation to decrease these factors.

Teacher has a very important role to improve students’ reading comprehension. As Carbo states that the main goal of reading instruction is comprehension.4 By having good comprehension, students will thoroughly understand the text, remember important parts of what they had read, and can use the knowledge that they gain from reading. Therefore, to gain the main goal of reading instruction, the teacher should have various techniques that could improve the achievement of students’ reading comprehension and also help the students to get their maximum result in reading. In fact, reading techniques help students to become systematic readers, since the techniques can enable the students to select out what is important to remember from the text they read. Regarding to this, teacher should select a suitable technique to teach each material. There are many reading techniques that can be used by the


John S. Hedgcock and Dana R. Ferris, Teaching Readers of English: Students, Texts and Contexts, (New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2009), p. 63.


Marie Carbo, Becoming a Great Teacher of Reading, (United States, Corwin Press, 2007), p.36.



teacher to improve students’ reading comprehension such as Suggestopedia, Pre-questioning, Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R) and so on.

As mentioned above, one of the reading techniques that can be used by the teacher is SQ3R technique. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. The goal of this technique is to increase students’ engagement with the text when studying content material. In comprehending the text using SQ3R technique,

the students not only know how to comprehend but also become more active and more critical in comprehending a text. Besides, the steps in SQ3R technique give numerous exposures to the new material being covered.5

Furthermore, there have been some previous studies which investigated the use of SQ3R technique in teaching reading, for instance, an experimental study conducted by Baier,6 Nurmiasih,7 Silalaho and Siregar.8 Then, the result of those studies revealed that the use of SQ3R technique can help the students to improve their reading comprehension.

Regarding to the explanation above, the writer is interested in using CAR (Classroom Action Research) to apply SQ3R technique in teaching reading. The CAR (Classroom Action Research) used in this study is Kurt Lewin’s design which consists of four phases: planning, acting, observing and reflecting. Hopefully using SQ3R technique can be helpful to solve the students’ problem in reading comprehension. Therefore, the writer is then encouraged to conduct a research entitled “Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension of Report Text through SQ3R Technique (A Classroom Action Research at the Eleventh Grade Students of SMAN


Pamela J. Farris et al, Teaching Reading: A Balanced Approach for Today’s Classrooms, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), p. 356.


Kylie Baier, The Effects of SQ3R on Fifth Grade Students' Comprehension Levels, Thesis, Bowling Green State University, 2011, pp. 1—97.


Suci Nurmiasih, The Effectiveness of SQ3R Technique on Students’ Reading Achievement to the

Eighth Grader at MTs Miftahul ‘Ula Kertosono, (Tulungagung: Perpustakaan Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Tulungagung), 2012, pp. 1—64.


Pranata Royganda Sihaloho and Masitowarni Siregar, The Effect of Applying SQ3R Methods on


1 Parung)”. In addition, the writer chooses the report text in order to differentiate with the previous studies, since those previous studies used expository text.

B. Identification of the Problem

From the background of the study, the problems are highlighted on some points: 1. Students lack of motivation in reading activity.

2. Students have limited number of vocabulary that makes them difficult to comprehend the text.

3. Students have difficulty to get the main idea of report text. 4. Students lack of background knowledge about the text.

5. Teacher uses methods that make students bored in reading activity. It does not increase students’ interest in reading.

C. Research Focus

The limitation of this study focuses on using SQ3R technique to improve students’ reading comprehension at the eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Parung.

D. Research Questions

Based on the background of the limitation above, the problem is formulated as follows:

1. How does SQ3R technique improve students’ reading comprehension at the eleventh grade students of SMAN 1 Parung?

2. To what extent is the improvement level of students’ reading comprehension using SQ3R technique?

E. Objective of the Study


F. The Significances of the Study

This study hopefully can give contribution to students, teachers and other researchers. They are described as follow:

1. For Students

The students can understand the text they read well by applying the technique given in order to improve their reading comprehension.

2. For Teachers

This study can help the teacher to teach reading skill by using new technique which is more interesting.

3. For Other Researchers




1. Definition of Reading

Reading is regarded as an important skill for everyone, because through reading people can have a lot of knowledge, information, pleasure, etc. Moreover, reading becomes an important skill in formal education because through reading, learners’ linguistic competence can be assessed.

Reading is a complex activity because some factors are involved and interrelated to each other. According to Smith, reading is an activity that involves a combination of visual and nonvisual information. Visual information refers something that the reader read through eyes, while nonvisual information refers to something behind the eyes such as knowledge and experience. The more nonvisual information that the reader has, the less visual information the reader needs.1

In addition, reading is a process that involves both comprehension and interpretation of idea in printed language, as Snowling and Hulme state, reading is an informational processing that transforms a printed form into meaning by involving comprehension.2 Furthermore, Flynn and Stainthorp state that reading is an activity to decode and to comprehend the printed form.3 In short, when reader reads to have the meaning of the printed written selection, it is needed a great number of mechanical skills and comprehension skills as thinking process. Therefore, the reader and the written text are the two physical necessities.


Frank Smith, Understanding Reading, (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004), p. 74.


Margaret J. Snowling and Charles Hulme, The Science of Reading: A Handbook, (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005), p. 6.



