The correlation between students’ anxiety and their English learning achievement

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DEPAR THE FACULTY S

By:

Nur Djumadil Iman 207014000286

ARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION Y OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAIN

STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH

JAKARTA 2013

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that the ‘Skripsi’ (Scientific Paper) entitled “ THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ANXIETY AND THEIR ENGLISH LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT” (A Study Research at First Year Students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400), written by NUR DJUMADIL IMAN, student’s registration number:207014000286, was examined by the committee on May, 22th 2013, The ‘Skripsi’ was declared to have passed and, therefore, fulfilled one of the

requirements for the academic title of ‘S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts)’ in English Language Education

at the Department of English Education.

Jakarta, May, 22th2013.

Examination Committee

CHAIRMAN :Drs. Syauki, M.Pd ( )

NIP. 1964121 299103 1 003

SECRETARY :Neneng Sunengsih, M.Pd. ( )

NIP. 19730625 199903 2 001

EXAMINERS : 1.Dra. Fachriany, M.Pd. ( )

NIP.19700611 199101 2 001

2.Neneng Sunengsih, M.Pd. ( )

NIP. 19730625 199903 2 001

Acknowledged by

Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’Training

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Abstract

Iman, Nur Djumadil (NIM: 207014000286), THE CORRELATION BETWEEN

STUDENTS’ ANXIETY AND THEIR ENGLISH LEARNING

ACHIEVEMENT, at the first year students of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400. A Skripsi of English Education at The Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, 2013.

Advisor : Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.

Keywords:Students’ Anxiety, English Learning Achievement

The purpose of this study is aimed to investigate the correlation between

students’ anxiety in English learning and their English achievement. The study was conducted at the first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400. The populations of this study were all the first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400 2012-2013. There were 109 students as the sample of population and 40 of them were used as the sample of study. There were two variables investigated in this study, namely: students’

anxiety in English learning and English achievement.

The method used in this research is quantitative research through correlation technique. In collecting the data the writer did two kinds of instrument which were a questionnaire and the result of the test. The questionnaire aimed to know about anxiety in teaching learning process that was done in the classroom, and the result of the test is aimed to know the students achievement after learning English. The data was analyzed by using SPSS. From the calculation of statistic by applying SPSS program, it was known that the value of coefficient correlationrxy= - 0.657. It is in the interval of 0.41– 0.70, this means that the correlation belongto “medium correlation”in negative range. In other words, there is a correlation between variable X and variable Y.

The result showed that the correlation between students’ anxiety and students’

English learning achievement is significant (rxy = - 0.657). Because of the value of significant lower than level of significant and it is negative (- 0.657 < 0.05), it means that

students’ anxiety has negative correlation and it’s significant to their English

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SISWA DENGAN HASIL BELAJAR BAHASA INGGRIS,di SMP BAKTI

MULYA 400, Skripsi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris di Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, 2013.

Pembimbing : Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.

Kata Kunci:Kecemasan Siswa, Hasil Belajar Bahasa Inggris

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui korelasi antara kecemasan siswa dalam belajar bahasa Inggris dan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat korelasi antara kecemasan siswa dengan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris mereka dan membicarakannya dalam skripsi penulis, Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kelas satu SMP BAKTI MULYA 400. Populasi penelitian ini adalah semua siswa kelas satu SMP BAKTI MULYA 400 2012-2013. Terdapat 109 siswa sebagas sample populasi dan 40 sample dijadikan sample dalam penelitian ini. Ada dua variable yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini, yaitu kecemasan siswa dalam bahasa Inggris dan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris.

Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian quantitatif melalui teknik korelasi. Dalam mengumpulkan data, penulis melakukan dua macam instrumen yakni kuesioner dan hasil tes bahasa Inggris siswa. Kuesioner ditujukan untuk mengetahui kecemasan siswa dalam proses belajar mengajar dalam kelas, dan hasil tes bahasa Inggris ditujukan untuk mengetahui hasil belajar siswa setelah belajar bahasa Inggris. Data dianalisa menggunakan SPSS. Dalam perhitungan statistik dalam mengaplikasikan program SPSS, diketahui nilai koofisien korelasi rxy = - 0.657. ini berada antara 0.41– 0.70, arti korelasinya adalah “korelasi sedang” dalam nilai negatif. Dengan kata lain, terdapat korelasi antara variable X dan variable Y.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah SWT, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

All praises be to Allah, the Lord of the world, who always gives His mercy

and blessing upon the writer in completing this skripsi. Praying and greeting

always be upon His messangger, our prophet Muhammad SAW, his family and

his followers, who has spread Islam all over the world.

Firstly, the writer would like to express his deepest gratitude to his

beloved parents, (the late father) Drs. Djamil, L. and especially his mother Artini

S,Pd., who always support and give charity with a deep caring and loving to the

writer. And for all her family (who always give support).

And also, all persons who have helped him in finishing this skripsi,

particularly to:

1. Prof. Dr. H. Rif’at Syauqi Nawawi, M.A., the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiya. 2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.as the head of English Education Department. And

Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd, the secretary of English Education Department.

3. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd, also as his advisor who patiently guided him in writing

this skripsi. And All Lecturers at English Education Department, who have

guided and given him valuable knowledge and chances in finishing his

study.

4. Dr. Hadi Suwarno as the Headmaster of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400, who

has allowed him, doing the research of this skripsi at the institution he

leads.

5. All Teachers at SMP BAKTI MULYA 400, especially English Teachers

who has helped hi in conducting the research. And also, The first year

students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400, who have assisted in collecting the

data during the research.

6. His lovely family, who always give him support and always take care of

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their any contribution to her during finishing her study.

8. The staffs of libraries whose books he used for the references of this

research; main library Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, library

Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training, andNational Library.

“May Allah SWT,blessyouall…”

This ‘skripsi’ is presented to English Department of Faculty of Tarbiyah

and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Isamic University Jakarta as

partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Strata-1 (S1).

Finally, yet importantly, the writer realized that ‘skripsi’ still has some weakness and mistakes. Therefore, he would be grateful to accept any suggestion

and correction from anyone for the better writing. And then, he hopes that this

‘skripsi’ could be valuable writing. “Amiin…”.

