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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERACTIVE

LEARNING IN TEACHING NARRATIVE TEXT

(A Case Study at the Second Grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 8

Ciputat)

A “Skripsi”

Presented to Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training

in English Language Education

By:

Nur Ajeng Solekha NIM. 105014000313

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

THE FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING

SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

JAKARTA

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(A Case Study at the Second Grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 8

Ciputat)

A “Skripsi”

Presented to

Faculty of Tarbiya h and T eachers Training

in English Language Education

By:

Nur Ajeng Solekha NIM. 105014000313

Approved by Advisor

Drs. Nasrun M ah mud, M.Pd. NIP. 150 041 070

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY

OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING

STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH

JAKARTA

2010

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ENDORSEMENT BY THE EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

The examination committee of the Faculty of Tarbiyah certifies that the ‘Skripsi’

(scientific paper) entitled ‘The Effectiveness of Interactive Learning in

Teaching Narrative Text (A Case Study at the Second Grade of SM A

Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat)’ written by Nur Ajeng Solekha, students’

registration number: 105014000313, was examined by the committee on

Wednesday, March 17th 2010, and was declared to have passed and, therefore,

fulfilled one of the requirements for academic title of ‘S.Pd’ in English language

education at the Department of English Education.

Examination Committee:

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SECRETARY : Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd. (……….)

NIP. 19730625 199903 2 001

EXAMINER 1 : Drs. S yauki, M.Pd (……….)

NIP. 19641212 199103 1 002

EXAMINER 2 : Drs. Nasifuddin Jalil, M.Ag (……….)

NIP. 19560506 199003 1 002

Acknowledge by:

Dean of Tarbiyah and Tea chers Training Faculty

Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA. NIP.19571005 198703 1 003

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ABSTRACT

SOLEKHA, NUR AJENG, 2010, The Effectiveness of Interactive Learning in

Teaching Narrative Text (A Case Study at the Second Grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat), Skripsi, English Department, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.

Advisor: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, MPd.

Key words: Interactive Learning and Teaching Narrative Text, SMA

Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat.

This study is purposed to describe the objective condition of the effectiveness of intera ctive learning in teaching narrative text at the second grade of SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat.

The aim of this research is to know the effectiveness of interactive learning in teaching narrative text; moreover it is conducted to get the effective technique in teaching narrative text at the second grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat.

The sample of the research is 40 students of the second grade. In getting the data, the writer used experiment method and quantitative approach. The instrument of the research is pre-test and post-test.

The findings of the study state that teaching narrative text by using interactive learning at the second grade of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat is effective and quite success because it can lead students capable in learning narrative text.

Based on the research finding, it can be suggested that:

a. Teacher should make the class interactive to make the class alive.

b. The students are suggested to be familiar in learning narrative text based on the interactive learning.

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Keguruan, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Pembimbing: Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, MPd.

Key words: Pembelajaran Interactive, Teks Narrative, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa

Inggris

Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mendeskripsikan kondisi objektif dari keefektifan pembelajaran interaktif dala m mengajar teks narrative di SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat.

Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan pembelajaran interaktif dala m mengajar teks narrative di SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen dan juga menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah pre-test dan post-test.

Hasil ya ng diperoleh dari penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa mengajar teks narrative pada kelas dua di SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat dengan menggunakan pembelajaran yang interaktif adalah effektif dan cukup sukses karena pembelajaran tersebut dapat membuat siswa belajar teks narrative dengan baik.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang ditemukan, dapa t disarankan bahwa:

a. Seorang guru sebaiknya menjadikan kelas yang interaktif agar suasana kelas menjadi hidup.

b. Para siswa disarankan untuk lebih familiar dalam belajar teks narrative menggunakan pembelajaran yang interaktif.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the na me of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. All praise be to Allah,

Lord of the world who has given the Mercy and Blessing to her so the writer can

accomplish her “Skripsi.” Peace and salutation be upon the prophet Muhammad,

his families, companions, and his followers forever.

In this occasion, the writer would like to expr ess her greatest appreciation,

honor and gratitude to her beloved mother and father Ibu Urifah and Bapak

Sunardi, for their irreplaceable encouragement and patience to motivate the writer

to finish her study, and also her beloved brothers, for their support and kindness to

her in writing this “Skripsi.”

The writer also would like to express her gratitude to Mr. Drs. Nasrun

Mahmud, M.Pd. for his advices, guidance, dedication, corrections and suggestions

in finishing this “Skripsi.”

Her gratitude also goes to:

1. All inspiring lecturers of English Department for their

encouragement to the writer during her study at UIN S yarif

Hidayatullah Jakarta.

2. Drs. S yauki, M.Pd, the Head of English Education Department

3. Neneng Sunengsih S.Pd the secretary of English Education

Department, and all staffs of English Education Department

4. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosada, MA, the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiya h and

Teachers’ Training.

5. The staff and officers of the libraries of UIN, Lembaga Bahasa

Atmajaya, and American Corner, who have given permission to the

writer to complete the references for this study.

6. Drs. H. Enda ng Surahman, M.A, the headmaster of SMA

Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat, who has given a great chance to the

writer to carry out the research.

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English Department for sharing their knowledge, time and being

great friends.

8. To any other person who cannot be mentioned one by one for their

any contribution to the writer during finishing her “Skripsi”

May Allah, the Almighty bless them all, so be it.

Finally, the writer realizes that this “ Skripsi” is still far from being perfect.

A criticism and suggestions would be acceptable to make it better.

Jakarta, March 3rd 2010

The writer

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CHAPTER I

different purposes. It mea ns that language is a vital part of human communication.