Furthermore, Alyousef states in his journal that reading is an interactive activity between the reader and the text which bring the reader to reading fluency.4 In this activity, the reader interacts with the text to elicit the meaning. Besides that, the reader also uses various kinds of knowledge, for instance linguistic or systemic knowledge and also schematic knowledge.

In short, it can be synthesized that reading is a process that brings a concept to the text and relates it with the meaning had from the text including understanding the material and giving interpretation that involves the eyes and brain.

2. Definition of Reading Comprehension

Reading activity cannot be separated from comprehension. It is important that the reader can comprehend the text well in order to understand and interpret the written symbol. In other words, it can be said that the result of reading activity is understanding what has been read.

Reading comprehension is a complex process because the readers are not only read the text correctly, but also they have to understand the text that they read. It means, reading process involves the combination between reading and thinking. As Carbo states, good readers are purposeful readers, because their brains are working and thinking at the same time while they read.5

Snow states that reading comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning from the written text.6 Furthermore, Klingner et al also state that reading comprehension is a multicomponent, because it involves not only what the readers bring to the text such as their prior knowledge, but also the


Hesham Suleiman Alyousef, Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners, Journal of Language and Learning Vol. 5 No.1 2006, p. 64.


Marie Carbo, Becoming a Great Teacher of Reading, (United States, Corwin Press, 2007), p. 39.



variables related to the text such as the readers’ interest in text and also the understanding of text types.7

Moreover, reading comprehension includes the understanding of the written word and also the construction of the text meaning. The reader must be able to go beyond the literal meaning of the text and think critically about the content of the text. Since the reader must use information already acquired to filter, interpret, organize and connect the new information from the text. Further, in order to understand text, the reader must be able to identify words rapidly, know the meaning of the words and be able to combine units of meaning into a coherent message.8 Therefore, reading comprehension has been described as a complex intellectual process involving a number of abilities.

In short, it can be synthesized that reading comprehension is a power to know main idea from the written text, understand it according to prior knowledge, and interpret it based on the readers’ purpose.

3. Purpose of Reading

In real life, people read something because they have a purpose to achieve. As the readers begin to read, they have to decide the purpose of reading itself, it is important to make successful of reading comprehension. According to Grabe and Stoller the purposes of reading are:9

a. Reading to search information b. Reading for general comprehension c. Reading to learn new information

d. Reading to synthesize and evaluate information


Janette K. Klingner, Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties, (New York, The Guilford Press, 2007), p. 8.


Peter Westwood, Reading and Learning Difficulties, (Victoria: Acer Press, 2001), p. 10. 9


4. Reading Activities a. Pre-reading activities

Pre-reading activities prepare students to read the next selection. In this activity, students could get their reading interest and remind the things they already known to help them understand and enjoy the selection. According to Alyousef in his journal, pre-reading activities can increase students’ motivation before the actual reading takes place. Further, pre-reading activities also can activate students’ prior knowledge.10

In addition, according to Philippot and Graves, pre-reading activities include motivating, activating and building background knowledge, providing text-specific knowledge, relating the reading to students’ lives, pre-teaching vocabularies, pre-teaching concepts, pre-questioning, predicting, and direction setting, suggesting strategies, using students’ native language, and involving English language learners’ communities and families.11

For students who are familiar with the content of the passage, relating background knowledge to the text is easy, but for the other who has limited background knowledge, it may be a big problem. They may fail to make connections between what they know and what they are learning. Therefore, pre-reading activities help students to make a connection between their background knowledge and what they are learning in order make them comprehend the text well.

b. During reading activities

During reading activities refer to activity when the students focus on particular aspect of a text as they read it. According to Philippot and Graves, during reading activities include silent reading, reading to students, supported reading, oral reading by students, and modifying the text.12 In short, during reading activities is the part when the readers are focus to read and try to comprehend the whole text or passage.


Alyousef, op. cit., p. 68. 11

Raymond Philippot & Michael F. Graves, Fostering Comprehension in English Classes, (New York, The Guilford Press, 2009), p. 31—32.



c. Post-reading activities

Post-reading activities refer to the activities that provide opportunities for students to evaluate the author’s message. Beside that, the students can synthesize and organize information from the text. In addition, post-reading activity can enhance reading comprehension by giving some activities to students. According to Philippot and Graves, there are some post-reading activities, for instance, discussion, writing, drama, artistic, graphic, and non-verbal activities, building connections, and reteaching.13 In short, post-reading activities allow the reader to evaluate their reading comprehension.

5. Teaching Reading

According to Harmer, there are five basic stages in teaching reading as receptive skill.14

a. Lead-in

In this stage, the students and the teacher prepare themselves for the task and familiarize themselves with the topic of the reading exercise. Lead-in makes expectations and arouses the students’ interest in the subject matter of written text.

b. Teacher directs comprehension task

The teacher makes sure that the students know what they are going to do. The teacher will explain and direct the students’ purpose for reading.

c. Students read for a task

In this stage, the students read the text to perform the task that the teacher has set.

d. Teacher directs feedback

After performing the task given by the teacher, the students will have feedback to see if they have completed the task successfully and find out how well they have done.