Jakarta, February, 22th2013

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 The Score of Instruments………...32

Table 3.2 Instrument Indicators………33

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KEMENTERIAN AGAMA

FORM (FR)

No. Dokumen : FITK-FR-AKD-063

UIN JAKARTA Tgl. Terbit : 1 Maret 2010

FITK No. Revisi: : 01

Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat 15412 Indonesia Hal : 1/1

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI

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Saya yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini:

Nama : Nur Djumadil Iman

NIM : 207014000286

Tempat/Tgl. Lahir : Biak, 11 Januari 1990

Jurusan : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

MENYATAKAN DENGAN SESUNGGUHNYA

Bahwa skripsi yang berjudul The Correlation between Students’ Anxiety and Their English Learning Achievement (A Study Research at the First Year Students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan) adalah benar hasil karya sendiri dibawah bimbingan dosen:

Nama Dosen Pembimbing : Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.

NIP :1964121 299103 1 003

Jurusan/Program Studi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

Demikian surat pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sesungguhnya dan saya siap

menerima segala konsekuensi apabila terbukti bahwa skripsi ini bukan hasil karya

sendiri.

Jakarta, 22 Mei 2013

Yang Menyatakan

NUR DJUMADIL IMAN

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ENDORSEMENT SHEET ………. i

ABSTRACT ……….………..ii ABSTRAK ……….iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... iv

PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI ... vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS ……..……….………..…vii

LIST OF TABLES ………..ix

LIST OF APPENDIXES ……….x

CHAPTER I INTORDUCTION A. Background of the Study …... 1

B. The Limitation of the Study…..……... 3

C. The Statement of the Study ...4

D. The Purpose of the Study ... 4

E. Significance of the Study...4

CHAPTER II THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK A. Theoritical Description...5

1. Definition of Learning ...5

2. Learning Theory ...8

3. Definition of Achievement ...17

4. Definition of Anxiety ...23

B. Conceptual Framework...26

C. Hypothesis ...27

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. The Method of the Research ...28

B. Variables………..28

C. The Place and time of the Research ...29

D. Population, Sample and Sampling ...29

E. Data of Research ...30

F. Technique of Collecting Data and Research Instrument...31

G. Technique of Data Analysis ...35

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING A. The Description of Data ...36

B. The Finding ………36

1. Students’Anxiety Scores……..………..36

2. Students’English Scores ……..……….36

C. Data Analysis...37

D. The Test of Hypothesis……….37

E. Interpretation of Data ……….38 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion ...39

B. Suggestion ...40

BIBLIOGRAPHY ………...41

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Appendix 1. Blue PrintKalkulasi Statistik ‘Students’ Anxiety Score

and Students’ English Score dengan menggunakan SPSS ……..45

Appendix 2. Blue Print of Table ofStudents’ Anxiety Score

and Students’ English Score ……….46

Appendix 3. The Result of Instrument Validity……….…………47

Appendix 4. Angket untuk Siswa ……….………48

Appendix 5. Blue Print of Table of Studensts’ Anxiety Scores ….………..56

Appendix 6. Blue Print of Table of Studensts’ English Scores……….58

Appendix 7. Blue Print of Table ofThe Result of Students’ Anxiety

and English learning achievement by Product Moment Table…..60

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the study

English is very important subject in the human life to learn today; it’s

caused by developing of science. It may be true to say that English now is the

most important language in the world. English is one of foreign language that

has been used widely in the world as means of communication and as a tool

in gathering information. According to estimation, there are about a billion

people in the world today learning English as a foreign language.1 English is

also commonly used in the writing of many books of science and technology.

And now English as second language in Indonesia. Unfortunately, the

English mastery of Indonesia people is generally bad. To change this, of

course we must improve our English, through formal education at school over

Indonesia the teaching of English is aimed to prepare youngest Indonesia in

facing the rapid progress of science and technology to be more confident to

get involved in international relation as part of the world society.

In Indonesia, English has been taught to the students from the elementary

school up to university. Studying English is very important for them, because

there are many books needed to increase their knowledge, written in English.

Their good mastery in English, therefore, will make them easier to

comprehend those books. One of important factor that is able to increase their

knowledge is motivation in teaching English; teacher should realize about

student’s motivation, teacher should understand student’s needs.

In fact, we have known that among students who had graduated from

university has not enough yet competence in English. It can be seen from the

fact that the students have low ability in mastering the language and they also

have little knowledge of English.2

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Keith Johnson,An Introduction to Foreign language Teaching and, (Pearson Education Limited: 2001):p.3.

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Since this language has been taught in Indonesian school, some problems

which are found by teachers or students arisen concerning with the lesson of

English. This can be seen that the most of students are not able to

communicate well orally or in written, and it also can be seen from their

English scores that are still categorized low.

The writer argued that the low English scores may be caused by students

of English as a billingual difficult lesson, that English is a foreign language

and it is very far different from their mother tongue. The foreign language

also contain different aspects that have to be understood by the English

learner. Those things burdened most students in English teaching-learning

process.

Those things are called Language anxiety. As Skehan stated that

“Language anxiety, a type of anxiety specifically associated with L2 learning

contexts, can arise from many kinds of sources, according to the learners'

individually unique frame of reference.”3

Because of those things burden the students, some of students has

experience of anxiety in the English classroom while trying to learn English,

neither they’re doing English exercise on the class, having a homework, or having an examinaton. Horwitz have stated that, The subjective feelings,

psycho-physiological symptoms, and behavioral responses of the anxious

foreign language learner are essentially the same as for any specific anxiety.

They experience apprehension, worry, even dread. They have difficulty

concentrating, become forgetful, sweat, and have palpitations. They exhibit

avoidance behavior such as missing class and postponing homework. 4

The writer figure out language anxiety happens among students. Anxiety

often arise which is related with anxiousness in facing situation that never be

worried before. Zeidner said that “Anxiety tends to bother teaching-learning

process and achievement in education, even bother attention, working

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Kota Ohata, Potential Sources of Anxiety for Japanese Learners of English: Preliminary Case Interviews with Five Japanese College Students in the U.S., TESL-EJ Journal, Vol.9, No.3, (Tokyo, Japan, International Christian University, Des. 2005): p.1.

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memory, and retrieval.”5For example, 'Speaking in front of others' is rated as the biggest cause of anxiety followed by 'worries about grammatical

mistakes', 'pronunciation' and 'being unable to talk spontaneously'. And they

think English is difficult to learn. These situation and condition can affect

learners’English learning achievement indirectly.