As Jean Berko Gleason said:

Language is a basic to our existence that life without words is difficult to envision. Because speaking, listening, reading and writing are such fundamental aspects of our daily life, they seem to be ordinary skills. Executed easily and effortlessly, language use guides us through our day. It facilitates our relationship with others and helps us understand world events and the art and sciences.1

English is one of the important languages in the world, because it is widely

used and studied all over the world. Many books of science, technology, art and

other published issued are written in English. In other words, English is an

international language.2

In Educational world especially in Indonesian school, English is a compulsory

subject in the national curriculum. It is taught from elementary school up to the

university level. It means that English has important role so that it is taught in the

schools.

To master English, someone has to master its skills: speaking, listening,

reading, and writing. As one of the four language skills, reading provides students

with some activities to help them to comprehend the text and to train to be skillful

readers who read effectively.

1

Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner, Psycholinguistics, Second Edition, (Harcourt: Brace College Publisher: 1998), p. 2

2

Sandra Lee McKey, Teaching English As An International Language, (England: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 5

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One of the text types is narrative text. It is one of texts studied by students in

this era as school level curriculum. It is also offered as aesthetic rea ding because

one reads it not only for enjoyment and pleasure but also for getting knowledge by

introducing to new people, exploring other culture, and expanding the world.3

To achieve the goal of learning, teacher must have or create a good teaching

strategy to make the class effective and well-organized. Therefore, in teaching

narrative text, teacher needs good teaching strategy.

One of those strategies is by using interactive learning, where the whole class

working together as individual, small groups, pairs, and also individual works. It

provides work that involves a number of different arrangements. This strategy

also encourages a friendly and relaxed learning environment. 4

In the era of communicative language teaching, i nteraction is, in fact, the heart

of communication; it is what communication is all about. “Interactive learning is

one of the principles approach or indirect approach of communicative language

teaching”.5

According to Anthony’s model, approach is the level at which assumptions and

beliefs about language and language learning are specified; methods is the level at

which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the

particular skills to be taught, the content to be taught, and the order in which the

content will be presented, technique is the level at which classroom procedures are

described.

As Chaudron Craig states that:

Interaction is viewed as significant because it is argued that only interaction the learner can decompose the t eaching-learning structures and derive meaning from classroom events, interaction gives learners the opportunities in corporate structures into their own speech, and the meaningfulness for learners of classroom events of any kind, whether thought as intera ctive or not will

3

Fraida Dubin and Elite Olshtain, Reading by All Means, (New York: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1990), p. 477

4

Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching: A Guide Book for English Language Teachers, Second Edition ( South Yarra : Macmillan, 2005), p. 84

5

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3

depend on the extend to which communication has been jointly constructed between the teacher and the learner.6

Based on the explanation above, the writer has as intention to make teaching

learning narrative text be alive by using interactive learning.

B. Limitation and Formulation of the Problem

To avoid misunderstanding in interpreting the problem, it is necessary to make

the limitation of the problem. The writer limits the problem as follows:

1. Interactive learning is the approach that writer analyze in this “Skripsi.”

2. Narrative text is one of text types that is taught in the second grade

students of SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat.

3. The text that the writer analyzes in this “Skripsi” is written text.

Based on the background of the study, the writer formulates the problems as

follows:” Is Interactive Learning Effective in Teaching Narrative T ext?”

C. Objective of the Study

In discussing this “Skripsi”, the writer would like to know the effectiveness of

interactive learning in teaching narrative text.

D. Hypothesis of the Study

The statistic hypothesis states:

1. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): there is significance difference between the

students’ achievement in learning narrative text using interactive learning

and without using interactive learning at SMA Muhamma diyah 8 Ciputat.

2. Null Hypothesis (Ho): there is no significa nce difference between the

students’ achievement in learning narrative text using interactive learning

and without using interactive learning at SMA Muhamma diyah 8 Ciputat.

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E. Significance of the Study

The research will analyze the effectiveness of interactive learning in tea ching

narrative text. Then, the writer expects, this research will be useful, especially for

the writer herself to study about narrative text and to know more about interactive

learning and generally for being reference for other people.

F. Method of the Research

The method of this research is an experimental method by using quantitative

approach. Experimental method is a scientific investigation in which the

researcher manipulates one or more independent variables, controls any other

relevant variables, and observes the effect of the manipulation on the dependent

varable.7 In this case the writer takes Sekolah Menenga h Atas (SMA)

Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat as pla ce for investigation to be discussed.

7

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Interactive Learning

1. Concept of Interactive Learning

Before turning into interactive learning, someone should try to understand

what we mean method, technique, and approach.

In describing methods, the difference between a philosophy of langua ge

teaching at the level of theory and principles, and a set of derived procedures

for teaching a language, is central. In attempt to clarify this difference, a

scheme was proposed by the America n applied linguist Edward Anthony in

1963. He identified three levels of conceptualization and organization, which

he termed approach, method, and technique.

The arrangement is hierarchical. The organizational key is that technique

carry out a method which is consistent with an approa ch.

An approach is a set of correlative assumption dealing with the nature of

language teaching and learning. An approa ch is axiomatic. It describes the

nature of the subject matter to be taught

Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of the langua ge

material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon the

selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural. Within

one approach, there can be many methods.

A technique is implementation – that which actually takes place in a

classroom. It is a particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish

an immediate objective. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and

therefore in harmony with an approach as well.1

For Brown, the term method is best placed by the term pedagogy. The

former implies a static set of procedures, whereas the letter suggests the

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dynamic interplay between teachers, learners, and instructional materials

during the process of teaching and learning.2

After two decades, Jack Richards revised and extended the original

Anthony model. A method, according to Jack C. Richards, is an umbrella term

for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice. An approa ch

defines those assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of langua ge

learning that operate as axiomatic constructs or reference points and provide a

theoretical foundation for what language teachers ultimately do with learners

in classrooms. Design specifies the relationship of theories of language and

learning to both the form and function of instructional materials and activities

in instructional settings. Procedure comprises the classroom technique and

practices that are consequences of particular approaches and designs.3

At least three different theoretical views of language and the nature of

language proficiency explicitly inform current approaches and methods in

language teaching.

