THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION AND THEIR ENGLISH LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT
(A Survey Study at the Second Grade of MTs Negeri Pamulang)
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHER
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s Training in a Partial of Fulfillment of the Requirements for Degree of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts) in
English Language Education
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHER
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
Second Grade of MTs Negeri Pamulang). Skripsi, The Department of English Education, The Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s Training ‘Syarif Hidayatullah’ State of Islamic University, Jakarta.
Advisors : 1. Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag 2. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum
Key Words : Motivation and Achievement, MTs Negeri Pamulang
The aim of this study is to find out the Correlation between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement at the second grade of MTs Negeri Pamulang. This study is done by gaining the information about students’ motivation and their English learning achievement in the second grade of MTs Negeri Pamulang. The specific class is one chosen class of the second grade classes with the population are 31 Students. The technique of collecting data is through questioner and midterm score of English learning in the class. The technique of sampling in this research used cluster sampling technique and the questionnaire is the instrument.
The result from the research calculation showed that the result of rxyis
0.091 and rtableis 0.355. It describes that rxy<rtable= 0.091 < 0.355., it means that
rxyis smaller than rtable. The hypothesis shows the correlationbetween students’
Rahmad Hidayadi (NIM: 109014000124). Hubungan antara Motivasi Siswa dan Pencapaian Bahasa Inggrisnya. (Sebuah Studi Kasus pada Kelas Dua di MTs Negeri Pamulang). Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
Pembimbing : 1. Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag 2. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum
Kata Kunci : Motivasi dan Pencapaian, MTs Negeri Pamulang
Studi ini bertujuan untuk menemukan hubungan antara motivasi siswa dan pencapaian bahasa inggrisnya di kelas dua MTs Negeri pamulang. Studi ini terselesaikan dengan memperoleh sederet informasi tentang motivasi dan pencapaian bahasa Inggris pada kelas dua MTs Negeri Pamulang. Kelas yang yang dipilih dalam penelitian ini adalah salah satu dari kelas dua tersebut yang berjumlah 31 (tiga puluh satu) siswa. Teknik pengumpulan datanya menggunakan 30 pertanyaan yang sudah divalidasi dan hasil ujian tengah semester kelas dua tersebut. pengambilan sampel dimana pemilihan mengacu pada kelompok bukan pada individu dan alat yang digunakan adalah angket.
strength to the writer in completing Skripsi. Sholawat and Salam are given upon our prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, who have given the way of truth and brought the true light of life.
First of all, he would like to express his big gratitude to Allah for having beloved mother Suratna who always being power for his study, and father’s spirit Alimin (Alm) in himself. Skripsi is dedicated to them who have given him the opportunity of an education from the best institutions and support him in their accompanying, moral support, affection, and life spirit during his study.
Through this occasion, the writer would like to express his greatest honor and his gratitude to the advisors, Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag and Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum, who have spared their time and for giving consultation, contribution, guidance, and patience to him during completing Skripsi. May Allah always bless their kindheartedness.
From the writer’s deepest heart, he was so thankful and realized that if there were no support and motivation from people around him, he could not finish Skripsi. Therefore, he would like to express his gratitude and give his best appreciation to:
1. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd., as the chairman of the Department of English Education, Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., as the secretary of the Department of English Education, Drs. Nasifuddin Djalil, M.Ag., and Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., are as his academic advisors. Dr. Atiq Susilo, M.A., and Devi Yusnita, M.Pd., are as his examiners for their support in his study.
2. All of the lecturers and staffs of the Department of English Education. They have given him the wonderful experiences in learning and knowledge.
4. Drs. Suhardi, M.Ag., as the headmaster of MTs Negeri Pamulang, Neneng Herawati, S.Pd., as the English teacher at MTs Negeri Pamulang, the all staffs of MTs Negeri Pamulang, and the students of VIII Bina Prestasi English Class 1 for their help during the research.
5. His teacher of State Islamic Senior High School Model 1 Bukittinggi is Hasrida, M.Ag who has motivated and helped him to continue study in UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
6. His family members, all beloved eight (8) brothers, uncles and aunts, and cousins who always give their support, happiness, and spirit in finishing his study.
7. All his friends in the Department of English Education, especially for C Class 2008 for their support, friendship and togetherness. He also would like to thank to Damanhuri Al Ayubi, Mutia Mutmainnah, and Nurma Hudaya for their wonderful helps in finishing this Skripsi.
8. Tu Anh Thi Nguyen, as his close friend from Vietnam with her fully kindness to support him a lot during his Skripsi.
9. His special friends of Initiatives of Change (IofC) Indonesia for their spirit, kindheartedness and support to do this Skripsi. He also would like to express special thanks to Aisyah Annas, Srinelvia Edwitri and Dahlia Rera Oktasiani for lending her laptop to continue his Skripsi, it is very blessings. And may Skripsi can be useful to the readers, particularly to him. He realized that this Skripsi is far from being perfect. It is a pleasure for him to receive constructive criticism and suggestion from anyone who read his Skripsi.
