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i

THE USE OF

FIND THE STRANGER GAME

TO

IMPROVE THE STUDENTS’

VOCABULARY

MASTERY AND READING COMPREHENSION

( A Classroom Action Research of the Tenth Grade Students

of SMK N 3 Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017)

GRADUATING PAPER

Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd) in English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty State

Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga

BY : MUTASLIMAH

113 12 077

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF TEACHER

TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY STATE

INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN) OF

SALATIGA

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v MOTTO

“THE GREATEST GLORY IN LIVING LIES NOT IN NEVER FALLING, BUT IN RISING EVERY TIE FALL”

-NELSON MANDELA-

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vi

DEDICATION

This graduating paper is dedicated to:

1. My beloved parents ( Suminto and Sriyanti ) thank you very much for

everything. May Allah always loves you and gives you happines in

every where you are. I love you so much.

2. My beloved husband ( Enggar Sri Wibowo) and My lovely son

(Gibran Alvaro). Thank you so much for your love and support. I love

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ACKNOWLEDMENT

All praises to Allah, I deliver thankfulnes to Allah Almighty

for the Blessing and Mercy Who has led me finish my graduating

paper, peace and blessing to the Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad

SAW. However, this graduating paper would not be finished without

supports, advices, help and encouragements from some people and the

institution. I would like to say thank you to :

1. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd as the Rector of IAIN Salatiga, thank

you for the time I spend for studying in IAIN Salatiga.

2. Suwardi, M.Pd as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education

Faculty of IAIN Salatiga.

3. Noor Malihah, Ph.D, as the Head of English Education Department

4. Setia Rini, M.Pd as my graduating paper counselor, thank you to

have sacrificed her vacant time to guide, give suggestions,

corrected, and encouraged me in completing my graduating paper.

5. All of my lecturers in IAIN Salatiga, thank you for teaching me

and give a lot of their worth knowledge to me along of my study

in this Institute.

6. All official staffs of IAIN Salatiga

7. My closest friends (Bilal, Agil, Arpan, Juni). Thank you for being

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TABLES OF CONTENTS

TITLE ... i

DECLARATION ... ii

ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ... iii

BOARD OF EXAMINERS ... iv

MOTTO ... v

DEDICATION ... vi

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ... vii

TABLES OF CONTENTS ... ix

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ... xiii

ABSTRACT ... xiv

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. Background of the Research ... 1

B. Statement of the problem ... 4

C. Objective of the study ... 5

D. Limitation of the Study ... 5

E. Benefit of the research ... 5

F. Definition Key of Terms ... 6

G. Previous Research ... 8

H. Research Outline ... 10

CHAPTER II : THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK ... 11

A. Vocabulary mastery ... 11

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x

2. Kinds of Vocabulary ... 12

3. The Importance of Vocabulary ... 14

4. Teaching Vocabulary ... 14

B. Reading ... 15

1. Definition of Reading ... 15

2. Reading process ... 18

3. Purpose of reading... 19

4. Developing interest in Reading ... 20

5. Principles of Teaching Reading ... 21

C.Reading Comprehension ... 22

1. Definition of Reading Comprehension ... 22

2. Basic of Reading Comprehension ... 23

3. Level of Comprehension ... 25

D.Descriptive Text ... 27

1. Definition of Descriptive Text ... 27

2. The Purpose and Kinds of Descriptive Text ... 27

3. Generic structure of Descriptive Text ... 28

4. Langauge Features of Descriptive Text ... 28

5. Example of Descriptive text ... 29

E. Find the Stranger Game ... 29

1. Definition of Game ... 29

2. Value of Game ... 30

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4. Procedure the Find the stranger game ... 31

5. Example Find the Stranger word card ... 32

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 34

A.Research Setting ... 34

1. General Discussion of SMK N3 Salatiga ... 34

2. Situation of SMK N3 Salatiga... 35

B.Description of the Research Schedule ... 37

C.Subject of the Research ... 38

D.Method of the Research ... 40

E. Research Procedure ... 42

F. Technique Collecting Data ... 44

G.Technique of Analyzing Data ... 47

CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ... 51

A.Research Finding ... 51

B.Analysis and discussions ... 68

CAHPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ... 70

A.Conclusion ... 70

B.Suggestion ... 71

REFERENCES ... 73

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LIST TABLES AND FIGURES

Figure 1: Five basics reading comprehension processes... 25

Table 3.1: Time setting of the Research... 37

Table 3.2 List of students’ X- TSM 2 ... 39

Figure 2: Kemmis and Taggart ... 44

Table 3.3: Student’s Observation sheet for students ... 45

Table 4.1: The result of pre-test and post-test cycle I ... 55

Table 4.2: The result of pre test and post test cycle II ... 63

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ABSTRACT

Mutaslimah. 2016. The Use of “Find the Stranger Game” to Improve the

Students’ Vocabulary Mastery and Reading Comprehension (A

Classroom Action Research of the First Grade Students of SMK N 3 Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017).Graduating Paper. English Education Department Teacher Training and Education Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Consultant: Setia Rini M.Pd.