13 Ibid., p. 39—41. 14


e. Teacher directs text-related task

In this stage, the teacher will organize some kind of follow-up task related to the text.

B. SQ3R Technique

1. Definition of SQ3R Technique

There are some understanding related to SQ3R technique. In the SQ3R, the reading process is broken down into separate study steps that can make the readers become more active. According to Farris, SQ3R technique is a reading technique that gives numerous exposures to the texts being covered.15 In short, SQ3R technique is a way to read a material that involves reader actively. It is also an effective series of technique for reading that can increase the readers’ comprehension by its five steps. As students do the whole steps of SQ3R technique, they will get numerous exposures to the new materials. Moreover, SQ3R technique can help readers to set study goals and separate important information from irrelevant one.

2. Steps of SQ3R technique a. Surveying

Surveying is the first step in the SQ3R technique, it is a kind of pre-reading activity. In this step, the reader has the general outlines of the text by skimming the text for an overview of main ideas. Further, it is recommended for reader to skim the section headings and the first sentences of each paragraph to find the main points that will be developed.

Surveying also helps the reader to focus their attention; making prediction about what will be discussed and how the material will be organized. As Farris et al state in surveying, the reader will have acquainted with the boldfaced heading, subheadings and title to have general idea of the text contents.16 Furthermore, surveying prepares students to read an upcoming selection which can make


Pamela J. Farris et al, Teaching Reading: A Balanced Approach for Today’s Classrooms, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), p. 356.



students remind the things they already know. It will help them understand and enjoy the reading activity.17 Since surveying a text means reading to obtain a general idea of its content, therefore the readers should know which part of the text that can help them.

b. Questioning

In this step, readers have to make some questions about the things they found in surveying the text and keep these questions in their mind while they are reading. Questioning is an essential component of reading comprehension. Making questions help readers to have better comprehension, as Elder states that question can grab readers’ attention and concentration.18

It happens because when the readers read to find answer to specific question, the readers’ brain will try to comprehend the text well. Moreover, questioning is a very important steps, as Farris et al state that questioning gives students opportunity to get higher level thinking.19 As a result, questioning help students clarify and deepen their understanding of the text they are reading.

c. Reading

In this step, readers have to read the text in order to have the information that is useful for them. The main purpose of this step is finding answer to the questions formed in the question step. Further, readers should read the text in order they can answer the question in the next step. Reading to answer question has purpose to improve the ability to note the important detail from the text. d. Reciting

In this step, the readers have to recite the answer to the questions that they made. The purpose of reciting is making the logic comprehension. The readers can do reciting by asking themselves questions from the previous step, then summarizing the answer in their own words. Beside that, they also can take notes from the text but they have to write the information in their own words. Reciting


Philippot and Graves, op.cit., p. 31. 18

Janet Elder, Entryways into College Reading and Learning, (New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007), p. 386.



is an effective way to grasp complex material because the readers have to answer the important question that they made before in order to comprehend the text.20 e. Reviewing

In this step, the readers have to check whether or not their answers are true. Furthermore, in this step, they review their comprehension by telling the most important ideas contained in a paragraph or the gist. Getting the gist means the students are able to state the main idea of a paragraph using their own words, as succinctly as possible.

Reviewing can make the readers remember and make their comprehension clearer by synthesizing and organizing information from the text. By reviewing, the readers also can integrate the content and get useful idea. As a result, the students can evaluate the understanding of the text well.

To sum up, SQ3R technique consists of five steps i.e. surveying, questioning, reading, reciting, and reviewing. Surveying step requires students to preview the text, as well as predict the text. Questioning step requires students make their own questions related to the text they are going to read. The next step, they have to read the text and try to answer the question they have made. Then, they have to review it to check their comprehension.



3. The Advantages of Using SQ3R Technique

SQ3R as a reading technique has some advantages to increase students’ reading comprehension. By using SQ3R technique, students can monitor or measure how far their reading comprehension is on the text that they have read. Besides, SQ3R technique also can build students’ reading motivation. In doing survey and question parts, it will increase students’ curiosity related to the material and build their motivation in reading. Moreover, by questioning from the context, it can increase students’ interest about the reading itself. Asking question before starting to read a section gives the most effective mental set for selecting, retaining, and generalizing the important facts.

4. The Disadvantages of Using SQ3R Technique

Beside having some advantages, SQ3R technique also has disadvantage, for instance, it takes a lot of time when applying SQ3R as a reading technique. Stepherd as cited in Baier argues the process is too long and time consuming.21 Besides, because this technique requires several steps, the students are not enjoying in using this technique if they are not reinforced in their effort.22 As a result, it affects students’ desire to participate actively in reading activity.

C. Report Text

1. The Definition of Report Text

There are many types of text that used by readers and writers to communicate for a particular purpose. One of the text types is report text which is a kind of text that presents information about natural and social phenomena in the environment. Furthermore, it presents information after getting careful observation, as Paterson state, this type of text presents information in a structured manner about a subject by giving facts.23


Kylie Baier, The Effect of SQ3R on Fifth Grade Students’ Comprehension Level, (United State: College of Bowling Green, 2011), p. 26.


Farris et al, op. cit., p. 357.