Jakarta, 04 Juni 2015
ENDORSEMENT SHEET ... iii
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI ... iv
ABSTRACT ... v
ABSTRAK ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix
LIST OF TABLES ... xii
LIST OF FIGURES ... xiii
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xiv
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1
A. Background of the Study ... 1
B. Identification of the Study ... 5
C. Limitation of the Problem ... 5
D. Formulation of the Problem ... 5
E. Objective of the Study ... 5
F. Significance of the Study ... 5
CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ... 6
A. Motivation ... 6
1. The Understanding of Motivation ... 6
2. Kinds of Motivation ... 9
a. Intrinsic of Motivation ... 9
b. Extrinsic of Motivation ... 10
C. Learning ... 16
D. Review of Previous Related Study ... 18
E. Framework of Thinking ... 19
F. Hypothesis ... 20
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS ... 21
A. Place and Time of the Research ... 21
B. Method of the Research ... 21
C. Population and Sample ... 21
D. Technique of Instrument and Data Collection ... 21
1. Technique of Instrumentation ... 23
a. Validity ... 23
b. The Result of Reliability Test ... 24
2. Technique of Data Collection ... 24
E. Technique of Data Analysis ... 24
F. Statistical Hypothesis ... 26
CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS ... 27
A. Description of the Data ... 27
1. The Students Motivation Score ... 27
2. The Students’ English Learning Achievement Score ... 28
3. The Correlation between Students’ Motivation and their English Learning Achievement Score ... 29
B. The Analysis of Data ... 30
1. The Frequency of Data ... 31
2. The Summary of Motivation and English Learning Achievement ... 32
3. The Histogram ... 33
4. The Correlation Result ... 34
LIST OF THE TABLES
Table 3.1 The Likert Scale ... 22
Table 3.2 Table Indicators of Instrument ... 22
Table 3.3 The Result of Validity Instrument ... 23
Table 3.4 The Result of Reliability Test ... 24
Table 3.5 The Interpretation of Correlation ... 25
Table 4.1 The Motivation Score (X) ... 27
Table 4.2 The English Learning Achievement Score (Y) ... 28
Table 4.3 The Correlation Score of X and Y Variable ... 29
Table 4.4 The Frequency of Motivation Score ... 31
Table 4.5 The Frequency of English Learning Achievement Score ... 31
Table 4.6 The Summary Score of Motivation (X) and English Learning (Y) ... 32
LIST OF APPENDICES
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the study
Language is a communication tool to express someone’s feeling through verbal action. Language is very important to get clear information that would be a basic tool to increase insights, knowledge and link each other.
H. Doughlas Brown stated that a consolidation of a number of possible definitions of language yields the following composite definition; (1) language is systematic, (2) language is a set of arbitrary symbols, (3) those symbols are primarily vocal, but may also be visual, (4) those symbols have conventionalized meaning to which they refer, (5) language is used for communication, (6) language operates in a speech community or culture, (7) language is essentially human, although possibly not limited humans, (8) language is acquired by all people in much the same way, language and language world.1 From the statement above, it is very clearly to be interpreted that language is a complex definition. Language is a practice, someone does a practical thing through language; it is possible to achieve the goal of language as communication tools. Carlson defines practice simply as “repeated performance of the same (or closely similar) routines”.2 So, it means that practice is a repetition way of performance through effort that creates a habit, because someone who has a habit for something, he can be easy to do it.
Now days, most of information are delivered by English language. The entire world is considering that English is as international network of communication to unite among countries. Jeremy Harmer stated that although English is not the language with the largest number of native of ‘first’ language speaker, it has become a lingua franca.3
1 H. Doughlas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, (New York: Pearson Education), 5th Edition, p. 6
2 Robert M. DeKeyser, Practice in a Second Language – Perspective from Applied
English in Indonesian school is learnt from Elementary school until University. Sometimes students are not feeling well when they communicate by using English, they do not feel confident enough and they cannot convey their ideas orally, but they are able to understand what people are saying in English. Indonesia is not a country where people learn English as a second language but Indonesian learns English as a foreign language, because Indonesia is very diverse, a lot of cultures with their ‘mother tongue’, that’s why Indonesian language becomes the second language to unit people around the regions and cultures. It is very challenging as a foreign language learner to learn English as foreign language.
There are a lot of factors that can cause the low English learning achievement. They can come from inside such as self motivation or self needs and outside of individual such as family, teacher, or environment that cause the effect in learning English achievement.
Robert E. Slavin defined that motivation is also one of the most difficult to measure. What makes a student need to learn? The willingness to put effort into learning is product of many factors, ranging from the students’ personality and abilities to characteristics of particular learning tasks, incentives for learning, settings, and teacher’s behaviors.4 Motivation is very important aspect in teaching the students who are not too interested in learning English. Therefore in learning English, students with higher motivation will have better English, while those with lower motivation will have worse one.
Zoltan Zornrey stated that ‘motivation’ is related to one of the most basic aspects of the human mind, and most teachers and researchers would agree that it has a very important role in determining success or failure in any learning situation.5 It is very interesting about how mind set can break the role of successful and failure, it depends on the students persuade themselves to solve it through motivation. It is very challenging to create self motivation,
4 Robert E. Slavin, Educational Psychology – Theory and Practice, (New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2012), p. 286
and students should have good environment such as teacher who will give them the support to raise their motivation to achieve their mental resources in getting successful in learning process. As stated by Lewis, Massad and Carrol, it is reported that how teachers perceive their own competence in the foreign language affects students’ achievement.6 Teachers’ competence will influence students in achieving their English score, because teachers become trendsetter of the students who will imitate everything teacher’ teaching, the teachers who have good competence and good self-motivation, it will help much students to grow with their own ability in learning process. Competence is not only higher in academic but also has good behavior which will be a model for students.
Maslow said that individual needs must be satisfied in this sequence: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.7 Students can be easy to achieve their learning process, they have to know their potential through their needs that are supported by teacher and environment in order can achieve what they need to achieve in study.