Key Words: Find the stranger Game, Improve, Reading Comprehension,

The purpose of language teaching in Senior High school is to achieve functional level. In the functional level, they can develop the competence in communicating orally and written to resolve daily problems. The real problems faced by the students in the school in learning and teaching English are reading comprehension. Game is one of the solutions to overcome the research answers two problem of research (1) How is the implementation of find the stranger game to improve the students’ reading comprehension for the tenth grade students of SMK N 3 Salatiga in the Academic Year 2016/2017? (2) How is the result of find the stranger game in improving the students’ reading comprehension for the tenth grade students in SMK N 3 Salatiga in the academic year of 2016/2017?

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the writer presents the introduction. It explains the

background of the research, statement of the statement, objective of the research,

significance of the research, definition of the key terms, review of related

research, and organization of the graduating paper

A. Background of the Research

In Indonesia English is taught and learned as Foreign Language. In Indonesia the aim teaching English as adopted by government is to develop

communicative competence of the learners. It is taught in the schools from

primary school to high school. In addition English is one of subject which is

tested at the end both Junior and senior High School Programs.

According to Scriverner (1994: 20), there are four skills in English

language teaching; listening skill, speaking skill, vocabulary mastery and

reading comprehension and writing skill According to Huyen and Nga

(2003:2), in learning a foreign language, vocabulary mastery plays an

important role; it is one element that links the four skills of speaking,

listening, reading and writing.

According to Fauziati (2005: 155), vocabulary is central to language and

of critical importance to typical language learner. Without sufficient

vocabulary mastery, one cannot communicate effectively or express his ideas

also a barrier that precludes learners from learning a foreign language.

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reading, listening, speaking and writing skills. Vocabulary mastery is one

element that contributes to text difficulty levels or ease of reading.

Reading in a second or foreign language (SL/FL) has been a

significant component of language learning over the past forty years (Zoghi,

Mustapha, Rizan & Maasum, 2010) in Chen and Chen (2015: 156).

According to Dechant (1982: 5), reading is a language communication

process of putting a reader in contact and communication with ideas. Reading

always involves an interaction between the writer and reader. The

communication process initiated the thoughts of the writer and expressed

through symbol on the page.

According to Tan and Nicholson (1997: 135), reading is a

multicomponent skill whereby the reader has to use a number of different

cognitive processes involving word recognition, access of word meanings,

parsing of sentences, semantic analysis of sentences, and interpretation of the

overall text

According to Gibson (1996) cited in Dechant (1982: 5), reading is

receiving communication; it is making discriminative response to graphic

symbols, it is decoding graphic sybol to speech and getting meaning from

printed page. According to Perfetti (2001:12800), vocabulary mastery and

reading comprehension is an individual’s standing on some reading

assessment. According to Chen and Chen (2015: 156), reading is a complex,

interactive cognitive process where the reader is an active participant,

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In non-native English speaking countries, the high school English

curriculum often adopts a reading skill oriented textbook that focuses on

vocabulary mastery, sentence structure, and grammar. According to Chen and

Chen (2015: 157), most learners have reading problems because they lack the

specific strategies necessary for efficient reading. According to Schiff and

Calif (2004) cited in Chen and Chen (2015: 157), explain that EFL students

have reading problems because of a lack of knowledge and awareness of how

to apply reading strategies. When foreign language read, they face some

problem such as a laborious, unpleasant, and unsuccessful process. It makes

the readers will often be unwilling to read in the target language Chen and

Chen (2015: 157).

Actually the same problems occur in SMK N3 Salatiga. Based on

the observation that conducted on May, 18th 2016 at 09.00 a.m. The writer

found some problems in English learning process. The students’ interest in

reading English text is still low. The students assume that reading is very

difficult and they have minimum vocabulary mastery therefore they have

difficulties to understand a text. Furthermore the teacher speaks too fast in

English. It is make students do not understand and the teaching learning

process ineffective.

There are many way to boost the students’ vocabulary mastery and

reading comprehension. According to Krashen and Terrel (1983: 53),

language is best taught when it is being used to transmit message not when it

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language learning is depends on the situation in the learning process itself.

One of the ways to create learning process more enjoyable is by applying

game.

According to Hadfield (1990: v) in Tuan (2012: 259), game is

activity with rules, a goal and an element of fun. Game is an organized

activity that usually has the following properties: a particular task or

objective, a set of rules, competition between players b spoken o written

language (Richard, Platt, and Platt, 1992, p. 153) in Tuan (2012:259). In this

research writer use Find the Stranger Game. Find the Stranger Game is a

game in which the players should determine the foreign word is in a group of

words or determine the word which is not the groups of it (Walidi, 2006: 14).

From the statement above, the writer wants to conduct a research

entitled THE USE OF FIND THE STRANGER GAME TO IMPROVE THE

STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY AND READING

COMPREHENSION (A Classroom Action Research for the Tenth Grade

Students of SMK N 3 Salatiga in Academic Year of 2016/2017)

B. Research Question

Based on the background of the research, the writer will formulate

the research question as follows:

1. How is the implementation of Find the Stranger Game to improve the

students’ vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension for the tenth

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2. How is the result of Find the Stranger Game in improving the students’

vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension for the tenth grade

students in SMK N 3 Salatiga in the academic year of 2016/2017?