2. The Purposes of Report Text

Report text has a function to classify and describe something by giving facts.24 Report text can classify many things around environment such as animal, plant, natural phenomena and social phenomena. In addition, report text also describes something generally. The scope of the description will differentiate the report text and descriptive text. Report text commonly describes things generally, while descriptive text tends to explain the characterization of a specific thing. In short, it can be synthesized that the function of report text is to give a truth account of something or some activity after investigating and collecting the facts.

3. The Generic Structure of Report Text

The generic structure term refers to the text organization to guide readers in identifying the main information.25 The generic structure of a report text includes two main parts; they are general classification and description. General classification tells the reader about what is discussed, meanwhile description tells the reader about the detailed features such as part, qualities, habits, and behavior.26


Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Bahasa Inggris Kelas XII, (Jakarta: Pusat Kurikulum dan Perbukuan, 2015), p. 84.


Klingner, op,cit., p. 76. 26


The example of report text:


Antibiotic is a drug produced by certain microbes. Antibiotics destroy other microbes that damage human tissues. They are used to treat a wide variety of diseases, including gonorrhea, tonsillitis and tuberculosis.

Antibiotics are sometimes called ‘wonder drugs’ because they can cure diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia and scarlet fever. But when the antibiotics are overused, or misused, these drugs make a person sensitive being attacked by a superbug. Antibiotics do not always distinguish between harmless and dangerous microbes. If a drug destroys too many harmless micro-organisms, the pathogenic ones -the dangerous microbes- will have a greater chance to multiply. This situation often leads to the development of a new infection called superinfection. Extensive use of some antibiotics may damage organs and tissues. For example, streptomycin, which is used to treat tuberculosis, has caused kidney damage and deafness.

Resistance to antibiotics may be acquired by pathogenic microbes. The resistant microbes transfer genetic material to non-resistant microbes and cause them to become non-resistant. During antibiotic treatment, non-resistant microbes are destroyed, but resistant types survive and multiply.

To avoid the side effect of antibiotics, you'd better not urge your doctor to prescribe antibiotics. Keep in mind that antibiotics are only useful for bacterial infections and have no effect on viruses, so they cannot be used for children pox, measles, and other viral diseases. General



D. The Previous Study

There are many researches that have been conducted to find out the effectiveness of SQ3R technique in teaching reading comprehension. However, there are only three previous studies which are used as references for this study.

First, it is a research that is conducted by Baier,27 the title is “The Effect of SQ3R on Fifth Grade Students’ Comprehension Level”. The aim of this study is to reveal whether the use of SQ3R technique can improve students’ reading comprehension. The researcher gave treatment to 32 fifth grade students using SQ3R technique in teaching reading comprehension of expository text. After giving the treatments, the researcher tried to examine the result of this study. Then, the mean score of the pre-assessment was 54.4, meanwhile the mean score of the post-assignment was 64.1. It meant that there was a significant effect of using SQ3R technique in teaching reading comprehension of expository text. Beside, it was found that 68.7% of students in this research would apply SQ3R technique in the future. It can also concluded that SQ3R technique was useful for them to comprehend the text.

Another reference is a research that is conducted by Nurmiasih28by the title “The Effectiveness of SQ3R Technique on Students’ Reading Achievement to the Eighth Graders at MTs Miftahul ‘Ula Kertosono”. The researcher gave treatment to 21 students of eighth grade by using SQ3R technique. The result of this pre-experimental study showed that the students’ mean score was increased after applying SQ3R technique. Students’ mean score before applying SQ3R technique was 64. Meanwhile, their mean score after being taught by using SQ3R technique was 91. Furthermore, the T count was 10.254, meanwhile the T table with significance level 5% was 1.725. The T count was greater than T table. It means that the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted. Therefore, there is significant effect of using SQ3R technique in teaching reading to the Eighth Graders Students at MTs Miftahul ‘Ula Kertosono.

27 Baier, Op. cit., pp. 1—97. 28

Suci Nurmiasih, The Effectiveness of SQ3R Technique on Students’ Reading Achievement to


The other previous study is a thesis written by Sihaloho and Siregar29 which entitled “The Effect of Applying SQ3R methods on Students’ Achievement in Reading Comprehension”. The aim of this research was discovering the effect of applying SQ3R method in reading comprehension of expository text. He conducted the research in SMA Nasrani 2 Medan and used quasi-experimental as the research design. There were 2 classes chosen as the sample with 30 students in each class. Those classes were divided into experimental and control group. The instrument used to collect the data was a set of multiple choice tests, divided as pre-test and post-test. The result of the research was analyzed by using t-test formula. The result showed that t-test was higher than t-table (4,23>2,00) at the level of significant 0,05 with degree of freedom (df) 58. It means that hypothesis alternative (Ha) is accepted which shows that SQ3R technique significantly improves the students’ reading comprehension.

In conclusion, the three previous studies proved that the use of SQ3R technique can improve students’ reading comprehension. Those previous studies guide the writer to conduct a study about SQ3R technique. Furthermore, the writer used different research design which is classroom action research. The writer also used the text that did not use in previous study, report text. In addition, the instrument that used in this study was totally different with the instrument used in the previous studies.