Achievement motivation is the expectancy of finding satisfaction in mastering challenging performances.8 Students will be satisfied when they can achieve their English learning achievement. It is a process to find it, students need to follow rule of study, it can help student to build their self-trust with their ability through assessment and evaluation. Brindley stated that assessment differs from evaluation. It can be useful to look at the distinction between the two. Assessment refers to collecting information and making judgment on a learner’s knowledge, whereas evaluation is used when collecting and interpreting information for making decisions about the effectiveness of an education program.9 The students can achieve their good
6British Council ,ELT Documents 108-National Syllabus, (London: British Council, 1980),p. 18
7 John W. Santrock, Educational Psychology – Classroom Update: Preparing for
PRAXISTM and Practice, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 416
8 Morris L. Bigge and Maurice P. Hunt, Psychological foundations of Education – An
Introduction to Human Motivation, Development, and Learning, (New York: Harper and Row 1980), 3rd Edition, p. 96
score through the assessment; it can be successful in learning process. But, when the students cannot achieve their good score, it might be a challenge for students to develop their motivation in learning, it means that role of teacher will be an effectiveness to encourage students’ motivation.
MTsN Pamulang has a good environment which supports teaching and learning process. Besides, the facilities are also completely provided at the school such as education tools, the buildings, natural resources, technology, competence teachers, and various students from different background. Islamic Junior High School Pamulang where 2nd grade is this study proposed.
There are some factors that affect students’ achievement in learning forign language. After doing the survey, found it second grade class 1 of Bina Prestasi is the one of growing classes. So, that’s why the class called by Bina Prestasi, although the students come from lower achievement. The teacher mentioned that Bina Prestasi is hoped to motivate them in learning process especially in learning English. This is one of the problem faced in this school, the students has less motivation in learning English. So, MTsN is using Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) method to create student as center of teaching and learning process and teachers are trying to create fun learning to motivate them more in learning English, although all of those things are still difficult to apply at school.
Besides that, the students has to achieve minimum score is 75 as Minimum Mastery Criterion – Kriteria Ketuntasa Minimum (KKM). It means that students should achieve that’s score even some of them have to do remedial to complete the score many times to reach the standard score.
And then, teachers and students forget about the basic of English learning is to communicate because only reaching out the score itself. In fact, students are not confident to communicate their English ability although they have learnt English much in the class.
B. Identification of the Study
Based on the background study above, the problem related to the students’ motivation in learning English could be identified as follows.
1. Some students are less motivation to learn English.
2. Some students are difficult to achieve their English learning score. 3. The students are not confident enough to communicate their English.
C. Limitation of the Problem
As mentioned in the background above, the problem is limited only on motivation in correlation with students’ achievement in learning English. In this research, the object of the study is limited at the second year students of MTs Negeri Pamulang, Jalan Pajajaran No.31 Pamulang, Kota Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15417, Indonesia.
D. Formulation of the Problem
Based on the background of the problem, the research problem is formulated as follows” Is there any correlation between students’ motivation and their learning English achievement?”
E. Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is as follows:
1. Knowing the English learning achievement of the second grade students at Bina Prestasi Class of MTsN Pamulang.
2. Gaining the motivation score of the second grade students at Bina Prestasi Class of MTsN Pamulang.
3. Correlating the students' motivation and achievement in learning English of the second grade students at Bina Prestasi Class of MTsN Pamulang.
F. Significance of the Study
6 CHAPTER II
1. The Understanding of Motivation
There are many definitions of motivation by experts from different backgrounds. The term “motivation” is derived from the Latin verb movere (to move). The idea of movement is reflected in such common sense ideas about motivation as something that gets someone going, keeps him working, and helps him complete tasks.1 John De Cecco stated that motivation is also related to learning itself: The amount of effort, energy, and vigor a student invest in any performance will be one factor in determining how well he performs.2 It means that motivation is a movement that can raise good energy to keep someone’s performance in learning well as much as students’ investment does.
Herbert L. Petri and John M. Govern claimed that motivation is the concept used when he describes the forces of acting on or within an organism to initiate and direct behavior.3Charles Cofer and Mortimer Appley believed that the general statement “without motivation there would be no behavior” is without meaning.4 It means that motivation influences the behavior; good motivation will result in good behavior.
Jeremy Harmer stated that motivation is some kind of internal drive that encourages somebody to pursue course of actions. Robert S. Feldman continued that “A drive is motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior in order to fulfill some need.5 In describing the nature
1 Paul R. Pintrich, Motivation in Education, (New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2008), 3rd Edition, p.4
2 John P. De Cecco, The Psychology of Learning and Instruction: Educational Psychology, (New York: Prentice Hall, 1968) p. 132
3 Herbert L. Petri and John M. Govern, Motivation: Theory, Research, and Applications, (Wadsworth Thomson, 2004), 5th edition, p. 16
4Ibid., p. 133
of the motivated state, some theorists would pay most attention to the physiological conditions responsible for such things as hunger, thirst, pain, and sex drive.6It means that motivation can be a drive which drives the internal person to get his needs through energy which comes from motivation.
Motivation is about how to set the mindset, as what Carol Dweck said “most recent analyses of motivation for achievement stress the importance of children developing a mindset.7 From this statement, it can be understood that mindset is a part of motivation which will influence the outer journey of life. A good condition will be created when one has a define. It is easier and more useful to think in terms of the “motivated” learner: one who is willing or even eager to invest an effort in learning activities and to progress. Learner motivation makes teaching and learning immeasurably easier and more pleasant, as well as more productive: hence the importance of the topic for teachers.8 From this statement is understood that teachers can give a stimulus to the students to be motivated learners and they should know the students’ needs in the class in order to properly encourage them.