The first, and the most traditional of three, is the structural view, the view

that language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of

meaning. The target of language learning is seen to be the mastery of elements

of this system, which are generally defined in terms of phonological units

(e.g., phonemes), gra mmatical units (e.g., clauses, phrases, sentences),

grammatical operations (e.g., adding, shifting, joining, or transforming

elements), and lexical items (e.g., function words and structure words).

The second view of language is functional view, the view that the

language is a vehicle for the expression of functional mea ning. The

communicative movement in language tea ching subscribes to this view of

language. This theory emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension

rather than merely the gra mmatical characteristics of language, and leads to a

2

Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 6

3

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7

specification and organization of language teaching content by categories of

meaning and function rather than by elements of structure and grammar.

The third view of language can be called interactional view. It sees

language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersona l relations and for the

performance of social interactions between individuals. Language is seen as a

tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations. Areas inquiry being

drawn on in the development of interactional approaches to language tea ching

includes interaction analysis, conversation analysis, and ethnomethodology.

Interactional theories focus on the pattern of moves, acts, negotiation, and

interaction found in conversational exchange. Language teaching contents,

according to this view, may be specified and organized by patterns of

exchange and interaction or may be left unspecified, to be shaped by the

inclinations of learners as interactors. 4

One of the most comprehensive lists of Communicative Langua ge

Teaching features ca me some time ago from Finocchiaro and Brumfit. They

described that interactive learning, cooperative learning, learner -centered

classes, content-centered education, whole language, etc, included into what

called with principle of Communicative Language Tea ching.5

From the statements above, the writer concludes that the interactive

learning is an approach that is the principle of Communicative Langua ge

Teaching while interactive language tea ching means elicitation of willing

student participation and initiative. It requires a high degree of indirect

leadership, along with emotional maturity perceptiveness, and sensitivity to

the feeling of others. In interaction language teaching, comprehension and

production retrieve their normal relationship as interactive duo. 6

4

Richards and Rodgers, Approach and Methods…, p. 17 5

H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language pedagogy, Second Edition, (New York: Longman, 2001), p. 85

6

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2. Definition of Interactive Learning

Interaction is an important word for language teaching. In the era of

Communicative Language Teaching, interaction is, the heart of

communication is all about.

one person s hea d and into the head of another person and vice versa. 7

In addition, according to River, interaction is the situation when students

achieve facility in using a language when their attention focuses on conveying

and receiving authentic messages. It is the messages that contain information

of interest to speaker and listener in a situation of importance o f both.

Interaction involves not just expression of one s own ideas but comprehension

of those of others. One listens to others; one respond (directly or indirectly);

other listen and respond. 8

Interaction is also an affective, temperamental matter, not merely a

question of someone saying something to someone. 9

From the explanation above, interactive learning can be defined as an

principles of second language learning that should be known.

The second language learning principles are:10

7

Brown, Teaching by Principles…, p. 165 8

River, Interactive Language…, p. 4 9

River, Interactive Language…, p. 10 10

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9

a. Cognitive Principle

It is relate mainly to mental and intellectual functions.

1) Automaticity

Efficient second language learning involves a timely movement of

the control of a few language forms into the automatic processing of a

relatively unlimited number of language forms. Over analyzing

language, thinking too much about its forms, and consciously lingering

on rules of language all tend to impede this graduation to automaticity.

2) Meaningful Learning

Meaningful learning will lead toward better long-term retention

than rote learning.

3) The Anticipation of Reward

Human being is universally driven to act or behave by the

anticipation of some sort of reward-tangible or intangible, short term-

that will ensue as a result of the behavior.

4) Intrinsic Motivation

The most powerful rewards are those that are intrinsically

motivated within the learner. Because the behavior stems from needs,

wa nts, or desires within oneself, the behavior itself is self-rewarding;

therefore, no externally administered reward is necessary.

5) Strategic Investment

Successful mastery of the second language will be due to a large

extent to a learner s own personal “investment” of time, effort, and

attention to the second language in the form of an individualized

battery of strategies for comprehending and producing the language.

b. Affective Principle

The principles are chara cterized by a large proportion of emotional

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1) Langua ge Ego

As huma n beings learn to use a second language, they also develop

a new mode of thinking, feeling, and acting-a second identity. The new

language ego, intertwined with the second language, can easily create

within the reader a sense of fragility, defensiveness, and a rising of

inhibition.

2) Self-Confidence

Learners belief that they indeed are fully capable of accomplishing

a task is at least partially a factor in their eventual success in attaining

the task.

3) Risk-Taking

Successful language learners, in their realistic appraisal of them

selves as vulnerable beings, yet capable of accomplishing tasks, must

be willing to become ga mbler in the ga me of language, to attempt to

produce and to interpret language that is a bit beyond their absolute

certainty.

4) The Language-Culture Connection

Whenever teacher teaches a langua ge, she or he also teaches a

complex system of cultural customs, values, and wa ys of thinking,

feeling, and acting.

c. Linguistics Principle

Language learning and teaching center on language itself and on how

the learners deal with these complex linguistics systems.

1) The Native Language Effect

The native language of learners exerts a strong influence on the

acquisition of the target language system. While that native system

will exercise both facilitating and interfering effects on the production

and comprehension of the new language, the interfering effects are

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11

2) Inter-language

Second language learners tend to go t hrough a systematic or quasi-

systematic developmental process as they progress to full competence

in the target language. Successful interlanguage developmental is

partially a result of utilizing feedback from others.

3) Communicative Competence

Given that communicative competence is the goal of a language

classroom, instruction needs to point toward all its components:

orga nizational, pragmatic, strategic, and psychomotor. Communicative

goals are best achieved by giving due attention to language use and not

just usage, to fluency and not just accuracy, to authentic language and

contexts, and to students eventual need to apply classroom learning to

previously unrehearsed contexts in the real world.