C. Objective of the research

Based on the statement of the problem above, the objectives of the

research are as follows:

1. To describe the implementation of Find the Stranger Game in

improving the students’ vocabulary mastery and reading

comprehension of the tenth grade students of SMK N 3 Salatiga in the

Academic Year of 2016/2017.

2. To find out the result of the students’ vocabulary mastery and reading

comprehension after using Find the Stranger Game for the tenth grade

students of SMK N 3 Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2016/2017.

D. Limitation of the Research

In order to avoid any misinterpretation of the problem, the writer

would like to limit the scope of the research. The writer wants to know

whether the use of Find The Stanger Game can improve the students’

vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension. The material is limited at the

Tenth Grade students of SMK N 3 Salatiga in the academic year of

2016/1017.

E. Benefit of the Research

Hopefully the result of this research gives additional information

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about the effectiveness of the game to improve students’ vocabulary mastery

and reading comprehension. The writer also hopes this research will useful

for the school, students, and English teacher particularly in SMK N 3

Salatiga.

1. For English Teacher

This research can be used as an input in applying for English teacher

especially in teaching reading. They can use this method to make

teaching process more enjoyable and attractive, especially in teaching

reading.

2. For the writer

The result of this research will improve writer knowledge and

experience about teaching reading. Moreover writer knows deeply about

Find the Stranger Game

F. Definition of Key Terms

To avoid misunderstanding of the concept in this research, the writer

gives some definitions as follows:

1. Find the Stranger Game

Find the stranger is a game in which the players should determine

the foreign word is in a group of words or determine the word which is

not the groups of it (Walidi, 2006: 14).

2. Improve

Improve is to become better than before or to make something or

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improving is to bring to a more desirable or excellent condition; to

ameliorate; to better; to make, as land or real estate, more profitable by

cultivation or construction; to make more useful; as to improve a road by

resurfacing.

3.Students

Student is a person who is researching in school, especially an

older child (Hornby, 2010:1484). Student is an individual with different

experiences both in and out the classroom (Harmer, 2001:37).

4. Vocabulary mastery

Vocabulary mastery is total number of words which (with rules for

combining them) make up a language (Hornby, 1974: 959). Vocabulary

mastery refers to words we use to communicate in oral and print

language (Handson and Padua : 2011).

5. Reading

According to Gibson (1966) cited in Dechant (1982: 5) says that

reading is receiving communication, it is making discriminative

responses to graphic symbol, it is decoding graphic symbol to speech and

it is getting meaning from printed page.

Reading is an active process. Identifying reading is often connected

with the process of reading itself. The process is the interaction between

a reader and a text which is normally silent, internal and private

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8 6. Reading comprehension

According to Thorndike (1917) in Dechant (1982: 311) he says

reading comprehension includes correct meanings, the ability to reason

one’s way through smaller idea, segments, and the ability to grasp the

meaning of a larger unitary idea.

7. SMK N 3 Salatiga

SMK N 3 Salatiga is one of state Vocational High School in Jl.

Jafar Shodiq, Kalibening, Tingkir, Salatiga. The teachers and students

are Muslim. It has good building and good facilities to support teaching

learning process.

G. Previous Research

The writer takes Inayah (2015), she conduct a research about the use of

Reciprocal Teaching Technique to Improve Students’ Vocabulary mastery

and reading comprehension.The methodology of the study used Classroom

Action Research. The result of her research showed that Reciprocal Teaching

Technique can help the students of SMK N 1 Ngablak in improving

vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension.

The differences this research with this research is the game or

technique that use is difference; the subject of the research, the result of the

research is different.

The second research Herningtiyas (2014), she conducts a research

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reading comprehension. The methodology of the research used classroom

action research. The result of the research show that that the value of

significance is 0.400 which is above the level of significance (0.05).

The differences this research with mine is the game or technique that

used is different, the subject of the research, the result of the research is

different.

The third research from Marsini (2014), she conduct a research about

improving students’ vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension using

Index Match Technique. The methodology of the research used classroom

action research. The result of the research showed that after the researcher

conducted the actions, the researcher found that Index Card Match Technique

improved students’ vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension of

narrative text at XI IPA 1 of MAN 1 Kendari.

The differences this research with mine is the game or technique that

used is different, the subject of the research, the result of the research is

different.

H. Research Outline

This research divided into five chapters. In order to make easy to

understand this paper, the writer convey the kind of the graduating paper in the

following:

Chapter I presents the introduction. It explains the background of

the research, statement of the problems research, objectives of the research,

benefit of the research, definition of key terms, limitation of the research,

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Chapters II describes the theoretical framework including

Vocabulary mastery including definition of Vocabulary mastery, kinds of

vocabulary mastery, importance of vocabulary mastery, teaching vocabulary

mastery, definition of reading, reading process, the purposes of reading,

developing interest in reading, principle of teaching reading, reading skill

and descriptive text that include definition of descriptive text, generic

structure of descriptive text and language feature of descriptive text.