The authors of classic study of successful language learning came to the conclusion that the most successful learners are not necessary those who display certain typical characteristics, most of which are clearly associated with motivation. Some of these characteristics include are; (a)
6 John M. Stephens, The Psychology of Classroom Learning, (New York:Rinehart and Winston,1965), p. 187
7 John W. Santrock, Educational Psychology,(New York: McGraw Hill, 2009) Updated 4th Edition,p. 472
Positive task orientation - the learner is willing to tackle tasks and challenges and has confidence in his or her success. (b) Ego involvement – means the learner finds it important to success in learning in order to maintain and promote his or her own (positive) self-image. (c) Need for achievement, which means the learner has a need to achieve, to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. (d) High aspiration - the learner is ambitious, goes for demanding challenges high proficiency, top grades. (e) Goal orientation - means that the learner is very aware of the goals of learning or learning activities, and directs his efforts towards achieving them. (f) Perseverance - means the learner very consistently invests a high level of effort in learning and is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack of progress. (g) Tolerance of ambiguity - means that the learner consistently invests a high level to effort in situation involving a temporary lack of understanding on confusion; he can live with this patiently and in the confidence that understanding will be coming later.9
According to Penny Ur’s description above, it gets the interpretation through the typical of characteristics for successful students. Good aspiration will bring the learners eagerness to have a goal orientation that will impact the responsibility to complete the tasks, so it will get the need to be achieved because of that the effort. The learners are able to set strong ambitions to become confidence and patience in achieving the successful in learning process.
A simple but accurate definition of motivation is not easy. It must be able to include terms that refer to such diverse states as desires, wishes, plans, goals, intents, impulses, and purposes. Some of these states imply a deliberate and calculated process involving reasons, whereas others convey a flavor of spontaneity. And then, Fritz Heider emphasized that
“the process by which makes these interpretations or attributions causal motivation.”10
2. Kinds of Motivation
Motivation can be divided into two kinds: intrinsic motivation (the urge to encourage in the learning activity for its own sake) and extrinsic motivation (motivation that is derived from external incentives). Both of these have important roles to play in classroom motivation, and both are at least partially accessible to teacher influence.11 It means that there should be synchronization and a balance between the inner and outer growth. a. Intrinsic of motivation
According to Jeremy Harmer, intrinsic motivation depends on what takes place in the classroom.12 And then, John W. Santrock said that intrinsic motivation is based on internal factors, such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort, which indicate that the internal factors themselves influence the learner.13 Richard I. Arends stated that intrinsic motivation causes people to act in a certain way because it brings personal satisfaction.14Saundra K. Ciccarelli& J. Noland White said that intrinsic motivation is the type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner.15 The statements, it can be understood that intrinsic motivation is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or desire for an obvious external reward. Stephanie Gerding says that everyone is motivated by personal desires,
10 Jung, John. Understanding Human Motivation; A Cognitive Approach. (New York: California State University, Long Beach, 1978), p. 4-5.
11Penny Ur, 1996, op, cit., p.276 12 Jeremy Harmer, 1991, op, cit., p.3
13 John W. Santrock, Psychology, (New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2005), Updated 7th Edition, p. 428
14 Richard I. Arends, Learning to Teach, (New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2007) 7th Edition, p. 138
interests, and goals. Besides that, intrinsic motivation occurs when someone is internally motivated to do something because it brings him pleasure, he views it as important, or he considers what he is learning morally significant. This would include an internal desire to learn, such as in lifelong learning, and also feeling of obligation, needs for satisfaction or accomplishment, or even interest related to hobbies.16
It can be understood that desires, interests, goals, and hobbies related to interests are the characteristic of intrinsic of motivation which are related to the personal development in learning process, specifically English learning at school.
b. Extrinsic Motivations
Penny Ur states that extrinsic motivation is that which derives from the influence of some kind of external incentive, as distinct from the wish to learn for its own case or interest in tasks. Penny Ur named five factors that can be directly influenced by teachers: (1) Sources and its rewards, this is perhaps the single most important feature in rising extrinsic learners who succeeded in the past. When the student is successful at certain task, he will be likely to try it again and become more confident. In the motivation process, the role of a teacher toward this aspect is to make learners aware of their accomplishments and appraised for their work and effort. They can be presented by good grades, appraisals in front of peers, or external awards. (2) Failure and it penalties, failure is not just a matter of wrong answer, learner should be aware that they are failing when they have done significantly than they could have, because they are making unsatisfactory progress or not taking action. Failure in any sense is generally regarded as something to be avoided, just as success in something to be sought. But this should be taken too far. For one thing, success cases its
sweetness if it is too easily attained and if there is no real possibility or experiences of failure. (3) Authoritative demand, Learners are often led by teacher pressure. They may be willing to invest effort in tasks simply because they are told to recognize teachers’ authority and right for making demands, and trust their judgment. Even if authoritative demands need to be exercised more on the younger learners, older learners and adults do require them, especially clear demands, as well. Authoritative demands can be, of course, over-used or misused, of learners only to do things with obedience, and without any awareness of objectives and result or involvement in decisions. Therefore, authority plays a vital role to maintain discipline among students at a certain level and can be substituted with other creative activities to create their intrinsic motivations. (4) Test, Tests may have high motivational impact on some learners. The motivating power of the test appears clear to those that know they are going to be tested on a specific material next week and when it gets closer, they are motivated to study more carefully. However, tests can also be motivating because they cause stress on the students about their results. Therefore, teachers need to be aware of both of their motivating and negative impacts so as to stress on the importance of the tests as part of the learning process. Students should be kept well informed that language learning is for practical use and tests are just evaluation tools to measure their progresses. (5) Competition, Some learners will often be motivated to give their best not for the sake of the learning itself but in order to be at their opponent in a competition. While it can be a very good motivation to some extent, competition can cause less cooperation and teamwork among classmates. Therefore, some experts claimed that it is advisable to use group competitions in replacement of individual ones in a learning environment.17
Extrinsic Motivation is to encourage in an activity as a means to an end. Students will be inspired to study when they can pass their goals and successful in desirable outcomes such as a reward, teacher praise, friends praise, or avoidance of punishment. It directly will make them happy in doing their study.