English learning achievement as a determiner of learner’s achievementis

influenced by such factors as learner’s capability, learner’s interest, and anxiety which has been around the students. Their English achievement was

measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the

school.

Based on the background of the study previously, the writer argued that

one of important think that can affect learners in mastering English is

learners’ anxiety. The student’s anxietyin language learning aslo affect their English score. It is approved that the students who have low English

proficiency and difficulties’ belief can arise anxious personality. To ensure the success of English education, language anxiety is a significant issue

which cannot be ignored. Then, the writer assumes that anxiety is regarded as

one of dominant factors that can affect the students’ English learning achievement.

The writer stated that it is such an interesting study to have a research on

what have been mentioned above in order to find whether the students’

anxiety has any correlation with their English learning achievement. It is

expected that this study may support the English Teaching-Learning process

to improve the quality of study.

B. The limitation of the study

In this paper, the writer limits the study on the discussion of students’

anxiety in correlation with their English learning achievement. In this

research, the object of this study is limited on student’s anxiety of the first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400.

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C. The Statement of the Study

Based on the limitation of the studyabove, the statement problem is: “is there any correlation between students’ anxiety and their English learning achievement?”

D. The Purpose of study

This study aims to know whether anxiety has any correlation with

students’ English learning achievement. The writer hopes that this research

will help to figure outhow students’ anxiety can affect their English learning

achievement.

E. The Significant of the Study

1. Theoretically

Theoretically the result of this study will answer the question at the

formulation of the problem whether the student’s anxiety in learning

English is really important factor in English achievement.

2. Practically

It is expected that the result of the study will be useful for:

a. Headmaster: As feed back to the institution to improve for

improving the system of education and facilitating what the

teacher needs.

b. Students: to get an information about correlation between

students’ anxiety and their english learning achievement. In order

they can stimulate themselves to increase their english

achievement.

c. Teacher: to give an encouragement to the students in order that

he/she can improve the students’ english learning achievement.

d. Other researchers: the result of this research can give information

about the correlation between students’ anxiety and their english

learning achievement that can be used to basic consideration and

basic information to increase learning achievement especially

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5 CHAPTER II

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter discusses about definition of learning, the learning theories,

definition of achievement, definition of anxiety, types of anxiety and conceptual

framework.

A. Theoretical Description 1. Definition of Learning

Learning has an important role in people life. The most

development process is through learning activity directly. According to

Santrock, Learning is a relatively permanent influence on behavior,

knowledge, and thinking skills, which comes about through experience. For

example: when children learn how to use computer, they might make some

mistakes along the way, but at a certain point they will get the knack of the

behaviors required to use the computer effectively. The children will

change from being individuals who cannot operate a computer into being

individuals who can.1 It means learning is always about changes of

individual who learns whether its head for good or bad, planned or not.

Another thing which is always concerning about learning is experience,

experiencethat’s classified with other people or the environment.

Some expert has explained about learning, such as Witherington, he

explained that learning is changes of personality, which manifestation as

pattern of new responses which are skill, attitude, and knowledge.

The closest opinion has defined by Hilgard quoted by Sukmadinata,

he said that learning is a process where an attitude arises or changes,

because of there are responses to the situation.2

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John W. Santrock, Educational Psychology: Classroom Update; Preparing for Praxis and Practice, second edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001),p.210.

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Another definition that has to be informed here such as Kingsley

quoted by Soemanto. He stated that Learning is the process by which

behavior (in the broader sense) is originated or changed through practice or

training.3

Then, De Cecco also explained in his book about learning.

“Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency and is

the result of reinforced practice.”4

Likewise,Morrison, he stated that “Learning refers to the cognitive and behavioral changes that result from experiences.” The experiences that make up the curriculum are at the core of the learning process, and an

experience which is provided for children should be based on theory or

theories of how children learn.5

Psychologists have many different ways to explain the definitions of

learning. But, either explicit or implicit, finally it has the similar meaning

from the definition of learning which always directed to a process of

someone behavior’schange based on practice or certain experience.

Based on the description above, the writer tries to synthesize them

to gain general meaning about learning. Learning is an effort in developing

individual personality, either physical aspect or physiological. Learning is

an activity that has purpose to make a change of behavior, attitude,

habitual, knowledge, skill, etc, as a result of individual experience of

interaction with the environment.

Many learning definitions have been defined above. Some of them

are different but there also have the same concept. The same concept looks

as the learning principle.

Some of learning principle has explained in the following;

1. Learning as a part of development

2. Learning long live

3

Wasty Soemanto, Psikologi Pendidikan Landasan Kerja Pemimpin Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT RINEKA CIPTA, 2006),p.104.

4

John P. De Cecco,The Psychology of Leaning and Instrucition:Educational Psychoogy, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, INC.,1968), p.243.

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3. Learning achievement affected by bring factors, environment,

mature and also effort from self-individual

4. Learning includes the whole aspect of life

5. Learning activity occur in every place and every time

6. Learning happens with or without a teacher

7. Learning scheduled and with intentional gain high motivation

8. Learning act varieties from simple to complex

9. In learning occur the inhibitions

10. In the certain learning activity is needed help or guide from other

people.6

Learning is continuing process and long live education, occurs in

house, school, even in society environment. In facing and adapting the

requirement of world development, UNESCO formulated four pillars of

education, they are;

a. Learning to know, it may be regarded as both a means and an end

of human existence. People have to learn to understand the world

around them. To provide the cognitive tools required to better

comprehend the world and its complexities, and to provide an

appropriate and adequate foundation for future learning.

b. Learning to do, Learning must transform certified skills into

personal competence. It is assessed by looking at a mix of skills

and talents, social behavior, personal initiative and a willingness

to work. To provide the skills that would enable individuals to

effectively participate in the global economy and society.

c. Learning to live together, Education should help in inculcating a

spirit of empathy in students so that it can have a positive effect

on their social behavior throughout their lives. Understanding

each other, resolving conflicts through dialogue and discussion

should be the essential tools of present day education.

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d. Learning to be, the aim of development is the complete

fulfillment of man and his development in a holistic way as an

individual, member of a family and community and as a

responsible citizen.7

In Monitoring learning, learning achievement means assessing the

knowledge, skills, and attitude values of pupils. One of parameter that is

used to measure level of education success is students learning achievement.