Chapter III is methodology of the research. It discusses method of

research, setting of research, procedure of research, technique of collecting

data, and technique of analysis data.

Chapter IV is data analysis. It consist of field note of cycle I, cycle II,

the discussion of cycle I, cycle II.

Chapter V is closure. It comprise of conclusion and suggestion. For

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CH APTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

In this chapter the writer tries to give clear information of underlying

theories which is definition Vocabulary mastery including definition of

Vocabulary mastery, kinds of vocabulary mastery, importance of vocabulary

mastery, teaching vocabulary mastery, of reading, reading process, the purposes

of reading, developing interest in reading, principle of teaching reading,

vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension and descriptive text that include

definition of descriptive text, generic structure of descriptive text and language

feature of descriptive text.

A. Vocabulary mastery

1. Definition of Vocabulary mastery

According to Neuman and Dwyer (2009: 385) in Alqahtani (2015:

24), vocabulary is words we must know to communicate effectively,

words in speaking (expressive vocabulary) and words in listening

(receptive vocabulary). According to Hornby (1974: 959) vocabulary

mastery is total number of words which (with rules for combining them)

make up a language.

According to Scriverner (1994: 73), vocabulary is a powerful

carrier of meaning, beginner often manage to communicate in English by

using accumulative effect of individual words.Vocabulary mastery is all

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great knowledge about or understanding of a particular thing (Oxford,

2010 : 914).

From the definitions above, the researcher concludes that

vocabulary mastery is a group of word that arranged in alphabetical

order and has meanings that used by person in daily communication.

Vocabulary mastery mastery can be defined as great skill or knowledge

about meaningful words that used in daily communication.

2. Kinds of Vocabulary

Scrivener (1994:74) divide vocabulary into two kinds, there are

productive (active) vocabulary mastery and receptive (passive)

vocabulary mastery.

a. Productive vocabulary mastery is the sets of words that are used in

spoken communication. Good pronunciation might be encouraged

getting the sounds and the stress right.

b. Receptive vocabulary mastery is the use of words that we recognize

and understand, but tend not to use ourselves.

According to Harmer (1991) in Alqahtani (2015: 25), divided

vocabulary ino two types:

a. Active vocabulary: words that students expected to use

b. Passive vocabulary: words that students recognize when they meet

There are two types of vocabulary, word recognition vocabulary

mastery and word meaning. (Chall, 1983; as cited in Blachowicz, Fisher,

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13 a. Word recognition

Word recognition is the readers’ ability to pronounce or figure out

the word by using word attack strategies.

b. Word meaning

Word meaning refers to words students know or can define.

Through we recognize the importance of both word recognition

and word meaning, the emphasis of this book will be on word

meaning.

According to Harmer (2002: 3-10) says that there are six kinds of

vocabulary mastery, they are :

a. Word classes

Word classes or parts of speech, They are devided in to eight

classes, such as: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition

and determiner.

b. Word families

It discusses about affixation of a word, such as: prefixes (pre-, de-)

and suffixes (-er, -ful).

c. Word formation

d. Multi-word units

1) Phrasal verbs: look, for, look after, wipe off, and throw on and

so on.

2) Idioms: famous last word, jack me around.

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Two words are collocates if they occur together with more than

chance frequency. Example: this week, once more, once again, as

well.

f. Word meaning

It discusses about synonym, antonym and homonym

3. The Importances of Vocabulary

The statements from some experts about the importances of

vocabulary can be seen below:

According to John Dewey (1910) cited in Efendi (2013:78),

vocabulary mastery is critically important because a word is an

instrument for thinking about the meanings which is expresses.

In addition, Harmon et al. (2009) in Efendi (2013:78) proposed that

learning vocabulary mastery is an important instructional aim for

teachersin all content areas in middle grades schools.

From the statements above, it can be concluded that vocabulary

mastery is very important in English learning because it becomes basic

part that are needed in listening, reading, speaking, and writing.

4. Teaching vocabulary

Teacher must know learners’ strategy. Knowing learners’ strategy,

teachers can help students to acquire vocabulary mastery. Mehta (2009)

proposed three steps in vocabulary mastery learning:

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Careful listening to the words may be a good option in teaching

vocabulary mastery items in a heterogenic classroom. "Let the

students hear the word in isolation and in a sentence. If the sounds of

the word have been mastered, the students will hear it correctly with

two or three repetitions." (Robert Lado: 121) Slow pronunciation

without distortion will help. Breaking the word into parts and building

up to the whole word will also be helpful.

b. Pronouncing the Word

Pronouncing the word enables the students to remember it longer

and identify it more readily when they hear or see it.

c. Methods of Grasping the Meaning

The teacher should try to get the meaning to the class without using

translation. This is not preferable on the ground that translation may or

may not provide the meaning of the word accurately and precisely. It

is advocated as it enables the class to go without grasping the meaning

of a word that they have learned to pronounce rather than to depend

upon the translation.