Extrinsically, motivated behaviors are carried out in anticipation or a reward from outside and beyond itself. Some factors come from extrinsic motivation; (1) Teacher, the relationship between teachers and pupils is of fundamental importance to effective teaching.18 (2) Parent, the most important experience for parents and their newborn babies is that of bonding – boding is so important that when the infant cannot bond to a person because there is no person available, the infant will bond to an animal or even to an object.19 (3) Social, social facilitation can reflect a coactions effect, which is a form of modeling that occurs when performance is motivated as a result of other performing the same action, or an audience effect that reflects the energizing of one’s behavior due to the presence of observers.20
Based on the definition above, motivation is the power comes also from outside of students. That it will influence students to motor their life education in achieving a good value of learning and a good result of achievement itself. Many experts have defined the extrinsic motivation differently, but it has the same meaning and purpose. Extrinsic motivation is caused by any number or outside factors, for example, the need to pass exam, the hope for financial reword or the possibility of future travel. Another important point to be kept in mind is that ultimate purpose of some extrinsic motivations is to influence and enhance the intrinsic ones that come from inside of the students.
18 Chris Keryacou, Effective Teaching in the Schools – Theory and Practice, (London: Stanley Tornes, 2009), p. 101
19 Margaret Paul, Inner Bonding – Becoming a Loving Adult to Your Inner Child, (New York: HapperCollins Publisher, 1992) p. 80
Achievement motivation is the expectancy of finding satisfaction in mastering challenging performances.21 It means that students’ satisfaction can be achieved when the result after facing challenging by doing it, is fully attained.
In all types of classroom, teacher talk is important, and has been extensively researched and documented. In language classrooms it is particularly important because the medium is the message. The modification which teachers make to their language, questions they ask, feedback they provide and the types of instructions and explanations they provide can all have an important bearing, not only on the effective management of the classroom, but also on the acquisition by learners of the target language.22The information above is a mutual relationship with teachers and students to get messages in dealing with the instructions and teacher should be able to support the students with their curiosity without any judgment.
Schunk showed that difficult goals raised children’s academic motivation more than easier goals and persuasive information (“you can work 25 problems.”) Increased self-efficacy more than social comparative information, and the difficult goals plus persuasive information led to the highest achievement.23 Sometimes comparative information can be a good way to stimuli students’ motivation to make a goal easier. Some students will feel excited to reach more of achievement in the class when teacher can give them a good way of comparative information. Sometimes, some students will feel down when they cannot be like their competitor in the class. Therefore, the stimulus can be created well; they will have the eagerness to do what the good students have done.
21 Morris L. Bigge and Maurice P. Hunt, Psychological foundations of Education – An
Introduction to Human Motivation, Development, and Learning, (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), 3rd Edition, p. 96
22 David Nunan, Language Teaching Methodology, (London: Prentice Hall International, 1991), p. 7
Achievement test measures students’ present status with a set of skills. Achievement tests are used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional program and identify students with learning disabilities.24 It means that achievement can be modified into a test, in order to know the standard of ability of the students. Peter Airasian stated that a standardized assessment is the one that (1) is designed to be used in many different classrooms and schools and (2) is administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way for all test takers no matter when or where it is given. Commercial achievement tests are usually given each year. They provide information about pupil performance over time and identify strengths and weaknesses.25 As mentioned by Albert, a teacher needs to be knowledgeable about standardized tests, not only to defend against their misuse, but also to take advantage of the information they can provide. An appropriately selected standardized test can furnish a snapshot of students’ abilities, identifying areas of probable strengths and weaknesses. Based on the statements above, it can be analyzed that test is a good way to know the ability of students in understanding the learning process and standardized test will not only improve their achievement in school area or local area but also prove the ability that students have overseas. So, it can motivate students to achieve more of their knowledge, skills and potentials.
Based on a long series of studies, McClelland and Alschuler have concluded that successful decision makers share certain characteristics: They compete with a standard of excellence in mind, they take moderate risks, and they make good use of creating feedback. Sprinthall stated that three characteristics term the achievement syndrome.26 The experts above also stated that in order to achieve success, students need to be good decision makers. Becoming a decision maker is a big challenge because of the social
24 Albert Oosterhof, Developing and Using Classroom Assessments, (New Jersey: Pearson Education 2002), 3rd Edition, p. 228
25 Peter W. Airasian, Assessment in the Classroom – A Concise Approach, (New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2000), 2nd Edition, p. 238
26 Norman A. Sprinthall and Richard C. Sprinthall, Educational Psychology – A
environment forces and some students are of less confidence and not to be brave showing their ability.