If the students show good learning achievement, it means that the education

process is success. But when students show bad learning achievement, it

means that the education process has failed.

Therefore, considering the important role of students learning

achievement to determine the success of education, so learning process

should be directed toward the increasing of students learning achievement.

But, firstly the writer tries to explain the learning theoryes.

2. Learning Theory

Learning theories are conceptual frameworks that describe how

information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Learning

brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and

experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's

knowledge, skills, and values. There are three main categories of learning

theory: behaviorism, cognitive, and constructivism.

a. Behaviorism

Behaviorism theory is one of experimental psychology

which is adopted by education. Even though in the last twentieth

century, another theory has reaction with behaviorism, but

behaviorism had dominated the learning phenomenon.

Behaviorism is thus the study of the relation between people’s

environments and their behavior, without appeal to hypothetical

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events occurring within their heads.8 It means Behaviorism is the

view that behavior should be explained by observable

experiences, not by mental processes.

In the following explanations, the writer tries to describe

behaviorism psychologists and their approach. They are Ivan

Petrovich Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Watson, and Skinner. Their

theories are the most referenced in education.

1.) Classical Conditioning Theory by Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov is one of psychology’s most recognizable

figures, the Russian physiologist who developed the concept which

had been widely known as Classical Conditioning. Morris and Maisto had explained it in their book. Pavlov (1849-1936)

discovered Classical Conditioning almost by accident. He was

studying with dog salivates experimental. Classical (or Pavlovian)

conditioning refers to the type of learning in which a response

naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a

different, formerly neutral stimulus. There are four elements of

classical conditioning. (1) The unconditioned stimulus, (2) the

unconditioned response, (3) the conditioned stimulus, (4) the

conditioned response. The unconditioned stimulus is an event that

automatically elicits a certain reflex reaction, which is the

unconditioned response. The conditioned stimulus is an event that

is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. The learned

reaction elicited by repeatedly paired is the conditioned response.9

2.) Operant Conditioning Theory by Skinner

Skinner’s learning theory had widely known as Operant Conditioning Theory (also called instrumental conditioning). This

8

Neil R. Carlson & William Buskist, Psychology the Science of Behavior, 5thedition, (U.S.A.: Allan and Bacon, 1997), p.15.

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is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior

produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur.

The consequences -reinforcement or punishment- are contingent on

the organism’s behavior. Reinforcement (reward) is a consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur. In contrast,

punishment is a consequence that decreases the probability a

behavior will occur.10

3.) Connectionism theory by Edward Thorndike

Learning theory of Edward Thorndike is also called by

Connectionism Theory. According to Connectionism Theory,

Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and

responses. Such associations or "habits" become strengthened or

weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings. The

paradigm for S-R theory was trial and error learning in which

certain responses come to dominate others due to rewards.11

Thorndike characterized the two most basic intelligences as

Trial-and-Error and Stimulus-Response Association. It means changing

of learning behavior can be seen as observable behavior and hidden

behavior).

4.) Behaviorism theory by Watson

Watson was one of the behaviorists which came after

Thorndike. John B. Watson was an important contributor to

classical behaviorism, who paved the way for B. F. Skinner's or

operant behaviorism. Watson coined the term "Behaviorism" in

1913. Behaviorism assumes that behavior is observable and can be

correlated with other observable events. Thus, there are events that

precede and follow behavior. Behaviorism's goal is to explain

relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behavior

(responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral

10

Neil R. Carlson & William Buskist,Psychology the Science of Behavior, pp.165-166.

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effect). Watson's theory was more concerned with effects of

stimuli. He derived much of his thinking from Pavlov's animal

studies (classical conditioning). This is also referred to as "learning

through stimulus substitution," a reference to the substitution of

one stimulus for another.12

Underlying the behaviorist perspective are several key

assumptions:

a) People’s behaviors are largely the result of their experiences with environmental stimuli. As teachers, we must keep in mind very significant effect that students’

past and present environments are likely to have on their

behaviors. We can often use this basic principle to our

advantage: by changing the classroom environment, we

may also be able to change how students behave.

b) Learning involves a behavior change. We might define learning as a change inbehaviordue to experience. Such a view of learning can be especially useful in classroom.

Consider the scenario: “your students look at you attentively as you explain a difficult concept. When you

finish, you ask “Any questions? You look around the

room, and not a single hand is raised. “Good”, you think, “the all understand.”

But do your students understand? On the basis of what you’ve just observed, you really have no idea whether they do or don’t. Only observable behavior

changes-perhaps an improvement in achievement test

scores, a greater frequency of independent reading, or

reduction in off-task behavior that tell us learning has

occurred.

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c) Learning involves forming associations among stimuli and responses. By and large, behaviorist principles focus on relationships among observable events.

d) Learning is most likely to take place when stimuli and responses occur close together in time. When to events occur at more or less the same time –perhaps two stimuli or perhaps stimulus and a response – we say that there is Contiguity between them.

e) Many species of animals including human beings learn in similar ways. Many behaviorist principles have been derived from research with nonhuman animals. For

instance, as seeing the moment, our knowledge about

classical conditioning first emerged from Ivan Pavlov’s

early work with dogs. And another well-known

behaviorist B. F. Skinner, worked almost exclusively with

rats and pigeons. The fact is that behaviorist principles

developed from the study of nonhuman animals are often

quite helpful in explaining human behavior.13

5).Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura

Social learning theory is a major growth of the behavioral

learning theory tradition. Developed by Albert Bandura, social

learning theory accepts most of the principles of behavioral

theories but focuses to a much greater degree on the effects of cue

on behavioral and on internal mental processes, emphasizing the

effects of thought on action on thought (Bandura, 1986).