B. Reading

1. Definition of Reading

Reading is an active process. Identifying reading is often

connected with the process of reading itself. The process is the

interaction between a reader and a text which is normally silent, internal

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they read. It is also more than recognizing words within a sentence; it

includes whole ability of thinking process to evaluate the information.

The following are some definitions of reading proposed by some experts.

Reading is one of the language skills which needed to be taught

in language classroom. Reading is a process of matching information in a

text to internally activated information to interpret what we understand

from a text depends what we know previously (Widowson 1979; Carrel

and Eisterhold 1983 cited in (Grabe: 1986). Reading is a process of

interpreting or understanding the text in term of question that the reader

formulates about the text (Smith 1982) in Grabe (1986:28). Reading is

selective process that involves partial use of available minimal language

cues selected from perceptual input on the basic of readers expectation

(Goodman, 1967:108) in Grabe (1986: 26).

In his introduction to Alderson (2000) on assessing reading,

Lyle Bachman notes: "Reading through which we can access worlds of

ideas and feelings, as well as the knowledge of ages and visions of the

future, is at once the most extensively researched and the most enigmatic

of the so-called language skills. Alderson (2000) says:

Reading as interactive model as well. The interaction in reading process happens during reading. There are two kinds of interactions which are interaction between the reader and the text and interaction between the reader and the writer. The interaction between the reader and the texts happens when the reader constructs a personal interpretationof the text through recognizing the written symbols. While when the reader tries to

get the writer’s intention, the interaction between the reader and

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of background knowledge and number of skills used in comprehending and interpreting a text. (Alderson, 2000: 3)

There are many experts who present various definition of

reading. According to Dechant (1982: 3) definitions of reading are

divided into two major types:

a. Reading as Interpretation of Experience

With the first type of reading definition, in which reading is

equated with the interpretation of experience generally, we might

speak of reading pictures, reading faces, or reading the weather.

Reading is performed whenever one experiences sensory stimulation. On the other hand, the meaning of reading based on this type is the reading readiness program in which experience with concrete object is emphasized, visual and auditory discrimination are stressed and students are required to interpret pictures and conversation. Spencer (1946) as quoted by Dechant, 1982: 4.

According to Dechant (1982: 4) reading as interpretation of

experience have three implications as followed:

a) For both the teacher and studuents who is learning to read.

Teacher must become expert in the abilities of the students in

reading. They must understand their students and must be

able to identify the personal differences in the students which

may lead to achievement differences between students.

b) The teacher needs become expert I reading symptoms of

reading

c) Another implication is that the teacher must develop

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b. Reading as Interpretation of Graphic Symbols

In Dechant (1982: 4-5) there are presented the definition of

reading by many experts. Some of them are DeBoer and Dallmann

(1960: 19) consider that reading involves the comprehension and

interpretation of ideas symbolized by the written or printed page.

According to Bond and Thinker (1967: 22) cited in Dechant

(1982: 5) point out that reading involves the recognition of printed or

written symbols which serve as stimuli for the recall of meanings built

up through the reader’s past experience.

2. Reading Process

There are many experts promote the reading processes to find the

best way to boost the students vocabulary mastery and reading

comprehension. According to Grabe (1986) says:

The reading process must be viewed in at least two ways. First,

there is the more linguistically constrained issue is whether

different language and their different learning strategies or

various universal processes interact differently for optimal

processing in different languages. The second issue is whether

different culture imposes particular constraint on the development

of reading process that affects foreign students reading

proficiency in the EFL class. (Grabe, 1986: 29)

According to Fauziati (2010: 40) there are three main phases

needed to be followed in reading activity, namely:

a. Pre – reading : used to prepare students for reading. Activities may

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necessary for comprehension of the text or to activate the existing

knowledge. To make students aware of the type of the text they will

be reading and the purpose for reading.

b. Whilst reading : students check their comprehension as they read, to

determines the appropriate type and level comprehension.

c. Post – reading : post reading activities function as a losing mark for

reading class.

3. Purpose of reading

There are six main purpose of reading comprehensive according

Grabe ( 2009: 8 – 10 ). The purpose includes :

a. Reading for information

The combination of scanning (identifying a specific graphic

form) and skimming (building a simple quick understanding of the

text) allows a reader to search information.

b. Reading for quick understanding (skimming)

Reading for quick understanding used for variety of other

reasons and so may be seen as a superordinate purpose. The readers

used skimming when they want to determine what a text is about and

whether or not they want to spend more time reading it.

c. Reading to learn

Reading to learn is often carried out in academic and

professional settings. Reading to learn places more processing

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the main ideas and many supporting ideas and be able to recall this

information as needed.

e. Reading to evaluate, critique, and use information

It often also represents an increased level of demand and a

more complex interaction of reading processes.

f. Reading for general comprehension

Reading for general comprehension is the most common

purpose for reading among fluent readers, and it is the default

assumption for the term vocabulary mastery and reading

comprehension

4. Developing interest in Reading

Scott (1973) in Dechant (1982: 77), notes that overriding cause of

reading failure is lack of attention, withdrawal from the learning task and

nonuse of cognitive and perceptual power.