James E. Twining stated that evaluating your success in learning means judging whether or not you achieved your purpose and are able to retain what you have learned. It is a continuous cycle of self-testing and review. Regular self-testing promotes successful academic performance.27 Talking about an evaluation, we can see that many kinds of tests are used in the schools today. For teachers, the question of what constitutes a good test is pertinent to the tasks of selecting standardized tests and constructing achievement tests utilizing a wide variety of other evaluative devices. In general, the basic characteristics that need to be considered in either selecting or constructing a test or other evaluative devices are: validity, reliability, objective, and practicality.
Achievement motivation is the desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which success is dependent on personal effort and abilities.28 Achievement and motivation have a positive correlation and are walking together, but it depends on personal effort to achieve the success.
One definition of achievement can be found in the Dictionary of Education (which is currently undergoing its first revision in over two decades). In this reference, achievement is defined as "(1) accomplishment or proficiency of performance in a given skill or body of knowledge; (2) progress in school" (C. V. Good, 1973, p. 7). Academic achievement is defined as "knowledge gained or skills developed in the school subjects, usually designated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers, or by both" (p. 7).29
It means that achievement is an indicator about students’ achieving in the class in leaning process. The achievement is commonly designed by scores through English test in the class. Achievement will be accumulated from English learning which has been done by students through a test where is
27 James E. Twining, Strategies for Active Learning, (New York: A Division of Simon & Schuster, 1991), p. 32
28 Robert E. Slavin, Educational Psychology, (New York: A Division of Simon & Schuster, 1991), 3rd Edition, p. 329
29 Gary D. Phye, Handbook of Classroom Assessment Learning, Achievement, and
scored by teacher as an evaluation for both teachers and students what they have done in learning process.
Anita Woolfolk stated that learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior.30 And then, George S. Morrison stated that learning refers to the cognitive and behavioral changes that result from experiences.31 Besides, Jeanne Ellis Ormrod stated that learning as a long term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience.32Ellen Green Wood said that learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation.33Through the statements above, there is new insight that experience creates learning; identically experience is a way to learn something new, from the experience someone can learn something that will change the behavior of him, it can develop his way of behavior and find his needs in doing daily activities because he can develop knowledge, skill and so on.
The discussion of each learning approach includes suggestions for specific techniques and methods of teaching to guide teachers in understanding student behavior and in making decision about how to teach.34 It means that learning is not always about teaching; it is about how to know each other, especially to know students’ characters. And then, Nelson B. Henry stated that learning is herein seen as far more closely interrelated with the process of living than most among one thought.35 It is very interesting,
30 Anita Woolfolk, 2004, op, cit., p. 206
31George S. Morrison, Early Childhood Education Today, (New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2009) 11th Edition, p. 113
32 Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, Educational Psychology – Developing Learner, (Boston: Pearson Eduction, 2011), 7th Edition, p. 180
33 Ellen Green Wood, Mastering the World of Psychology, (New York: Pearson Education, 2011), P. 137
34 Fredric Linder, Educational Psychology, (New York: McGraw Hill Companies, 2004), 19th Edition, p.73
because learning is not about thinking but it is about living in real life, learning can be from communication, observation and conversation among learners.
Associative learning occurs when a connection, or an association, is made between two events.36 Continued by John W. Santrock that associative learning is divided into two types of conditioning: classical and operant those two events are connected. In classical conditioning, organisms learn the association between two stimuli. Besides that, in operant condition, organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence.37 The experts give one the associative learning description that is internal and external needs during learning process, inside or outside needs to support students in associating their power stable.
Alice and Lester D. Crow stated that learning is complex. At one and the same time, and individual is (1) learning new skills or improving those that already are operating, (2) building a store of information or knowledge, and (3) developing interests, attitudes, and ways of thinking.38 Basically, learning is not as easy as ones think about. It can be easy to understand about learning but practically is really challenging for them, in doing a great thing is always challenging, and students need to be able to manage their mindset and motivation. Learning is a long process, although someone dies, learning will be growing if he can show a good life as inspiration and motivation to people around.
When students run into trouble in completing an assignment or in making progress in general in gaining proficiency in their foreign language, it is often useful to look at what they are doing when they learn. The activities and techniques they use to learn are called learning strategies. These strategies tend to fall into various groups, which are considered to represent a
36 Laura A. King, The Science of Psychology, (New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2008),p. 248 37 John W. Santrock, Psychology Essentials, (New York:McGraw-Hill, 2003), 2nd Edition, p. 195
more abstract set of tendencies that are called learning styles.39 It means that learning strategies and styles can be ways of learning process to achieve learning progress, because learning strategies is to develop their mind’s sensitivity to create creativity and learning styles is to develop their ways or styles in learning, so they can identify their potential through it.
Dale H. Schunk mentioned 3 (three) criteria of learning, (1) Learning involves change-in behavior or in the capacity for behavior. People learn when they become capable of doing something differently. (2) Learning endures over time. (3) Learning occurs through experience.40It makes a chance to student to change their behavior and achieve learning process through ways of learning, because everyone has their own capacity and potentials which are likely to grow if students can be guided into their own motivation and communicate with outside to have a good chance to grow with.
D. Review of Previous Related Research
There are some researches related to the correlation between students’ motivation with their achievement. The first one is who wrote her paper research, entitled “The Correlation between Students’ Motivation and Their Achievement in Learning English.” (A Correlational Study at Eight Grade of MTs Negeri Parung Bogor).She conducted this research because; based on her opinion, in learning English, the motivation of the student is able to distinguish the way of the student to achieve a good result in English. This quantitative research showed that there is no significant correlation between students’ motivation and their achievement in learning English. The relationship between her researches is almost the same. She uses the motivation’s students as variable. But, it is different students’ variable and school level or institution.