Most of the twelve principle listed form foundation stones for structuring a

theory of interaction in the language classroom. Consider the following

selected relationship.

Automatically: True human interaction is best accomplished when vocal

attention is on meaning and messages and not on grammar and other

linguistics forms. Learners are thus freed from keeping language in a

controlled mode and can more easily proceed to automatic modes of

processing.

Intrinsic motivation: As students become engaged with each other in

speech acts of fulfillment and self-actualization, their deepest drives are

satisfied. And as they more fully appreciate their own competence to use

language, they can develop a system of self-reward.

Strategic investment: Interaction requires the use of strategic langua ge

competence both to make certain decisions on how to stay or write or interpret

language, and to make repairs when communication pathways are blocked.

The spontaneity of interaction discourse requires judicious use of numerous

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Risk-taking: Interaction requires the risk of failing to produce intended

meaning, of failing to interpret intended meaning (on the part of someone

else), of being laughed at, of being shunned or rejected. The reward, of course,

are great and worth the risks.

The language-culture connection: The cultural loading of interactive

speech as well as writing requires that interlocutors be thoroughly versed in

the cultural nuances of language.

Interlanguage: The complexity of interaction entails a long developmental

process of a cquisition. Numerous errors of production and comprehension will

be a part of this development. And the rule of teacher feedback is crucial to

the developmental process.

Communicative competence: All of the elements of communicative

competence (grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, pragmatic, and strategic)

are involved in human interaction. All aspects must work together for

successful communication to take place.11

4. Teacher s Roles in Interactive Learning

Teacher can play many roles in the course of teaching. Just as parents are

called upon to be many things to their children, teacher cannot be satisfied

with only one role.

The roles of teacher are: 12

a. The Teacher as Controller

This is a role that is sometimes expected in traditional education

institutions and always in charge of every moment in the classroom. As

the controller, teacher determines what the students do, when they should

speak and what language forms they should use. They can often predict

many students responses because everything is mapped out ahea d of time,

with no leeway for divergent paths. In some respects, such control may

sound admirable. But for interaction to take place, the teacher must create

11

Brown, Teaching by Principles…, p. 166 12

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13

a climate in which the freedom of expression is given over to students to

make it impossible to predict everything that they will say and do.

b. The Teacher as Director

According to Oxford Adva nce learner s dictionary, director is a person

who directs or controls a group of people working together or an

courses. She or he also structures the larger, longer segments of classroom

time, but allows each individual player to be creative within those

parameters.

d. The Teacher as Facilitator

Teacher helps them to clear away roadblocks, to find shortcuts, and to

A S Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Fifth Edition, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 326

14

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In the language classroom is often structured around the simple fact that

the teacher s role is that expert, evaluator and, no matter how informal,

ultimately the one in control.15

5. Students Roles in Interactive Learning

Breen and Candlin describe the learner s roles within a communicative

methodology in the following term.

The role of learner as negotiator - between the self, the learning process, and the object of learning – emerges from and interacts with the role of joint negotiator within the group and within the classroom procedures and activities which the group undertakes. The implication for the learner is he should contribute as much as he gains, and thereby learn in an

comment), initiates the next question-and so on.

Interaction patterns are: 17

a. Group work

Students work in small group on tasks that entail interaction:

conveying information, for example, or group decision-making. The

teacher walks around listening, intervenes little if at all.

It is a generic term covering a multiplicity of techniques in which two

or more students are assigned a task that involves collaboration and self

initiated language. Pair work is simply group work in groups of two. It is

15

George Yule and Wayne Gregory, “Survey Interview for Interactive Language Learning”, in

ELT Journal: An international Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages,

volume 43/2, April 1989, p. 142 16

Richards, The Context of Language…, p. 23 17

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15

also important to note that group work usually implies “small” group

work, that is, students in groups or perhaps six or fewer. 18

It fosters learner responsibilit y and independence, can improve

motivation and contribute to a feeling of cooperation and warmth in the

class. These potential advantages are not, however, always realized.

Teachers fear they may lose control, that there may be too much noise, that

their students may over-use their mother tongue, do the task badly or not at

all: and their fears are often well founded. Some people - both learners and

teachers – dislike a situation where the tea cher cannot constantly monitor

learner language.

The success of group work depend to some extent on the surrounding

social climate, and on how habituated the class is to using it; and also, of

course, on the selection of an interesting and stimulating tasks whose

performance is well within the ability of the group. But it also depends,

more immediately, on effective and careful organization.19

1) Advantages of group work

a) Group work generates interactive language.

Group work helps to solve the problem of classes that are too

large to offer speak. Closely related to the sheer quantity of output

made possible through group work is the variety and quality of

interactive learning.

b) Group work offers an embracing affective climate.

The second important advantage offered by group work is the

security of a smaller group of students where each individual is not

so starkly on public display, vulnerable to what the student may

perceive as criticism and rejection.

A further affective benefit of small group is an increase in

student motivation. With Maslow s “security/safety” level satisfied

18

Brown, Teaching by Principles…, p. 177 19

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through the cohesiveness of the small group, learners are thus freed

to pursue higher objectives in their quest for success.

c) Group work promotes learner responsibility and autonomy.

Group work places responsibility for action and progress upon

each of the members of the group somewhat equally. It is difficult

to hide in a small group.

d) Group work is a step toward individualizing instruction.

Each student in a classroom has needs and abilities that are

unique. Usually the most salient individual difference that you

observe is a range of proficiency levels across your class and, even

more specially, differences among students in their speaking,

listening, writing, and reading abilities.

2) Disadva ntages of group work:

a) It is likely to be noisy.