Bandura’s analysis of observational learning involves four

phases: attentional, retention, reproduction, and motivational

phases.

a). Attentional phase. The first phase in observational learning is paying attention to a model. In general, students

13

(27)

13

pay attention to role models who are attractive, successful,

interesting, and popular.

b). Retention phase. One teacher has students’ attention, it is

time to model the behavior they want students to imitate

and then give students a chance to practice or rehearse.

c). Reproduction. During the reproduction phase, students try to match their behavior to the models. In the classroom the

assessment of students learning takes place during this

phase.

d) Motivational phase. The final stage in the observational learning process is motivation. Students will imitate a

model because they believe that doing so will increase their

own chances to be reinforced. In the classroom the

motivational phase of observational learning often entails,

praise or grades given for matching your model.14

b. Cognitive Learning Theory

Cognitive learning theory focuses on internal mental

processes and their learning role. Its primary concern is with

making meaning out of information and experience (Brunner,

1990). According this approach, learning is defined as the

acquisition of new information. This is achieved through the

processing and storing of knowledge and skills in one’s mind in

such a way that they can be recalled and used at a later time when

we needed (Cooper, 1998).15

Constructivism is a cognitive theory of development and

learning based in the ideas of Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky. The

constructivist approach supports the belief that children actively

seek knowledge; it explains children’s cognitive development,

14

Robert E. Slavin, Educational Psychology Theory and Practice, tenth edition, (New Jersey: Pearson, 2009),pp.132-133.

15

(28)

provides guidance for how and what to teach, and provides

direction for how to arrange learning environments.

1) Piaget’sTheory of Cognitive Development

In the early 1920s, the Swiss biologist Jean Piaget began

studying children’s responses to problem of this nature. He used an approach he called the clinical method, in which an adult presents a task or problem and asks a child

a series of questions about it, tailoring later questions to

the child’s responses to previous ones. Piaget introduced a number of ideas and concepts to describe and explain the

changes in logical thinking he observed in children and

adolescents:

a. Children are active and motivated learners

b. Children construct rather than absorb knowledge

c. Children learn through a combination of

assimilation and accommodation

d. Interactions with one’s physical and social

environments are essential for cognitive

development

e. The process of equilibration promotes

progression toward increasingly complex

thought.

f. In part as a result of maturational changes in

brain, children think in qualitatively different

ways at different ages.

2) Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Lev Vygotsky’s theory contrast with Piaget, he believed that adults in any society foster children’s cognitive

development in an intentional and somewhat systematic

(29)

15

adult instruction and guidance for promoting cognitive

development – and, more generally, because he emphasized the influence of social and cultural factors in

children’s cognitive growth – his perspective is known as asocialcultural theory.16

c. Humanism Learning Theory

Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology

relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the

uniqueness of each individual. Essentially, these terms refer the

same approach in psychology. Humanism is a psychological

approach that emphasizes the study of the whole person.

Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through

the eyes of observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the

behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual’s

behavior is connected to their inner feelings and self concept. The

humanistic approach in psychology developed as a rebellion

against what some psychologists saw as limitations of the

behaviorist and psychodynamic psychology. The humanistic

approach is thus often called the ‘third force’ in psychology after

psychoanalysis and behaviorism (Maslow, 1968).17

Here two highly influential theories by Carl Rogers and

Abraham Maslow.

1. Rogers’ Theory of the Self

Carl Rogers (1902-1987), a clinical psychologist,

developed his theory of personality from observations the

made while practicing psychotherapy. Rogers found that

most people are constantly struggling to become their

“real” selves. Rogers concluded that the overriding human motivation is a desire to become all that one truly

is meant to be – to fulfill one’ capabilities and achieve

16

Jeanne Ellis Ormrod,Educational Psychology Developing Learners,pp.38-39

17

(30)

one’ total potential. This powerful, lifelong motive Rogers called a striving toward self-actualization

(Rogers, 1970, 1971).

2. Maslows’ Self-Actualization Person

Like Carl Rogers, psychologist Abraham Maslow

(1908-1970) began with the assumption that people are

free to shape their own lives, and they are motivated by a

desire to achieve self-actualization. According to

Maslow, a self-actualized person finds fulfillment in doing the best that he or she is capable of, not in competition with others but in an effort to become “ the best me I can be” (Maslow, 1971a, 1971b).

One of Maslow’s key concepts is the hierarchy of needs. Maslow believed that all humans face a series of needs, and that basic needs must be met before a person

can fulfill higher level need. At the bottom are

fundamental needs: those associated with physical needs, such as thirst and hunger, and those related to obtaining a

safe and secure environment. At the above are

psychological needs, including both the need of sense of belonging and the need to achieve competence,

recognition, and high self-esteem. Once all the

fundamental needs and psychological needs have been

met, a person can begin to fulfill the need for

self-actualization.18

Behavioral and cognitive theories agree that differences among

learners and the environment can affect learning, but they diverge in

the relative emphasis they give to these two factors. Behavioral

theories stress role of the environment-specifically, how stimuli are

18

(31)

17

arranged and presented and how response are reinforced. Behavioral

theories assign less importance to learner differences than do

cognitive theories. Two learner variables that behavioral theories

consider arereinforcement history (the extent to which the individual was reinforced in the past for performing the same or similar

behavior) and developmental status(what the individual is capable of doing given his or her present level of development).

Cognitive theories acknowledge the role of environmental

conditions as influences on learning. Teachers’ explanations and

demonstrations of concepts serve as environmental inputs for students.

Student practice of skill, combined with corrective feedback as

needed, promote learning. Cognitive theories emphasize that role of

learner’s thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and values. Learners who doubt their capabilities to learn may not properly attend to the task or may

work halfheartedly on it, which retards learning.19

3. Definition of Achievement

In general, every teaching-learning process will optimally succeedd

as expected especially English. i.e., it’s taken by high or low score

achievement. It is important know what learning achievement is.

Achievement term came from Dutch ‘prestatie’ and then in Indonesian become ‘Prestasi’. Achievement is always related with certain activity, e.g. learning. Syah (1997) had explained that, “Prestasi belajar merupakan taraf keberhasilan siswa dalam mempelajari materi pelajaran di sekolah yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk score yang diperoleh dari hasil tes mengenai sejumlah materi pelajaran tertentu.”20 (Learning achievement is the learners’ successful value in studying the material at school which is said by score and which is obtained from the final test about specific

19

Dale H. Schunk, Learning Theories An Educational Perspective, Sixth edition, (Boston, Pearson, 2008),p.22

20

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material). This means that achievement is the result that students obtain

after following a teaching-learning process in certain period of time.