39MadelineEhrman, Achieving Success in Second Learning Acquisition, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 66
The second one is from Heryanti with her research paper entitled, “The correlation between students’ interests and their achievement in learning English.”(A Case Study at the Second Year Students of SMP Negeri 178 Jakarta). This research used the correlation technique to identify the correlation between students’ interests and their achievement in learning English. This research used the correlation technique to identify the correlation between students’ interests and their achievement in learning English. The result assessed by using liker scale questionnaires test, showed that there is correlation between these two factors. This research has a similar approach on the variable to be examined. She used interests of the students as variables; however, it used motivation of the students as variables. Interest is one of the categories of motivation itself that included. The different are the variable in quantity of students, school level or institution and motivation as an issue in research.
And the last one is Dwi Gitawati, who wrote her last paper entitled, “Correlation between Students’ Motivation and Their Achievement in Learning English.” (Correlational Study in the Eight Class of MTs Al -Hamidiyah). This quantitative research tried to find out the correlation between students’ motivation and their achievement in the class. The result showed that was the same result with the first previous research that mentioned it above. That was not significant correlation between students’ motivation and their achievement in English. She has the almost same research, but the specific difference placed in the variable, the quantity of the variable that used.
E. Framework of Thinking
Achievement is the result that students achieve during learning process. It shows how well students improve their learning through score achievement. If the score of learning is good, the process of learning may run well as desired. Students and teachers are two crucial factors in learning process, beside the learning environment itself that triggers students’ motivation.
Therefore, it is assumed that everything can be attained in learning process by the motivation to have achievement. As explained above, it would be there is a relationship between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement.
21 A. Place and Time of the Research
The research was conducted on February 2015 at the second grade of MTs Negeri Pamulang which is located on Pajajaran Street No.31 Pamulang, South Tangerang, Banten 15417, Indonesia.
B.Method of the Research
This study was used a survey method through correlation techniques. The dependent variable of this research is English learning achievement (variable Y), and the independent variable is students' motivation (variable X). In this study, the writer would like to gain the possibility of the correlation between the students’ motivation as independent variable (X variable) and their achievement as dependent variable (Y variable).
C. The Population and Sample
The population of this research is the students of the second grade of MTs Negeri Pamulang. Total students of the second grade are 319 students. These students are distributed into 10 classes, 6 classes for Bina Prestasi class and 2 classes for science class, 2 classes for English bilingual and 1 class for Arabic bilingual class. In each science class consists of about 31 – 32 students. The technique of sampling in this research used cluster sampling technique. The sampling was from Bina Prestasi class 1 in this research which is consisted of about 31 students.
D. The Technique of Instrument and Data Collection
1. The Technique of Instrumentation
This research used questionnaire to know the students’ motivation of MTsN Pamulang at the second grade. The questionnaire consisted of 30 items, 21 positive statements and 9 negative statements. The instrument has some alternative options based on Likert Scale; Strongly Agree (sangat setuju), In Doubt (kurang setuju), Agree (setuju), Disagree (tidak setuju), and Strongly Disagree (sangat tidak setuju). As see below:1
Table 3.1 The Likert Scale
English Indonesia Symbols Positive Negative
Strongly Agree Sangat Setuju SS 5 1
Agree Setuju S 4 2
In Doubt Kurang Setuju KS 3 3
Disagree Tidak Setuju TS 2 4
Strongly disagree Sangat Tidak Setuju STS 1 5
The Questionnaire consists of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Indicators of intrinsic motivation are desire, interest, need and goal. The Indicators of extrinsic motivation are teacher, parents and social.
Table Indicators of Motivated Learners
Variable Dimensions Indicators Items Number Positive Negative
1Zoltan Dornyei, Questionnaires in Second Language Research – Contraction,
a. Validity Instrument
Validation of instrument was conducted to see whether the instrument is capable to collect the data or not. The writer got the standard coefficient validity minimum for this instrument with N = 31 and coefficient significance level 5%. The coefficient validity is 0.3. To see the validity instrument, the writer did it through SPSS 19 Program. In validity test which was conducted in VIII of MTsN Pamulang the writer got 30 items valid from 40 items of the questionnaire. The numbers of valid item are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40. The numbers of invalid item are 1, 10, 12, 19, 21, 25, 31, 33, 35, and 36. It can be seen as below:
Table Indicators of Motivated Learners
Variable Dimensions Indicators Items Number Positive Negative
Desire 1*,3,5 2,4,6
Interest 7,9,11,13 8,10*,12*,14
Need 15,16,17,18 19*,20
Goal 21*,22,23,24 25*
Teacher 26,27 28,29,30
Parents 31*,32 33*,34,35*
b. The Result of Reliability Test
The Table 3.4
and rtable = 0.312. It can be assumed that the instrument is reliable with
rresult > rtable = 0.630 > 0.312.
2. The Technique of Data Collection
The data collection distributed a students' motivation questionnaire to the respondents. To know the students' English learning achievement, the writer used their midterm scores as the documentation. The data is collected from the English teaching.
E. The Technique of Data Analysis
The data analysis used the relationship technique, by using Pearson's product moment relationship as follows of the formula2:
�∑ − ∑
rxy : Coefficient Relationship N : Number of Respondents
∑XY : Total Numbers of X multiplied by Y
∑X : Total Score of X
∑Y : Total Score of Y
Criteria : if rxy > rtable means there is relationship and Ha is accepted, Ho is
rejected. If rxy < rtable means there is no relationship and Ha is
rejected, Ho is accepted.
Ho : there is not significant relationship between students’ motivation and their English learning score.