Not all students enjoy it since they would prefer to be the focus

of the tea cher s attention rather than working with their peers.

b) Individuals may fall into group roles that become fossilized, so

that some are passive whereas others may dominate.

c) Groups can take longer to organize than pairs; beginning and

ending group work activities – especially where people move

around the class – can take time and be chaotic.20

b. Closed-ended teacher questioning („IRF )

Only on „right response gets approved. Sometimes cynically it is

called the game.

c. Individual work

The teacher gives a task or set of tasks, and students work on them

independently, the teacher walks around monitoring and assisting where

necessary.

20

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17

1) Advantages of individual learning:

a) It allows teachers to respond to individual student differences in

terms of pace of learning, learning style, and preferences.

b) It is likely to be less stressful for students than performing in a

whole-class setting or talking in pairs or groups.

c) It can develop learner autonomy and promote skills of self -

reliance and investigation over tea cher-dependence.

d) It ca n be a way of restoring pea ce and tranquility to a noisy and

chaotic situation.

2) Disadvantages of individual learning;

a) It does not help a class develop a sense of belonging. It does not

encourage cooperation in which students ma y be able to help and

motivate each other.

b) When combined with giving individual students different tasks, it

means a great deal more thought and materials preparation than

whole-class teaching involves.21

d. Choral responses

The teacher gives a model which is repeated by all the class in the

chorus, or gives a cue which is responded to in chorus.

e. Collaboration

Students do the same sort of tasks as in „individual work , but work

together, usually in pairs, to try to achieve the best results they can. The

teacher may not intervene. (Note that this is different from „Group work ,

where the tasks itself necessitates interaction.)

f. Student initiates, tea cher answers

For exa mple, in a guessing game: the students think of questions and

the teacher responds; but the teacher decides who asks.

g. Full-class interaction

21

(26)

The students debate a topic or do a language task as a class; the tea cher

may intervene occasionally, to stimulate participation or to monitor.

h. Teacher talk

This may involve some kind of silent response, such as writing from

dictation, but there is no initiative on the part of the students.

i. Self-access

Students choose their own learning tasks, and work autonomously.

j. Open ended tea cher questioning

There are a number of possible „right answers, so that more students

answer each cue.

B. Narrative Text

1. Definition of Narrative Text

Before turning into narrative text, someone should know what text is.

People live in a world of words. When these words are put together to

communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created. When people speak or

write to communicate a massage, they are constructing a text. When they read,

listen to or view a place of text, they are interpreting its meaning.

Creating a text requires to make choices about the words is used and how

to put them together. If people make the right choices then they can

communicate with others. Their choice of words will depend on their purpose

and their surroundings or the context.22

One of the most widespread definitions of „text comes from de

Beaugrande & Dressler. They define a text as a „communicative event that

must satisfy several conditions. According to this definiti on a traffic sign, a

newspaper article, an argument and a novel are all text that corresponds to the

differing rules of particular genres of text. All the genres mentioned have

22

(27)

19

particular linguistics features, fulfill particular functions and are bound to

specific production and reception situations.23

According to River, students need to acquire the skill of dra wing

information directly from the foreign-language text without the interposition

of their own tongue. His skill is best learned in progress stages, with students

practicing regularly with materials that approximate their level of proficiency.

Level of proficiency, however, is not sufficient without the motivational

element of material of interest to the students. The problems of fluent reading

are numerous enough, without being exacerbated by linguistically difficult

texts containing materials to which the students cannot relate. 24

There are two main categories of texts-literary and factual. Within these

are various text types. Each type has a common and usual wa y of using

language.

Factual texts include advertisements, Internet web sites, current affairs

shows, debates, recipes, reports and instructions. They present information or

ideas and aim to show, tell or persuade the audience. The main text types in

this category are recount, response, explanation, discussion, information

report, exposition and procedure.25

Literary texts include aboriginal dreaming stories, movie scripts,

limericks, fairly tales, plays, novels, song lyrics, mimes and soap operas. They

are constructed to appeal to their emotions and imagination. Literary texts can

make people laugh or cry, think about their life of consider their beliefs.

Through fairy tales, folktales, and family stories people receive their first

orga nized accounts of huma n action. Stories continue to absorb them as they

read novels, biography, and history; they occupy them at the movies, theater,

and before the television set. And, possibly because of this intimate and long -

23

Stefan Titscher, et, al, Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis, (London: SAGE Publications, 2000), p. 21

24

River, Interactive Language…, p. 10

(28)

standing acquaintanceship, stories also serve as critical means by which they

make their selves intelligible within the social words.26

There are three main text types in this category: narrative, poetic and

As linguistic devices, narratives ma y be used to indicate future actions, but

they are not themselves the cause or determinant basis for such actions. In this

sense, self-narratives function much like oral histories or morality tales within

a society. They are cultural resources that serve such social purposes as self

identification, self-justification, self criticism, and social solidification. 29

2. Aim of Narrative

The aim of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make

the audience think about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their

emotions.30

Its purpose is to present a view of the world that entertains or informs the

reader or listener.31

3. Types of Narrative

There are many different types of narratives including:

26

Kenneth Gergen, “Self-Narration in Social Life”, in Margaret Wetherell, et. al, (Ed.),

Discourse Theory and Practice, (London: Sage Publications, 2001), p. 247 27

Mark Anderson And Kathy Anderson, Text Typess…,volume 2 p. 1 28

Mark Anderson And Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 3, (South Yarra: Macmillan, 1997), p. 3

29

Gergen, Self-Narration…, p. 249 30

Mark Anderson And Kathy Anderson, Text Types…,volume 3, p. 3 31

(29)

21

a. Humor

A humorous narrative is one that aims to make the audience laugh as

part of telling a story. Her e is a typical structure:

1) Orientation (unusual setting; funny character names)

2) Complication (something „crazy happens)

3) Sequence of events (making fun of serious situations;

exaggeration; comedy of errors; funny things said by chara cters;

ima ginative ideas; extraordinary things happening to ordinary people)