The other definition of achievement in Cambridge Advanced

Learner’s Dictionary is “something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing.”21

Another expert’s opinion such as Hornby about achievement is a thing

done successfully, especially with an effort and skill.22

Based on the description above, the writer tries to synthesize them to

gain general meaning about achievement. According to the writer,

achievement is the final result of students’ ability in learning English after they have followed a teaching-learning process in period of time.

A student who learned English is he or she who wants to develop and

gain their knowledge in mastering English well, by doing practices and

exercises continuously. So, English learning achievement is the ability that

students obtain in learning English after they have learned in teaching

learning process in a particular period of time.

z

y As Sukmadinata quotedthat, “Tingkat penguasaan pelajaran atau hasil belajar dalam mata pelajaran dilambangkan dengan angka-angka atau huruf, angka-angka 0-10 pada pendidikan dasar dan menengah dan huruf A, B, C, D pada pendidikan tinggi”. (Achievement of the lesson can be signed with number or letter. The number 0-10 is for elementary until

middle of education, and the letter of A, B, C, D, to the high of education).23

It means that achievement is not only a mastery of knowledge, but also

capability and skillful of students in schools that is expressed in numerical

value.

21

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Third Edition, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press),p.20.

22

A.S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995),p.10.

23

(33)

19

To promote student’s achievement many teachers use strategies of teaching as Keith Johnson said “Many teachers intuitively use strategies that promote the achievement and cognitive growth of student”.24

Richard Kindvatter has found three strategies that have positive effect

on students’ achievement. They are: direct teaching, mastery learning, and

cooperative learning.

But he also said that three is not a single teaching strategy that is the

best approach as he said “there is not one single strategy that is the best approach but certain strategies, used in certain context have been

documented by writer as improving achievement”.25

Based on Richard points of view, we know that the main print in

teaching is appropriate strategies and instruction to help learner understand

the lesson. In choosing strategies the teacher must consider the students,

their development level, cultural background, academic abilities, and social

economic background.

Concerned with many factors that can inhibit English learning

achievement are obtained by students.

Muhibbin syah globally has divided some factors influencing

student’s achievement to be: internal factors, external factors, and approach to learning.

A. Internal factors

Internal factors are “factors from the inside of student themselves”. It is included two factors: physiological and psychological factors.26

1. Physiological factors

It is included general physical condition and specific

physical condition of life. It means the condition of eyes and ear.

24

Keith Johnson,Educational Psychology For Effective Teaching,(Toronto:Thompson Publishing Company, 1999),p.76

25

Richard Kindsvatter, William Willen, Margareth Ishler,Dynamic Of Effective Teaching.,p.135

26

(34)

“Briefly to help student whose eyes or ear are not good enough

teacher move them to the forward seat”.27

Giving vitamins to our students preventively can help them

protect their physical condition in this case; teacher can cooperate

with student’s parents.

2. Psychological factors

Generally among psychological factors of the student that

seem essential are “intelligent of student, attitude, aptitude, interest and motivation”.28

a. Intelligent

“……intelligent is one of human abilities to do activity and it

is had been exist where ha was born”.29

The quality of student intelligent cannot be doubted. It is

influence student success in learning. It means that higher

student’s intelligent bigger opportunities. They will be success in contrast lower student’s intelligent smaller opportunity they

have.

All teachers must realize that student’s intelligent superior or borderline generally will make our students get difficulty in

learning. The smart students, they will be boring if the lessons

are easy for them whilst the lower students will by very tired if

the lesson too hard for them.

b. Attitude

“Attitude is internal phenomenon that have effective

dimension tendency to response (response tendency) with

stabile method toward object negatively or positively….”30 The teachers have to able to manage the students, lessoned

and also themselves in order to make positive attitude of the

Cronbach in Sardirman, Interaksi dan Motivasi Belajar Mengajar,(Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003), p.46

30Ibid.

(35)

21

students and avoid negative attitude of students. It aims to

avoid negative attitude of our students and our profession as

teacher. The teacher not only master the lesson, but also able

to make the students sure that the lesson will be useful for

them.

c. Aptitude

“Generally aptitude is the ability of human to get the goal

or success in the future…..”.31

Based on this definition, we may state aptitude will

influence high and low of our student’s achievement, in

specific lesson. So that it is not a brief treatment if we and

parents force our students to go to specific skill school without

knowing our children aptitude. Foreign our student will give

bad influence to the achievement of our students.

d. Interest and Motivation

About interest and motivation have been discussed that

interest and motivation have correlation each other. Motivation

and interest caused by same thing. “Motivation comes because of the need of human and interest is also like it”.32

Interest is the basic motivational elements. The process of

learning will be run well if the students have good interest in

the lesson, because they have motivation from their self.

b. External factors

Muhibbin Syah gives external factors influencing student’s

achievement to be social environment, national environment, learning

approach factor.33

31

Sudirman AM,Interaksi dan Motivasi,.p.150

32Ibid,.

p.94

33

(36)

1. Social environment

Social environment such as school, teacher, staff

administration, and friends can influence spirit of learning of the

students.

2. National environment

Factors included in national environment are school building

and the place, houses of the students, learning tools, season, and

the time of learning. This factor considered has great influence in

our students.

3. Approach to learning

Approach of learning can be considered as all method or

strategies. Used by our students in improving effectiveness and

efficiency of learning process. In this case learning approach

means a set of operational theory to solve the problems to get goal

of special learning.34

Beside internal and external factors, approaches to learning also

considered have great influence in the success of our students in

learning. A student who use deep approach maybe has greater

opportunity to get better achievement than who whose surface

approach or reproductive approach35

As Sabri have stated in his book, that Psychological factor involves

interest, motivation, intelligence, perception, think, and memory.36 Their

perception that English as a foreign language, then they think English is

difficult to learn. This condition can affect learners’ English learning achievement and arising anxiety indirectly. It can be said that English

learning achievement will be different depend on what the kinds of anxiety

of the learner has.

Although English learning achievement can be depended into the

learner within his anxiety, in education or learning system, learning

34

Larso in Muhibbin,Psikologi,.p.155

35Ibid.,

p.155

36

(37)

23

achievement have to be measured. Curriculum or syllabus in learning shows

the general achievement called standard competences. It shows minimum

target of learner which is explained by affective, cognitive, and

psychomotor standard. Those standards are appropriate with the educational

theory used by the nation. In conclusion, learning achievement is target

measured by competences of the learner in learning which are shown by

score as a sign and score.