According to Dechant (1982: 77), pupils whose problem is

essentially motivational may be helped by awareness of their progress.

The material should also interesting and on the pupils’ instructional level.

The teacher may promote interest i reading in the following ways:

a. Develop chart to be placed on the reading table containing pupil

made jokes, riddles, statement, an stories

b. Provide a wide selection of easy reading materials

c. Guide pupils to books which they can read independently

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e. Use book exhibits, book firs, books advertisement, periodicals and

bulletins to stimulate interest in reading

f. Give children an opportunity to share their reading experiences

through book report, panels, or a round table discussion

g. Develop a book club or hobby club

h. Introduce the children to the reading topic by illustrating the content

with TV, films, and recording

i. Provide class time for library reading

j. Stay in the background

k. Suggest the sport page, magazines, or even the comics for pupils

l. Have pupil keep record of the book they have read

m. Help pupils to look upon themselves as reader

5. Principles of Teaching Reading

According to Harmer (2001:70), there are some principles

behind the teaching of reading:

a. Reading is not a passive skill. Reading is an incredibly active

occupation. To do it successfully, we have to understand what the

words mean.

b. Students need to be engaged with what they are reading. As with

everything else in lessons, students who are not engaged with the

reading text, not actively interested in what they are doing, are less

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22

c. Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading

text, not just to the language. It is important to research reading texts

for the way they use language, the number of paragraphs they

contain and how many times they use relative clauses.

d. Prediction is a major factor in reading. When we read texts in our

own language, we frequently have a good idea of the content before

we actually read.

e. Match the task to the topic. Once a decision has been taken about

what reading text the students are going to read, we need to choose

good reading tasks, the right kind of questions, engaging and useful

puzzle, etc.

f. Good teachers exploit reading texts to the full. They integrate the

reading text into interesting class sequences, using the topic for

discussion and further tasks, using the language for research and later

activation.

C. Reading Comprehension

1. Definition of reading comprehension

According to Thorndike (1917) in Dechant (1982: 311), reading

comprehension includes correct meanings, the ability to reason one’s way

through smaller idea, segments, and the ability to grasp the meaning of a

larger unitary idea.

According to Dechant (1982: 312) comprehension is a thinking

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23

basic knowledge such as their background experience (vocabulary

mastery, knowledge, concepts and ideas) and their language skill

(knowledge of morphology, syntax and grammar). The readers use their

thinking and verbal reasoning skill to read for main ideas, for details, for

organization, for evaluation and appreciation.

Klingner, Vaughn and Broadman (2007: 8) say that reading

comprehension is a process of interaction between readers and what they

bring to the text, such as their prior or background knowledge and

strategy use. This process also includes the variables related to the text,

for example the readers’ interest of the texts and their understanding of

the genres of the texts. It means that what the readers learn and how they

respond and comprehend the text is individualistic. The process of

constructing meaning depends on the individual competencies, such as

experience and how to interpret the text.

From the statement above the writer concludes that reading

comprehension is the process of communication among reader and writer

through a text in order to grasp idea and information accurately.

2. Basic of reading comprehension

According to Klingner, Vaughn and Broadman (2007: 9-11),

reading comprehension consist of five basic comprehension processes.

These processes work together simultaneously and complement one

another, there are:

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24

Micro process it happen within individual sentences. It is the

ability to remember details idea of a text that carries meaning.

b.integrative processes

It is the process of understanding and inferring the relationships

among clauses to make connection across sentences.

c.Macro processes

Macro process is the ability to organize ideas in a coherent way.

These processes can be done through selecting the most important

information to remember and delete relatively less important details.

d.Elaborative processes

These processes connect the information provided inthe text to

the prior or background knowledge.

e.Metacognitive processes

It is the conscious awareness or control of cognitive process. In

these processes the readers try to understand the texts, select what

information to remember and decide the strategies used when reading.

The metacognitive strategies that the readers use include repeating

information to enhance recall, underlining important words or sections

of a passage, note taking,and checking understanding.

(38)

25 .

Figure 2.1

Five basics reading comprehension processes. Irwin (1991) in Klingner, Vaughn andBroadman (2007)

3. Level of Comprehension

Learning to comprehend involves complex skills. Various experts

have their level of comprehension. Lanier and Davis (1972) in Dechant

(1982: 313) say that in summarizing comprehension skills, categories

them as:

a. Literal kills

Including recognizing and recalling fact, detail, sequence, main

(39)

26 b. Interpretative skills

Including inferring, drawing conclusions, generalizing, deriving

meaning from figurative language predicting, anticipating, and

summarizing

c. Critical skills

Including judging, detecting propaganda, analyzing, checking

validity, checking author’s biases and purposes)

d. Creative skills

Include applying information and responding emotionally.

While Barret’s Taxonomy (1972) cited in Dechant (1982: 313)

identify that there are four levels of reading comprehension, there are:

a. Literal recognition or recall

The literal level is the lowest cognitive level where the reader

understands just what the words mean. The information that is stated

explicitly in the text is retrieved by the reader in the form given. Such

literal information may be the main idea, a set of specific details, or a

sequence of events.

b. Inference level.