Ha : there is a significant relationship between students’ motivation and their English learning score.
With that formula, it could get a description of the relationship between X variable and Y variable, as below3:
The Interpretation of Relationship
0.00 – 0.20 The relationship between X variable and Y variable is very weak or can be told there is no relationship between the variables
0.20 – 0.40 There is weak relationship between X variable and Y Variable
0.40 – 0.70 There is enough relationship between X variable and Y variable
0.70 – 0.90 There is strong relationship between X variable and Y Variable
0.90 – 1.00 There is very strong relationship between X variable and Y variable
F. The Statistical Hypothesis
The statistical hypothesis with significance level 5% was formulated as follow:
Ho : r = 0 Ha : r ≠ 0
If rxy > rtable means there is correlation between X variable and Y variable, Ha
is accepted and Ho is rejected.
If rxy < rtable means there is no correlation between X variable and Y variable,
The research used questionnaire in VIII English Bina Prestasi 1 class to get motivation score. This class consists of 32 students; however 1 student did not come because she was sick. So, the respondents became 31 students. Before that, the first research was to know the validity of the data. In English learning score, the data collected from the English teacher of VIII English Bina Prestasi 1 class. The score was taken from the midterm test that was conducted in the first semester.
Finally, the data was analyzed to know the correlation between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement with formula of Pearson Product Moment SPSS Program and Microsoft Excel program for comparison.
1. The Students’ Motivation Score
Students’ motivation score as X variable (Independent variable) in this study. To get the score, the research was conducted through questionnaire in VIII English Bina Prestasi class 1 as the sample. The table below describes the result of the students’ motivation questionnaire.
*the motivation scores are converted into achievement score by score balance (See Appendixes, p.
2. The Students’ English Learning Achievement Score
The Y variable (dependent variable), students’ English learning score took from their midterm school report. The description of data as below:
N = 31 ∑Y= 2805
3. The Correlation between Students’ Motivation and their English Learning Achievement Score
To see how correlation between students’ motivation and their achievement, it is calculated through Pearson Product Moment.
The Correlation Score of X and Y Variable
No X Y XY X2 Y2
1 69 97 6693 4761 9409
2 61 94 5734 3721 8836
3 62 94.5 5859 3844 8930.25
4 60 91.5 5490 3600 8372.25
5 68 88.5 6018 4624 7832.25
6 63 84 5292 3969 7056
7 64 99 6336 4096 9801
8 64 91.5 5856 4096 8372.25
9 66 74 4884 4356 5476
10 70 93 6510 4900 8649
11 73 96 7008 5329 9216
12 69 97 6693 4761 9409
13 58 90 5220 3364 8100
14 60 82 4920 3600 6724
15 59 94 5546 3481 8836
16 55 91.5 5032.5 3025 8372.25
17 62 84 5208 3844 7056
18 54 89.5 4833 2916 8010.25
19 66 94.5 6237 4356 8930.25
20 56 94.5 5292 3136 8930.25
B. The Analysis of the Data
Pearson program was used for calculation of the data to get result of correlation between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement score. The result can be seen below:
1. The Frequency of Data
The Frequency of Data Motivation Score (X)
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
The Frequency of Data Achievement Score (Y)
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid 71.50 1 3.2 3.2 3.2
2. The Summary of Motivation and English Learning Achievement Table 4.6
The Summary of Motivation (X) and Achievement (Y)
Std. Deviation 5.83409 6.67768
Minimum 52.00 71.50
Maximum 73.00 99.00
Sum 1964.00 2805.00
3. The Histogram
Figure 4.1 The Motivation Score
4. The Correlation Result
Table 4.7 The Correlation Result
X Pearson Correlation 1 .091
Sig. (2-tailed) .627
N 31 31
Y Pearson Correlation .091 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .627
N 31 31
The description is as table above that r coefficient is 0.091 and the sig. (2-tailed) is 0.627. After calculating the data, it can be described that there is a very weak correlation between X variable and Y variable, or it can be assumed that there is no correlation between students’ motivation score and their English learning achievement score. Based on the rtable of
product moment mentioned that significant 5% is 0.355 (see appendix).It can be described that rxy<rtable= 0.091 < 0.355, it means that Ho is rejected
and Ha is accepted.
C. The Test of Hypothesis
From the calculation Pearson’s Product moment, it was got the result of rxy= 0.091; it is between 0.00 – 0.20. It means that rxy<rtable= 0.091 < 0.355.
According to the interpretation of data above, it can be described through the result that the correlation between X variable and Y variable is very weak. In other words, it means that there is no significance correlation between students’ motivation (X variable) and their English learning achievement (Y variable) score.
Based on the description of data in the previous chapter, it can be concluded that null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypothesis is rejected. The result can be seen that rxy is 0.091 then the result in 5%
significance level is 0.355. So, rxy is smaller than rtable, rxy<rtable = 0.091<
0.355. It means that there is no correlation between students’ motivation and their English learning achievement.
The conclusion describes that the correlation is very weak, in can be understood that low motivated students do not always get low score in the class, and high motivated students do not have a guarantee to achieve a high score in the class of English study.
The conclusion above gives a new insight about this research in the future. There are a few things that all English teachers can perform better from this study. Teachers should be more welcome with the students’ needs, particularly emotional needs. Students’ needs can be served by teachers’ initiatives in creating teaching and learning method that those be more relevance for their students’ needs. Besides that, Emotional becomes a fundamental for students that teachers need to know. Teachers should have space with students to listen them deeply, because emotional needs to be listened.
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