E. Thinking Framework

Reading is one of the basic skills that the students need to develop in learning English, but for some students, reading is difficult because they have to take meaning from the text from writer that involves their prior knowledge. In fact, in reading activity the students just read without knowing or comprehending the text. In other words, they do not get the main goal of reading activity which is comprehension.


Pranata Royganda Sihaloho and Masitowarni Siregar, The Effect of Applying SQ3R Methods




A. The Place and Time of the Study

This study was conducted at SMAN 1 Parung which is located at Jl. H. Mawi no. 17. Post Code 16330 Parung, Bogor. In addition, this study was carried out from August 2nd until September 6th 2016. The writer did preliminary study on August 2nd 2016. Then, the instruments were made after the preliminary study. After having the instruments, the pre-action test was conducted before the cycle 1 and cycle 2. In the last meeting of each cycle, the post-action test was given to the students.

Table 3.1

The Schedule of the Study

No Activities

Month and Week



1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1

1. Pre-Observation X

2. Pre-Action Test X

3. Pre-Interview X

4. Cycle 1 X X X

5. Cycle 1 Post-Action Test X

6. Cycle 2 X X X

7. Cycle 2 Post-Action Test X

8. Post-Interview X

B. The Method and Design of the Study

In this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods are used. Qualitative method is focused on collecting and analyzing information in non-numerical form. It also tends to focus on the process.1 In addition, according to Verma and Mallick, the aim of qualitative



method is investigating the quality of relationships, activities, situations, or materials. Conversely, the aim of quantitative method is gathering data that can be quantified; it can be counted or measured in numerical scores.2

Moreover, in this study, the Classroom Action Research (CAR) is used as the research design. According to Fraenkel et al, Classroom Action Research (CAR) is conducted in order to obtain information for solving problems.3 In this study, the Classroom Action Research (CAR) procedure by Kurt Lewin is used. It consists of two cycles, in each cycle contains four phases; planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.4

Planning Acting

Reflecting Observing

Figure 3.1

Kurt Lewin’s Classroom Action Research Procedure

C. The Subject of the Study

The subject of this study is the students of XI IPS 1 of SMAN 1 Parung. The class consists of 36 students. This school has nine classes for the eleventh grade. However, based on the result of observation and interview, XI IPS 1 has low achievement in reading. That is why the CAR is held because the students need an appropriate strategy to help them in improving their reading comprehension.


Gajendra K. Verma and Kanka Mallick, Researching Education: Perspective and Technique, (USA: Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005), p. 27.


Jack R. Fraenkel et al, How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, (New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2012), p. 589.



D. The Writer’s Role on the Study

In this study, the writer is an active participant that meant she acts as the English teacher and the observer in the study. Therefore, she makes a lesson plan and pre-action test before Classroom Action Research and post-action test after Classroom Action Research in each final cycle. Then, the action based upon the lesson plan is carried out. In addition, the data are collected and interpreted. Then, the result of the study is also reported.

E. The Research Procedure

The Classroom Action Research using Kurt Lewin’s procedure consists of four phases within one cycle. Those are planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. After finishing the first cycle, it will be probably a new problem or the previous unfinished problems. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to the second cycle in line with the same concept of the first cycle. Based on the outcome and experiences in the first cycle, the writer follows the same phases. Here are the detail explanations about what happens in every phase:

1. Cycle 1 a. Planning

This phase is important for setting the goal and particular standard for the students. According to Blachowicz and Ogle state, before starting the teaching and learning process, the teacher has to determine the goal and also the criteria of what good performance would look like.5 Furthermore, in this phase, all the needs and requirements for the teaching and learning process in the classroom are prepared. The lesson plan is made and all of the things that will be used in reading using SQ3R technique are prepared.

b. Acting

The planned action in this phase is carried out based on the lesson plan that has been made. In implementing the action, the writer acts as English teacher who taught reading by giving SQ3R technique when the students read the text. The implementations of the action involve three meetings in each cycle.



c. Observing

In observing phase, the students’ response and achievement during the teaching and learning process are observed. In addition, the improvement of students’ score is observed to know whether there is any significant improvement or no. Sometimes, the students’ opinion about the process of teaching and learning reading by using SQ3R technique is asked. In this phase, the teacher should notice all of activities in the classroom in order to get accurate result in the end of the research.

d. Reflecting

In this phase, the teacher reflects the whole action during the acting and observing phase. This phase is important in order to have an evaluation before starting the next cycle. If there are still some problems, so it needs to continue to the next cycle. By continuing to the next cycle, it is expected that the unfinished problems yet can be solved and the goals can be reached.

2. Cycle 2 a. Planning

The same as cycle 1, in cycle 2, making new lesson plan is started. It is aimed to change some parts that need to be revised during the implementation of cycle 1. As the planning phase in cycle 1, the preparation of teaching was also made. The texts and teaching aids to motivate students are selected. Therefore, they would get a better comprehension of the texts. Evaluation and post-action test 2 are prepared to see students’ achievements in the end of this cycle.

b. Acting

In this phase, the new lesson plan is implemented. Besides, the material that have been taught to the students in order to make them getting better understanding is reviewed.

c. Observing


d. Reflecting

In this phase, the students’ progress based on their test score is analyzed. The result of the implementation of the modified action is discussed to the teacher. Finally, from the discussion, it can be decided whether the action should be continued or not.