4. Definition of Anxiety

If someone is deal with something, and this certain thing can threat

him/her or, at least, can cause unpleasant thing to him/herself which inhibit

emotion or physiological, then he/she can be said have an anxiety.

Talking about anxiety, Anxiety is one of dominant factor that can

affect students learning. Commonly, learners have anxiety, when he/she

faces the difficult lesson, oriented to get the high scores, pressure from

teacher in teaching and also having anxiety in test.

According to Spielberger (1983) quoted by Sara Atef-Vahid and

Alireza Fard Kashani, Anxiety can be described as the subjective feelings

of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal

of the autonomic nervous system. 37

The other psychologist tries to make a general definition of anxiety

like Branca. He mentions that, Anxiety is “best defined and described by

comparing it to fear. The feeling-tone of anxiety is very similar to the

feelings experienced in fear.”38

Similarly with Kowalski (2000) stated that the basic meaning of

anxiety, “Anxiety involves a vague, highly unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension.”39 It means that anxiety is normal thing or an emotion condition that will happen to any individual. This common reaction also

37

S. Atef-Vahid and A. Fard Kashani,The Effect of English Learning Anxiety on Iranian High-School Students’ English Language Achievement,p.2.

38

Albert A. Branca, PSYCHOLOGY the Science of Behavior, (U.S.A: Allyn and Bacon, INC.,1964),p.432.

39

(38)

happen in classroom activities especially English classroom. Because of it

can inhibit new learning behavior and performance which had been learned

previously by all students.

Anxiety is believed to consist of two components:

1. Cognitive anxiety which refers to the mental aspect of anxiety

experience including negative expectations, preoccupation with

performance and concern about others’ perceptions.

2. Somatic anxiety which refers to learners’ perceptions of the

psychological effects of the anxiety experience as reflected

arousal and unpleasant feeling states such as nervousness, upset

stomach, pounding heart, sweating, and tension (Morris, Davis

and Hutchings 1981).

To some researchers (Lang 1971; Cheng 2004) anxiety has three

different components rather than two: cognitive, physiological (somatic),

and avoidance behavior (behavioral). It is believed to involve a variety of

dysfunctional thoughts, increased physiological arousal and maladaptive

behaviors. Some studies find somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety covary

and are hard to separate. Learners experience apprehension, worry and

dread. They exhibit behavior such as missing the class and postponing the

work or assignment. The relations among anxiety, cognition and behavior

are best seen as recursive or cyclical where each influences the other. A

demand to answer a question in a foreign language class may cause learners

to become anxious and anxiety leads to worry and rumination. Cognitive

performance is diminished because of the divided attention and therefore

performance suffers, leading to negative self evaluations and more self

deprecating cognition which further impairs performance. In an educational

setting anxiety may impair the ability to take in information, process it and

retrieve it, can limit the use of both short and long term memory.40

From the definition above, they could be concluded that anxiety is

an unpleasantcondition that can’t be ignored by anybody as a response from

40

(39)

25

any situation which threats the forthcoming marked by complaints such as:

worry, apprehensive, and fear.

Every learner has different rates of anxiety. This anxiety can be

observed directly. As Michael W. Passer mentioned that anxiety responses

have four components. They are:

1. A Subjective-emotional component, including feelings of tension and apprehension,

2. ACognitive component,including worrisome thoughts and a sense of inability to cope,

3. Physiological responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, rapid breathing, nausea, dry mouth and,

4. Behavioral responses, such as avoidance of certain situations and impaired task performance.41

English anxiety also called a foreign language anxiety that is a

situation or reaction to learners in facing inconvenient condition when

they’re in English teaching-learning process. Actually this anxiety is less than anxiety of English test. This anxiety, considered as a one of resistor

factor in teaching-learning process, which bothers learners performance of

cognitive functions, such as concentration, remember, concept form, and

problem solving (Sieber, 1977).42Besides, English lesson is ‘scary’;anxiety

also can arise by teaching system, teachers’ capability and students’

academic ability.

There are three main types of foreign language anxiety on which all

practitioners agree:

1. Communication apprehension is a type of shyness characterized by

fear of and anxiety about communicating with people. Difficulty in

speaking in public, in listening or learning a spoken message is all

manifestations of communicative apprehension.

41

Michael W. Passer and Ronald E. Smith,PSYCHOLOGY The Science of Mind and Behavior, second edition, (New York: McGraw Hill, 2004),p.513.

42

(40)

2. Test anxiety refers to a type of performance anxiety stemming from

a fear of failure. Test anxious students often put unrealistic demands

on themselves.

3. Fear of negative evaluation, apprehension about others’ evaluations,

and avoidance of evaluative situations. Learners may be sensitive to

the real evaluations or imagined of their peers.43

English anxiety is usually similar with students’ disbelief in learning English. They think English is difficult and fright which arisen because

they’re not sure with their ability, attitude, and hopeless. It will affect

learners’ learning development. According to Sabri, definition of

‘development’ is changes of qualitative and quantitative which concerns aspects of human mental-psychology.44 It means individual conditioning

from child (always be forced by parents to learn English and must get best

score), with having this experience will cause anxiety, or having

mental-conflict in choosing lesson which is liked by students, but inappropriate

with they hope or will.

B. Conceptual Framework

According to Sabri, Students’ learning achievement can be influenced by some factors, come from internal and external factors of the students.

One of internal factor is psychological term that can affect the students’

learning achievement are IQ, talent, interest, and cognitive ability, including

anxiety.45

Students’ achievement is signed by their final scores. It is resulted

from the average of their daily scores (formative scores) and their final test

score.

Students’ anxiety especially in learning English as one factor that is

assumed can interfere the students’ learning achievement in English by the

following reason :

43

Feryal Cubukcu,Foreign Language Anxiety,p.3.

44

H. M. Alisuf Sabri,Psikologi Pendidikan, p.11.

45Ibid

(41)

27

Students who have anxiety in learn English will drive their self not to

learn. In other words, they will unenjoy in their learning process.

Students who have high level of anxiety and worry constantly can

significantly impair their ability to achieve.

Students who have high levels of anxiety can discourage students

from participating in classroom activities or studying at home, and may

even cause them to lose their self-confidence and motivation for learning

English.

Students who have higher achievement usually have lower anxiety

significantly than students who have lower achievement.