4) Resolution („all s well that ends well )

b. Romance

The romance narrative typically tells of two lovers who overcome

difficulties to end up together. Here are the usual features:

1) Orientation (exotic setting: sunsets, beaches, moonlight;

„hunk male and female who is looking for love; characters introduced)

2) Complication („boy meets girl )

3) Sequence of events ( love; hurt and pain; warmth and sharing;

jealousy; development of relationship; overcoming of proble ms)

4) Resolution ( boy gets girl; marry and live happily even after)

c. Historical fiction

1) Orientation (a setting in the past; description of a period in history)

2) Complication (good meet evils)

3) Sequence of events (action related to a period in history;

description of life at that time)

4) Resolution (characters survive the chaos of the time)

d. Fantasy

1) Orientation (here who may have ma gical power: setting may be in

another dimension with gods, witches, wizard, and so on) .

2) Complication (evil forces effect the godless)

3) Sequence of events (a quest; struggle between good and evil)

4) Resolution (good defeats evil forces)

(30)

1) Orientation (a future setting; a world with technology)

2) Complication (an evil force threatens the world)

3) Sequence of events (imaginative description; struggle between

good and evil)

4) Resolution (good defeats evil)

5) Coda (take care that science is used for good, not evil

There can be a combination of narratives within each of these different

types. A crime novel could also include roma nce and mystery. Similarly,

an adventure narrative could include humor and romance. Sometimes, the

term genre is used for the type of narrative. 32

4. Narrative Features

a. Orientation

In this paragraph the narrator tells the audience who is in the story,

when it is happening, where it is happening and what is going on.

b. Complication

This is the part of the story where the narrator tells about

something that will begin in a chain of events. These events will affect

one or more of the characters. The complication is the trigger.

c. Sequence of event

This is where the narrator tells how the characters react to the

complication. It includes their feelings and what they do. The events

can be told in chronological order (the order in which they happen) or

with flashback. The audience is given the narrator s point of view.

At the heart of any story are, minimally, two events, represented in

two narrative clauses which are linked temporally and sequentially.

The story depends on the relationship between the two clauses. 33

32

Mark Anderson And Kathy Anderson, Text Types,volume 2, p. 16-27

33

(31)

23

5. Grammatical Features Of Narrative Text

Narrative usually includes the following gra mmatical features:

a. Nouns that identify the specific characters and pla ces in the story

b. Adjectives that provides accurate description of the characters and

setting.

c. Verbs that show the actions that occur in the story

d. Time words that connect events, telling when they occurred. 36

According Aristotle s definition, there have been many attempts to establish

criteria which would define the well-formed story. Among the many suggested,

two seem to be widely accepted. The first is that, to count as a narrative, there has

to be a sequence of narrative clauses (clauses containing a verb in the simple past

tense or, sometimes, the historic present tense) whose order match es the real time

order of the events described in those clauses. These clauses constitute the hearth

of the story, or narrative „core . The second is that a story has to have a beginning,

middle and an end.37

From the explanation above it can be concluded that narrative text is the text

that tell a story and when the story only contains the beginning or just the middle

or just in the end, it can not be a good story because there must be the beginning,

the middle, and the end of the story. It is to make the story is good and easy to be

understood.

34

Mark Anderson And Kathy Anderson, Text Types…, volume 3, p. 4 35

Thornborrow and Coates, The Sociolinguistics of Narrative…, p. 4 36

Mark Anderson And Kathy Anderson, Text Types…, volume 3, p. 3 37

(32)

CHAPTER III

PROFILE OF SMA MUHAMADIYAH 8 CIPUTAT

A. Profile of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat in Brief

1. Name of the school : SMA Muha mmadiya h 8 Ciputat

2. Year of Establishment : 1968

3. Status : Accredited “ A

4. Address : Jl. Raya Dewi Sartika Gg. Nangka No. 04 Ciputat

Tangerang Selatan 15411

5. Phone/Fax number : 021-7424379/021-74707376

6. Websites : Http.www.dosq08cpt.20m.com

7. E-mail : dosq08cpt@yahoo.com

B. Historical Background Of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat

SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat was established on 01 January 1968 by

managements of Muha mmadiya h affiliate Ciputat and helped by students of

IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta university.

The goal of the school is not only as mandate of association but also

based on the attention of the member of affiliate Muhammadiyah Ciputat

toward weak economic society for continue their children education. It can be

seen from one of the goals of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat in the

beginning of existing with SMP Muhammadiya h 17 Ciputat (in Situ Gintung,

Cirendeu), then it gathered with PGA Muhammadiyah Muha mma diyah

Ciputat. Now, it is MTs/MA Muhammadiyah 1 Ciputat.

C. Vision and Mission

1. Vision of the School

Strive for forming religious, humanistic, intellectual, and communicative

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25

2. Mission of the School

a. Directing lesson process and guidance maximally for the formed of

human resources power that have Islamic quality.

b. Establishing and developing of loving country and care about

sociality

c. Directing lesson process and guidance effectively according to its

potential

d. Strive for foreign language lesson process (English and Arabic) to

reach communicative skill ability.

D. Objectives of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat

1. Capable utter alumnus that have good scientific quality, good attitude, and

can be good example of their environment.

2. Students have discipline characteristics and have great spirit to study as

preparation toward globalization and competitive era.

3. Teachers and staff can do their work disciplinal and responsibility

4. Capable utter human power that ha ve capability to communicate or

“berda’wah” moral value in their environment.

E. Pace of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat

The presence of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat is appraised gives ma ny

contribution to the society especially in district Ciputat society. It can be seen

from the graduates of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 that occupy in all sectors, state

or private sectors.

According to written files and founded in the field that graduates of SMA

Muhammadiyah hold good position, that are teacher, lectures, doctors, Police,

Indonesian Armed F orced, and in the government administration.

SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat will strive for all of the competence to do

(34)

F. Teachers and Students

The tea chers, based on the organization structure, at the top is the Principal

of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat. The school committee and vice principal

is in line with staff administration. Besides, there are four lea der tea m, such as

curriculum leader, students’ leader, public relation lea der, and facilities leader.

This is the sequences of leadership of SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat from

the first lea der until know are:

1. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud

2. Sukiman Abdul Kadir, BA.

3. Drs. H. Mawardi Idrus

4. Bahar Johan, BA

5. Drs. H. Mawardi Idrus

6. Drs. H. Enda ng Surahman, MA.(2006-know)

The students of SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat is divided into eight

classes. It is included two classes of first grade, three classes of second grade,

and three classes of third grade.

G. Academic Facilities

All academic activities of SMA Muha mmadiyah 8 Ciputat are based on

the school curriculum program started by the government . Even so, as good

school, SMA Muhamma diyah 8 Ciputat gives more facilities to all students,

such as: Moral Education, Research Methodology, Computers, and Motivation

Training Program.

Remedial and enrichment are given to students who need, and it is done in

planning. Another activity that supports the learning program in SMA

Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat is the study tour activity which has to be followed

by all students of second grade.

Graduation is a routine activity done every year to respect and congratulate

students who have succeeded in finishing their studies in SMA

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27

H. Non-Academic Facilities

Meanwhile non-academic activities or extra curricular can be chosen by

students. One of them is sport, like football, volley ball, and basket ball. The

most favorite sport by male and female students is volley ball and this school

has been the winner of sport competition now days. Many sport events are

being organized and facilitated by SMA Muha mmadiya h 8 Ciputat, whether

internal activities that implemented in sport competition a mong classes or

external activities that involve other schools.

SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat has created program such as motivation

building programs to develop the students’ potential, interest and prestige to

gain future success. The motivation building progra ms consist of PASKIBRA,

and PRAMUKA.

I. Local Facilities

There are eight locals for students that are provided in SMA

Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat. It is facilitated with more than 20 chairs of ea ch

class, one set table tea cher and one white board.

J. Office and Teachers’ Lounge

To provide and serves better academic service, SMA Muhammadiyah 8

has administration office which is available for administration, teachers, and

head master.

K. Laboratories

SMA Muhammadiyah 8 has two laboratories which are computer

laboratory and biology laboratory. Those are used and operated by the tea cher

its selves. The laboratory provides forty computers and there are many types

(36)

FINDINGS

A. Research Methodology

1. Population and Sample

The writer took the population of the study at the second grade of SMA

Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat. The whole students of the second grade are 60

students, na mely Science class, Social 1 class and Social 2 class. Each of the

class consists of 20 students. For the research, the writer took sample Social 1

class as the control class and Social 2 class as the experiment class.

2. Place and Time of the Research

The writer did the research at SMA Muhammadiyah 8 Ciputat located on

Jln. Ra ya Dewi Sartika Gg. Nangka No.4 Ciputat. She conducted this research

at that school from January 16th, 2010 up to February 1st, 2010.

In addition, the teaching processes were held for 5 meeting for each class,

so the total are 10 meeting.

3. Teaching Procedures

The writer held two kinds of teaching learning process. It is based on the

research which has done in two classes; it was an experiment class and control

class. The experimental cla ss used interactive learning in teaching narrative

text and control class without using interactive learning by using Grammar -

Traditional Method. It is the methods. Now the method is called as Classical

Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin

and Greek. Earlier of this century, this method was used for the purposed of

helping students rea d and appreciate foreign language literature. It also hoped

that, through the study of the grammar of the target language, students would

(37)

29

probably never use the target language, but the mental exercise of learning

would be beneficial anyway.1

a. Teaching Learning Process Using Interactive Learning

Teaching learning process of the experiment class depicted how

students were beha ving during the teaching learning process. The noted

behavior in general was used to indicate whether the use of interactive

learning was effective. The procedures consisted socializing, leading in,

presentation, skill practice, evaluating, and scoring. The next following

was the detail of the teaching learning process.

The class was begun on the first day when teacher was introducing

interactive learning.

First, tea cher made an introduction to students by greeting, asking their

condition and then explained what tea cher would do in the class. Then she

gave them pre-test before the lesson began for about forty five minutes.

After finishing the test, teacher asked them about the best story they

had ever rea d. Then she asked them to make an interview with one of their

friends and then gave them the following question to be answered. Then

teacher chose one of them to present of what she or he got. Finally, the

students who made a presentation chose one of his or her friend to make a

presentation of what he or she got.

The question of the activity is:

Name The best story

have ever read The setting The opinion

1

(38)

After they did it, teacher explained that the stories like novel, fa ble,

answer the question individually. Finally, teacher explained about main

idea and information of the text.

Kind of text was:

Bandung Bondowoso and Roro Jonggrang (The Legend of Prambana n T emple)

Once, there was a beautiful Javanese princess whose name was Roro Jonggrang. Roro Jonggrang whose beauty was very fa mous in the land was the doughter of Prabu Baka, en evil king.

One day, a handsome young man with super natural power, na med Bandung Bondowoso, defeated and killed Prabu Baka. On seeing princess

Roro Jonggrang s beauty Bandung bondowoso fell in love and

Helped by the spirits of demons, Bandung Bondowoso started building the temple. Approa ching midnight, the work was nearly done. Roro Jonggrang knew and thought, “What shall I do? Bandung is smarter than me. I will lose against Bandung.”

Suddenly she got an idea. She woke up all the women in the palace and ordered them to make the noisy sounds of grinding rice so that the rooster would think it had already da wn.

Bandung Bondowoso got frustrated because he failed to complete the thousandth temple. “The princess has deceived me!” Following his anger, he cursed Roro Jonggrang, “You ha ve cheated me. Now, the thousandth temple is you!”