F. The Technique of Data Collection

There are three techniques used in collecting the data, they are: observation, interview and test.

1. Observation

According to Verma and Mallick, in doing the observation, the researcher collects the information without asking question directly.6 In this study, the observation toward English learning and teaching process at SMAN 1 Parung is done in order to get the description about students’ activities and participation in learning process. In English lesson, their reading comprehension is observed. This observation is the primary technique in collecting the data of teaching preparation, teaching materials and the evaluations as used in the teaching and learning process.

2. Interview

One of the ways to get deep information in the classroom is by interviewing the English teacher and the students. As Bogdan and Biklen state interview is used to collect descriptive data by using interviewee’s own words, therefore the researcher can get deep information.7

Furthermore, there are three kinds of interview; structured, unstructured and semi-structured interview.8 In this study, the structured interview is conducted by using interview guide. It is conducted before and after implementing the classroom action research. The interview is about the English teaching learning process at SMAN 1 Parung, especially in reading comprehension.

3. Test

The test is used to find out the result of students’ achievement in reading comprehension and also to compare the students’ reading comprehension before and after the implementation of CAR by using SQ3R technique. The test which is done before


Verma and Mallick, op. cit., p. 130. 7

Robert C. Bogdan and Sari Knopp Biklen, Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction Theories and Methods, (USA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007), p. 103.



implementing SQ3R technique is called pre-action test. It is to measure students’ reading comprehension at first. Meanwhile, the test which is implemented after using SQ3R technique is called post-action test.

G. The Technique of Data Analysis

In analyzing the data, all of the data that are collected by using observation, interview and test are analyzed. In analyzing them, the following steps are used:

1. Classifying the Data

The data from observation are gathered and then classified based on the research problems.

2. Describing the Data

Having classified, the data are described as follows:

a. The data from observation is described by using descriptive form. b. The data from interview is described by descriptive form.

c. The data from the test is described by table and calculation. 3. Finding

In answering the first problem statement the qualitative method is used. This qualitative method is gathered by using the observation and interview. It means, after having observation in the classroom and having interview to the teacher and students, the data are analyzed by making description from the result. Meanwhile, in answering the second problem statement, the quantitative method is used. The data got from the tests is analyzed using a certain formula.

To get the mean of students’ reading comprehension within one cycle, the formula used is:9

Mx = ∑x ____ N

Explanation: M : Mean

X : Individual score



N : Number of students

Next, to know the students who passed KKM 76.0, this formula is used:10


P : The class percentage F : Total Percentage score N : Number of student

Next step, to identify the improvement of students’ reading comprehension from pre-action test up to post-pre-action test 1 in cycle I and post-pre-action test 2 in cycle II, this formula is used:11


P = ____ X 100% Y


P : Percentage of students’ reading comprehension improvement y : Pre-action test result

y1: Post-action test 1 result y2-y

P = ____ X 100% Y

P : Percentage of students’ reading comprehension improvement y : Pre-action test result

y2: Post-action test 2 result


Ibid., p. 43. 11

David E. Meltzer, The Relationship between Mathematics Preparation and Conceptual Learning Gains in Physics: A Possible Hidden Variable in Diagnostic Pretest Scores, (Iowa: Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2002), p. 3.



H. Trustworthiness

To check the validity of the data, the triangulation is used. Triangulation refers to the use of more than one data collecting techniques in order to strengthen the data.12 Furthermore, according to Nugent, Malik and Hollingsworth triangulation is used to increase the validity of the research findings by combining both qualitative and quantitative data. By using triangulation, the weaknesses of each data may be covered.13 In short, it can be synthesized that triangulation is using several data collecting techniques to increase the validity of the data. In doing the triangulation in this research, the data taken from observation and interview is collaborated with the result of the test.

I. The Criteria of Action Success

Classroom Action Research (CAR) is able to be called successful if it can fulfill the criteria which have been determined and fail if it cannot fulfill the criteria which have been determined. In this study, when there is 75% of students could achieve the target score KKM 76 (seventy six) of reading comprehension test from the pre-action test until the second post-action test in cycle two, the research could be called successful. Furthermore, if there is an improvement the next action would be stopped, but if this condition has not been reached yet, the alternative action would be done in the next cycle.


Bogdan and Biklen, op. cit., p. 115. 13




A. Research Finding

1. Pre-Implementing the Action

There are three kinds of instruments used in collecting the data before implementing the action, those are: pre-interview, pre-observation and pre-test. The data is described as the following:

a. The Result of Pre-Interview 1) Interview with the Teacher

The interview was conducted to the English teacher of SMAN 1 Parung. It was held on August 2nd 2016. Here, the English teacher was asked some questions divided into three categories. The first category was about the general condition in English class on students’ reading achievement and performance. It contains of six questions. The second category was about the difficulties faced by students in reading comprehension ability. It contains of two questions. The last category was about the kinds of strategies implemented by the teacher before Classroom Action Research (CAR) in solving the students’ difficulties in reading comprehension and it contains of four questions.

The first category discussed about the general condition in English class on students’ reading activities and students’ reading achievement. The teacher said that some students still gain low score in reading activities. Their score have not fulfilled the criterion of minimum completeness (KKM) which is 76.


the texts. In addition, some students do not keep attention during the teaching and learning process.