Students’ anxiety doesn’t only come from inside, but also comes from

outside, such as, teacher, parents, environment.

Finally, it can be concluded that the higher anxiety the students have,

the worst English achievement they will get. But, the lower anxiety students

have, the better English achievement they will get. In other words, there is a

correlation between students’ anxiety and English learning achievement.

C. Hypothesis

Based on theoretical and conceptual framework stated before, the

writer formulated the hypothesis of this study namely: there is a correlation

between students’ anxiety and English Learning achievement.

D. Statistical Hypothesis

Statistically, the formulation of hypothesis as follows:

- Ho = There is no correlation between students’ anxiety and their English learning achievement

- Ha = There is a correlation between students’ anxiety and their

(42)

28

Research is an important way to get fact of a problem. Research

methodology, more over, is the most significant aspect in conducting a research.

In this chapter, the researcher discusses, The Method of the Research, Variables,

The Place and Time of the Research, Population, Sample and Sampling, Data of

Research, Technique of collecting Data, and Technique of Data Analysis.

A. The Method of the Research

In doing this research, the writer used a survey method through correlation

techniques.

The method used in this study is the correlation research. According to

Gay, Correlational research is a research study that involves collecting data in

order to determine whether and to what degree a relationship exists between two

or more quantifiable variables.1 It means this study is focusing on knowing

correlation between two variables.

B. Variables

In education study, the correlational research is usually used to search

some variables which are estimatable that has a significant role in achieving

successful of teaching-learning process.

According to Suharsimi variable is “everything that will be objects of research or factors that have influence in the phenomena studied.2

Ary states that “Variable is an attribute that is regarded as reflecting or

expressing some concept or construct.3

For example, about achievement and internal motivation, strategy learning,

college attendance intensity, and including anxiety.4

1

Sukardi,Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara, 2003),p.166.

2

Suharsimi Arikunto,Prosedur Penelitian,(Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 1996), p. 99

3

Donald Ary,Introduction to Research in Education;6 th ed, (USA: Wadsworth Group Thomson Learning Inc, 2002),p.30

4

(43)

2

The dependent variable of this research is English learning achievement

(variable Y), and the independent variable is students’ anxiety (variable X). In this case, that anxiety in learning English (variable X) is regarded as a factor that

influence students’ English learning achievement (Variable Y). Finally, he tried to correlate both variables.

X Y

Notes:

X = Students’ anxiety in learning English (Independent variable) Y = Students’ English learning achievement (Dependent variable)

= Correlation

C. The Place and Time of the Research

This research was conducted at SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta

Selatan. The research started on January, 11thand was done on January, 12th2013.

D. Population, Sample and Sampling

a. Population

LR Gay in educational research stated “a population is a group to which writer would like to result of study to be generalizable.”5

Suharsimi Arikunto stated that population is “all object of research.”6

And in encyclopedia of educational evaluation stated that population is a set

(a collection) of an elements possessing one or more attributes of interest.7 In

this research, the researcher take all of the first year students of SMP

BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan. There are fifth classes. The totals of

first year students are 109 students.

5

LR Gay,Education Research,(New York: Macmillian Publishing Company, 1992),p.140

6

Arikunto,Prosedur,.p.115

7Ibid,

(44)

Arikunto said that “sample is part population that researched.8Based on this statement the writer took of population to be sample. Furthermore,

Arikunto explained that if the subject is changed, the writer takes 11%. The

researcher took 40 students from 109 students of the sample. They are the

first year students of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan.

c. Sampling

The sample is taken using random sampling techniques. Ary said that

random sampling is the best known of the probability sampling procedures

that has basic characteristic is that all members of the population have an

equal and independent chance of being included in the sample.9

Also, Ahmad Tanzeh said that Sampling is the technique to removal of

sample.10

Sampling is the process of selecting units from population of

motivation so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize result

back to the population from which they were chosen.11

The writer only took 40 respondents as samples that were selected

randomly. The writer gives the questionnaire to all class. Then, the writer

took the questionnaire from every eight students from each class.

E. Data of Research

According to Suharsimi Arikunto his book “ Prosedur Penelitian” he states

that “Data is the result of writer investigation number as fact.”12

Data is the important factor within a research. It is needed by the

researcher to solve problems in his/her investigation. It is some information or fact

to be analyzed by the researcher 13. It mean that data is all information needed by

researcher to find the answers of the research problems. There were two kinds of

8

Arikunto,Prosedur,.p.109

9

Ary,Introduction,.p.141

10

Ahmad Tanzeh,Metode Penelitian Praktis,(Tulungagung :P3M STAIN, 2004), p.57

11

http://www.Social Research Method, Net/kb/sampling.php

12

Arikunto,Prosedur,.p.99

13

Figur

Table 3.1 The Score of Instruments ……………………………………...32 Table 3.2  Instrument Indicators …………………………………………33 Table 3.2 Product Moment Table ……………………………………38

Table 3.1

The Score of Instruments ……………………………………...32 Table 3.2 Instrument Indicators …………………………………………33 Table 3.2 Product Moment Table ……………………………………38 p.9
Tabel Kalkulasi Statistik ‘’Student’s Anxiety Score and Students’ English Score’’ dengan menggunakan SPSS 27-Feb-2013 02:36:48 Statistics Anxiety Achievement N Valid 40 40 Missing 0 0 Mean 111.48 73.48 Median 110.00 75.00 Mode 115 80 Minimum 99 46 Maximum

Tabel Kalkulasi

Statistik ‘’Student’s Anxiety Score and Students’ English Score’’ dengan menggunakan SPSS 27-Feb-2013 02:36:48 Statistics Anxiety Achievement N Valid 40 40 Missing 0 0 Mean 111.48 73.48 Median 110.00 75.00 Mode 115 80 Minimum 99 46 Maximum p.55
Table VIII Correlation “r” value

Table VIII

Correlation “r” value p.56
Table of The Students’ Anxiety Scores

Table of

The Students’ Anxiety Scores p.59
Table od The Students’ English Scores N Students’ English Scores

Table od

The Students’ English Scores N Students’ English Scores p.61
Table of The Result of Students’ Anxiety and English learning achievement by Product Moment Table

Table of

The Result of Students’ Anxiety and English learning achievement by Product Moment Table p.63

Referensi

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