(39)

31

In the third meeting, teacher asked them to make groups consisted of

five persons of each group. Then the writer gave a text to be discussed

together. When they were working together, teacher controlled the class.

Still on the third meeting, after discussing together, they had to present

it to other group by giving them opinion and reason about the best

character of the text that ha d the right to possess the statue from the text of

what they had discussed; other group who did not agree gave a comment

and the group who agree with the statement made an addition.

In the end of the meeting, teacher gave them explanation but before

giving them explanation, teacher made an evaluation then explained about

the characteristics of narrative text by leading them to tell the

characteristics based on the text what they had discussed.

Kind of the text was: yet. The statue still had any clothes yet.

Later, a young merchant passed by in front of Datu Panggana s house. His name was Bao Partiga. He sold jewelries and clothes. He was very impressed by the beauty of the statue. “She would be more beautiful by wearing my clothes,” said Bao Partigo. He then put on the clothes he wanted to sell on the statue.

Bao partigo was very pleased now. The statue likes a real human. Then

he left Datu Pangga na s house. After that, a priest and his wife passed by. They were also impressed by the beauty of the statue.

“I want to pray to God to make her live like a real human. I want to

The news about Nai Manggale spread very fast. All the villagers come

(40)

Datu Panggana said, “She has to stay in my house. The statue was mine.”

But, Bao Partigo also claimed the sa me things. “She is wearing my clothes. So, she has to stay in my house.”

The priest did not to lose Nai Manggale. “Remember, I am the one who made her live like a huma n. So, she stays here.”

Those three men then were very busy arguing. They claimed to have the right of Nai Manggale. To calm them, an elderly of the village gave a solution. His na me was Aji Bahir.

“You all can have her and have a relationship with her. Datu Pangga na , you are her uncle. Bao Partigo, you are her brother. And you the priest,

student to other students. After that, the writer connected this question into

what they ha d studied yesterday that was about the chara cteristics of

Make a short sentences that explain the

(41)

33

The bird refused. But the fox was so insistent that at last the Huaychao lent him its bill, advising him to sew up his lips except for a tiny opening

so that the „flute would fit just right.

Then the fox began to play. He played on and on without stopping. After a while the Huaychao asked for its bill back, but still the fox kept on. The bird reminded him, “You promised. Besides, I only use it from time to

time; you re playing it constantly.” But the fox pay no attention and kept

the text. Then, teacher explained it that the beginning of story in narrative

text can be said as orientation, complication can be said the middle of the

story or when there is a conflict, and resolution can be said the end or

conclusion of the story. Coda is what we can learn from the story. In the

end of the meeting, teacher asked them whether there were any difficultie s

or not then she asked them to look for about past tense, time words, and

also the paragraph that tell about orientation, complication, and resolution

that still related to the text individually.

On the last meeting, tea cher gave them a text in a pair to be read a nd

comprehended. After that, she asked students to discuss about the person

character in text. Then teacher will ask randomly relating to the text then it

(42)

student who pointed him/her based on the information of the text. After his father's money and spent as much as he pleased.

When old Mr. Cheung found out, he did not give his son any more money. Then, Cheung Tsai began to think of a plan. He went to his friends and borrowed money from ea ch of them, saying, "Don't worry. My father is so rich that I can easily pay back all the money I have borrowed from you." Soon, he owed all his friends so much money that they refused to lend him any more. At last they began to ask him for their money back. Cheung Tsai did not know what to do, so his friends all went to old Mr. Cheung and asked him for their money back.

Mr. Cheung was very angry. He gave his son two huge sacks full of dollar coins and ordered him to go to the home of each of his friends to repay the money he owed them. Cheung Tsai walked from house to house, carrying the heavy sacks of money. At last he thought to himself, "If giving money away to people is such hard work, how much harder must it be to earn the money." From that day onwards, he was very careful with money.

b. Teaching Learning Process without Using Interactive Learning

Teaching learning process of control class also depicted how the

students were beha ving during the teaching learning process. The noted

behavior in general used to get the description of students who didn t use

interactive learning. In this case they used traditional technique that

teacher talking more than students and also little practice from the

students. There are more explanation rather than practices. The following

are the detail of teaching learning process.

The class was begun on the first day when teacher was introducing

interactive learning.

First, tea cher made an introduction to students by greeting, asking their

(43)

35

giving them a test, the tea cher asked them about the best story they had

ever read. Then she gave them pre-test before the lesson began for about

forty five minutes.

After finishing the test, tea cher began the lesson by explaining about

narrative text. Then teacher asked them to tell the divisions of narrative

text. T hen she asked student to tell what the best story book that they had

ever read and also the reason.

In the second meeting, teacher explained the students how to get main

idea and also the information of the text. Then, she gave them text and

asked students to answer the question relating to the subject matter.

On the third meeting, teacher explained the characteristics of narrative

text then she gave them a text that had to be read and also gave them

exercises to be answered individually. Then they corrected together. After

that, teacher gave more explanation about the text. In end of the meeting,

teacher asked them whether any difficulties or not.

On the forth meeting, teacher explained them the rule of past tense and

also gave them exercises to make them master the tense. She asked

students to give the example of past tense according to teacher

explanation. Then they had to look for part of past tense in the text. In the

second part, teacher explained about the arrangement of the text. Then she

asked them to look for where were the orientation, complication, and

resolution of the text. It was also what they could get fr om the text. In the

end of the lesson, she gave students home work to be done individually.

In the last meeting, teacher reviewed the lesson from the beginning

until the end. Then, gave them text and exercises. Finally, teacher ga ve

them post-test.

4. Instrument of the Research

There was one technique was used by the researcher in collecting the data,

namely test. The test was used to find out of the effectiveness of interactive

Gambar

Table 4.1
Table 4.2
Table 4.3

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