The third category is about the strategies implemented by the teacher in teaching reading. At the previous strategies, the teacher gave the reading text to the students and asked them to read the text. Next, he asked the students to write the difficult vocabularies and make some sentences using those vocabularies. The teacher suggested the writer to implement technique that can build students’ background knowledge, make students interest in reading text and improve students’ reading comprehension.

2) Interview with the Students

Besides having an interview with the English teacher, the writer also had an interview with the students. The writer chose 3 of 36 students randomly to be interviewed. The students were asked several questions about English teaching learning process at SMAN 1 Parung.

The students were asked about their difficulties in learning English, especially in reading. One of them said that he could understand the material, find the specific information, and answer some questions according the texts. Meanwhile, one of them said that she had limited vocabularies that become barrier in understanding the text. However, another student said that she had little interest to read and she had difficult to identify what the content of the text about and she also did not have enough knowledge in general view of the reading texts. Furthermore, the students said that the text is not interesting enough to be read. They also said that the teacher’s teaching techniques did not make students comprehend the reading text. Consequently, their reading comprehension is low.

b. The Result of Pre-Observation


pre-observation was conducted on August, 2nd 2016. There are four categories observed in the classroom, which are class structure, methods, teacher-student interaction, and contents.

1) Class Structure

At the beginning, the teacher checked the students’ attendance list. After that, the teacher reviewed the previous day’s course content then he gave the brief overview of the material that would be learned at that meeting. After getting the students’ attention, he began to deliver the material. 2) Methods

From the writer point of view, in this meeting the teacher did not prepare any interesting technique in the class. He used lecture learning activity and he taught the students without using any instructional aids such computer, overheads, etc. He only asked the students to make sentences based on some situations individually. After asking the students to make some sentences, the teacher asked some students randomly to read their own sentences in front of the class.

3) Teacher-Students Interaction

The class situation was quite noisy. However, when the teacher asked the students to make their own sentences, they did it quietly. But, some of them show their nervousness during the learning activity because they were afraid if the teacher asked them to read loudly their sentences in front of the class.

4) Contents


c. The Result of Pre-action test

Before conducting the Classroom Action Research, the pre-action test was done. It was held on August 9th 2016. There were 36 students of XI IPS 1 who followed the test. The test consists of five sections. After giving the pre-action test, the score was calculated. Here is the students’ score in the pre-action test.

Table 4.1

Students’ Score in Pre-Action Test

Minimum score 50

Maximal score 80

Mean 60

From the data above, it can be seen that the minimum score was quite low. To have the result of the pre-action test, the mean score was calculated first.

Mx = ∑x ____


Mx = 2160 ____


= 60

Then, the percentage of students who passed KKM was calculated by using this formula:


P = ____ X 100%


= 8.3%

Based on the calculation above, it showed that the mean of the pre-action test was 60. Then, there were only 3 students or 8.3% of the students passed the criterion of minimum completeness which was 76. Meanwhile, there were 33 students did not pass or still below the standard. As the result, it was known that the students’ reading comprehension was low.

2. The Implementation of Classroom Action Research a. Cycle 1

1) Planning

The first phase in Classroom Action Research is planning. In this phase, the writer as the teacher made a planning for the action based on the problems faced by students toward reading comprehension. The teacher determined the selected material and exercises into a lesson plan. Then, some texts were chosen as the text to be taught for students. The teacher designed the lesson plan based on the English syllabus of second grade of senior high school. In the lesson plan, there were some kinds of surveying, questioning, reading, reciting and reviewing activity. In this phase, it is hoped that those plans can help the teacher to achieve the goal.

Beside of making a lesson plan, the teacher also prepared the post-action test 1 to have numeric data, in order to know whether there were students' improvement scores from pre-action test to post-action test.

2) Acting

a) First Meeting

The action of the cycle 1 was begun on August 15th 2016. The teacher implemented the teaching learning process based on the lesson plan had been 3


made. In the first meeting, the teacher taught about report text. Before starting the lesson, the students were greeted and asked to pray together. Then, she checked the attendance list. After that, she started the lesson by giving brainstorming to the students about report text and also telling the students about the learning objective. In this case, she tried to help the students to establish purposes for reading a particular text. Then, she asked the students what they have known before about report text, several students just kept silent, several of them also answered it hesitantly. Then, they said that they still confused about the material. After asking the students, she explained about the definition, the purpose, generic structure and the language features of report text.

Having explained the material, the students were asked to make a group to analyze the report text given and answer the question in the card. Each group consisting of six students, thus there were six groups in this activity. Furthermore, each group had different report text and in the end of this session they had to present their discussion result to another group. In this activity, they seemed enjoy the learning process. However, there were only several students who interacted and cooperated actively with their friends for finishing their task.

b) Second Meeting


the teacher’s explanation. When she finished explaining the technique, she gave a text entitled “Kangaroo” to the students.