This level requires the readers understand the literal information

from level one and go beyond it to hypothesize about relationship,

(40)

27 c. Evaluation level

It requires the reader to make judgement about the content, using

external (the teacher or authorities on the subject) or internal criteria

(reader’s personal experiences and knowledge) as points of reference.

d. Appreciation level

It relates to the emotional responses of readers to a text. It also

refers to the reader’s awareness of the literacy and stylistic techniques

used by an author to encourage a reader’s emotional responses.

Base on explanation above the writer conclude that in order to

comprehend a text the reader should read a text more than a time. The

experiences or background knowledge of the reader is prime modal to

comprehend a text.

D. Descriptive Text

1. Definition of descriptive text

Description text is a text about characteristic features of a particular

thing. According to Oshima and Hogue (1997:50), descriptive writing

appeals to the senses, so it tells how something looks, feels, smells, tastes,

and/ or sounds.

2.

Purposes and Kinds of Descriptive Text

Butt et al. (2001),Derewianka (1991) and Feez and Joyce (1998)

cited in Derewianka (2003: 136) the purpose of descriptive text is to

provide information about particular person, place and thing. Thereforeit

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28 a. Describing people

b. Description of place

c. Description about thing

3. Generic structure of descriptive text

According to Gerot ad Wignell (1995) in Dadi (2015: 171) propose

two generic structure of descriptive text:

a. Identification: an introduction to the subject of the description.

b. Description: describe the characteristic features of the subject.

4. Language Feature of Descriptive Text

According to Cavanagh (1998) cited in Mursyid (page 5-6) said

that the language feature of descriptive text as follows:

a. Generalized participants: a whole class of things

b. Use of action verbs, especially when describing behaviour

c. Use of linking verbs (is, are, has, have, belongs to)

d. Use of present tense

e. Descriptive language; factual and precise

What they look like (color, shape, size, etc.)

What they have (body parts, components, etc.)

What they do (habits, behaviour, functions, uses, etc.)

f. Use of expressions of defining, classifying, comparing,

and contrasting (are called, belong to, can be classified as, are

(42)

29 g. Technical vocabularies

h. Formal and objective language: personal pronoun "I", "we", and the

writer's opinions are not generally appropriate.

i. Often accompanied by diagrams, photos, and illustrations.

5. Example of Descriptive text

My Beloved Mother

(Identification)

Every people certainly have a mother. It is because people are born

from her. The existence of her among us is definitely important. That is

why I love her so much. I owe great debt to what she has been doing to me

until right now. And here is my mother.

(Description)

My mother's name is Khodijah. She was born 49 years ago. She is

short, but not too short. She is little fat. And she is old. She has got short

white straight hair. She has got brown skin. She is beautiful. Her hand is so

soft, the hand that have taught me to be kind person. She never stops to

support me. She always tells me to not give up so easily. She always gives

me some fine solutions when I have some problems. The importance of

her is never denied. That is why I never reject her willing.

E. Find the Stranger Game 1. Definition of Game

According to Hadfield (1990: v) in Tuan (2012: 259) game is

activity with rules, a goal and an element of fun.

Game is an organized activity that usually has the following

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30

between players in spoken or written language (Richard, Platt and Platt,

1992:153) in Tuan (2012: 257-264).

From the definition above the writer conclude that game is

activities which have rules with the aim for pleasure and include a value

of competition.

2. Value of game

Games are always interesting to the students who learn

vocabulary mastery because it makes fun and enjoy. Considering

language learning Stojkovic and Jerotijevic (2011: 941) propose several

advantages using game in EFL class:

a. Through fun and apparently less demanding practice, games increase

learners’ attention motivation and promote learning (Hansen, 1994)

b. Group and peer work may induce teamwork and enable successful

interaction (Rinvlucri & Davis, 1995)

c. By lowering the affective filter (Krashen 1985), games provide

favorable condition for effective language acquisition (Wierus,

1994)

d. Through a meaningful context, student are provided with

comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985)

e. Each of the four basic skills may be practiced by the use of games

(44)

31 3. Definition Find the Stranger Game

In the teaching and learning there are many kinds game that can

used to teach the students for increase their vocabulary mastery and

reading comprehension. one of them there is reading race game. Find the

Stranger Game is a game in which the players should determine the

foreign word is in a group of words or determine the word which is not

the groups of it (Walidi, 2006: 14).

4. Procedure of the Find the Stranger Game

According to Walidi (2004: 14) the procedure of Find the

Stranger Game is:

a. Divide the students into teams consist of four students per group

b. Make a word list on the card such as a list of adjective or noun or verb

than insert one “the stranger word” on a certain list of noun or

adjective or verb. Example: a card with list of adjectives inserted by

one noun word as the stranger.

c. Each group go forward in turns and is represented by a team member

to take the card. Together each group must find the stranger on the

card is taken.

d. After finding the stranger, answers written on paper provided. Teams

share their answers. For every correct answer, they get one point.

e. Tally the points on the board underrespective team names.

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32

g. Teams can share the meaning of each word or use it in a sentence to

get full mark.