After giving the text to the students, she asked the students to read the text by applying SQ3R technique. Since the students were not familiar with the technique, therefore she guided them in each step on SQ3R technique. First, she guided the student to do surveying and questioning steps. She asked the students to identify the generic structure and find the main idea. Besides, she also asked the students to write some questions related to the information. When the students were doing the surveying and questioning steps, she monitored them and asked them if they found difficulties. She found that some students could do those steps well. However, there were some students who did not understand the surveying and questioning steps. Therefore, she re-explained how to do those steps.

After re-explaining the surveying and questioning steps, she continued the activity by asking the students to do the reading step. She asked the student to read the text carefully in order to find the answers of their questions. Then, the students were asked to continue to the reciting step. They were asked to note some key points and write the answers for their questions. Some students were focus to find out the answer, but some of them were confused because they did not understand the instruction well. The writer decided to re-explain this step for them who have not understood it well.


c) Third Meeting

The third meeting was done on August 22nd 2016. In this meeting, the material was still about SQ3R technique, but the teacher tended to focus on surveying and questioning steps. The same as the previous meeting, before starting the lesson, she greeted the students and asked the students to pray together. Then, she checked the attendance list.

In this meeting, the teacher gave a report text entitled “Snake” to the students. After having the text, the students were asked whether they still remember the surveying and questioning steps or not. Some of them said that they did not remember the steps, therefore the teacher tried to re-call their memory about those steps. They were asked to do surveying step first. They had to survey what the text was about. In this step, they integrated the new information from the text given with the information that they have already known. Next, they were asked to continue the questioning step. In this step, they were explained about how to make question. In the previous meeting, it showed that they did not know how to make question well. Therefore, the teacher decided to explain it first. In this meeting, they were taught about nominal and verbal sentences. Then, they were also explained how to form a question.

After finishing the questioning step, she gave them 10 minutes to do the reading step. Then, she asked them to continue to the next step which is reciting. The students were asked to answer their questions. Some of them did it well, they answered all of the question correctly. However, some of them were still confused because they still had difficulties to find out specific information in the text given.


3) Observing

In this phase, the teacher observed the students’ participation, response, achievement and the other things in physical classroom. In the first meeting, the teacher realized that she had to do a lot of effort to make the students become more active during the learning process. Some of them were active and showed their enthusiasm, however, some of them were quiet and they did not involve themselves actively. They said that they were afraid if they made mistakes when answering the question from the teacher. Therefore, she motivated them to involve themselves actively during the learning process.

In the second meeting, the teacher saw a better classroom condition; they showed their enthusiasm during the learning process. They were not shy to ask a question when they did not understand the teacher’s explanation. They also answered the question from the teacher actively.

In the third meeting, it was found that the students became more active during the learning process. They did all of task based on the instruction. They also finished the task on time. They said that they felt more comfortable with the classroom condition. However, they were several students who felt unconfident when the teacher asked them to read their review loudly in front of the class.

Furthermore, after finishing the teaching and learning process in the first cycle, the teacher gave post-action test 1 in order to know the students’ progress in reading. It was held in the next meeting.

4) Reflecting


accomplish yet. In general, most of students could understand the material but some of them still could not state the gist from the text well.

Therefore, based on the discussion with the English teacher and the result of post-action test 1, it can be concluded that it was necessary to do the cycle 2 because the teacher found only little progress which had been achieved by the students. The teacher thought that there must be more efforts to develop students’ reading comprehension. Therefore, the new lesson plan for the cycle 2 was formulated.

b. Cycle 2 1) Planning

The planning phase of the second cycle was implemented into a lesson plan. It was aimed to change some parts that need to be revised. The new lesson plan which was used still related to the use of SQ3R technique for reading the report text. However, there was a modification in this cycle; the teacher asked the students to work with their partner. The teacher also made preparation of teaching aids. Besides, she also prepared the new text which is familiar for them. The report texts which related to their program were chosen since they were in social class. Furthermore, Hedgcock and Ferris state that the students will become more active when reading the text which contains material that interests them.1 Besides, the post-action test 2 also prepared to see their improvement in reading.

2) Acting

a) First Meeting

The action of the cycle 2 was begun on August 29th 2016. In this meeting, the teacher tried to ask the students to do peer-assessment during reading activity using SQ3R technique. Besides, she also motivated the students by giving them extra point. Before starting the lesson, she greeted



Table 4.1   Students’ Score in Pre-Action Test  ...................................................

Table 4.1

Students’ Score in Pre-Action Test ................................................... p.12
Figures 3.1      Kurt Lewin’s Classroom Action Research Design  ...................................

Figures 3.1

Kurt Lewin’s Classroom Action Research Design ................................... p.13
Table 3.1 The Schedule of the Study

Table 3.1

The Schedule of the Study p.34
Kurt Lewin’s Classroom Action Research Figure 3.1 Procedure

Kurt Lewin’s

Classroom Action Research Figure 3.1 Procedure p.35
Students’ Table 4.1 Score in Pre-Action Test
Students’ Table 4.1 Score in Pre-Action Test p.45
Table 4.2

Table 4.2

Figure 4.2 The Percentage of Successful and Unsuccessful Students Passing

Figure 4.2

The Percentage of Successful and Unsuccessful Students Passing p.62
Figure 4.3 The Percentage of Successful and Unsuccessful Students

Figure 4.3

The Percentage of Successful and Unsuccessful Students p.63


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