5. Example Find the Stranger

A B

From the find the stranger card above, the stranger word can be analyzed

as:

Card A: Candy (Noun)

Busy (Adjective)

Easy (Adjective)

Crazy (Adjective)

Lazy (Adjective)

 The stranger word from card A is Candy, whereas candy is a noun

although the other words are an adjective

Card B:

Table (Noun)

Candy

Busy

Easy

Crazy

Lazy

Table

Bottle

Able

Candle

(46)

33

Bottle (Noun)

Able (Adjective)

Candle (Noun)

Uncle (Noun)

 The stranger word from card B is able, whereas able is a adjective

(47)

34 CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter the writer explains about research setting, the subject of the

research, research methodology, procedures of the research, technique of

collecting data, and technique of analyzing the data.

A. Research Setting

This research was conducted at SMK N3 Salatiga. The explanation

about this school described as follows:

1. General Discussin of SMK N3 Salatiga

SMK N 3 Salatiga is located in Jalan Ja’far Shadiq Kalibening,

Tingkir, Kota Salatiga No.Tlp: (0298) 7103119. It was built on May, 21st

2007 and built on state-own area as wide 5.2700 m2. The total number of

students SMK N 3 Salatiga in academic year of 2016/2017 is 1.321

students. They are consists of 1.136 male students and 185 female

students. The detail of the school described as follows:

Name of school : SMK N3 Salatiga

Address : Jalan Ja’far Shadiq Kalibening, Tingkir, Kota

Salatiga

Accreditation : A

Telephone : (0298) 7103119

E-mail : smkn3salatiga@gmail.com

NSS : 321036202008

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35

Wide : 5.27 ha

Head Master : Suripan S.Pd

NIP : 19650120 199003 1 003

Motto : Cerdas dan Berkwalitas ( Smart and Quality)

2. Situation of SMK N3 Salatiga

a. The subject and department of SMK N3 Salatiga

The subject matter that be taught in SMK N3 Salatiga are

Indonesian Language, Javanese Language, Mathematics,

Computer, Civic Education, English, Social Sciences, Natural

Sciences, Islamic Education, Guidance and Counseling, Sport,

and Arts Education.

In addition SMK N 3 Salatiga has six departments there are

Teknik pengelasan (Welding technique), Teknik Ototronik

(Ototronik Engineering), Agribisnis Tanaman Pangan dan

Holtikultura (Food crops and horticulture), Teknik Sepeda Motor

(technique of motorcycle) and Teknik geomatika (Geomatics

technique). Furthermore each department or major has practice

room or workshop.

b. The Teachers and Staff of SMK N3 Salatiga

The formal education needs qualified people to work as

teachers and some as administrators to undertake good teaching

learning process. In this school, there are 77 teachers and 18

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36

this school teach different subject matter, there are: Indonesian

Language, Javanese Language, Teknik pengelasan (Welding

technique), Teknik Ototronik (Ototronik Engineering), Agribisnis

Tanaman Pangan dan Holtikultura (Food crops and horticulture),

Teknik Sepeda Motor (technique of motorcycle), Teknik

geomatika (Geomatics technique), Mathematics, Computer, Civic

Education, English, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Islamic

Education, Guidance and Counseling, Sport, and Arts Education.

While the staff members in this school consist of head of

administration, administrative staff, librarian, cleaning service,

gardener, and security guard.

c. Educational Facilities and Tools in SMK N3 Salatiga Salatiga in

the Academic Year of 2016/2017

SMK N3 Salatiga consists of 86 rooms to support in

teaching learning process, they are 45 classrooms and 10

productive room. The other buildings are head master room,

teacher room, library, counseling room, administration office,

health service, OSIS, cooperation room, sport facilities room, and

mosque, bathroom, laboratory, bathroom and another. The

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37

d. The Extracurricular in SMK N3 Salatiga in the Academic Year of

2016/2017

The teaching learning process in SMK N3 Salatiga begins

at 07.00 a.m until 16.00 p.m everyday. Each lesson takes along 45

minutes. Beside intra curricular activities, the students also have

extracurricular activities recommended in order to improve their

skill achievements. The extracurricular activities are: computer,

football, Pasukan pengibar bendera (flag raisers), scout, Islamic

music religion club, qiro’, English club and etc.

Each of extra activities is held once a week on Saturday.

Besides improving students’ skill and achievements, the activities

are also aimed to train the students’ discipline, growing up their

talent ability, and developing their positive attitude and behavior

B. Description of Research Schedule

The research was conducted in May but the process during the

research began from August. In this research the writer as a teacher and the

collaborator Dini Wahyu Tri Utami in teaching learning process. The table

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38

Table. 3.1 Time setting of the Research

C. The Subject of the Research

In this research, the writer choosed SMK N 3 Salatiga as subject of

the research especially the tenth years students. The tenth years students

consist of 12 class groups, but the writer took one class group, X Teknik

Sepeda Motor (TSM) 2 ( Technique motorcycle). The number of the

students are 34 students. They are 1 girl and 33 boys. Their native language

is Javanese . The average age of the participants are 16 years. The English

lesson is taught two times n a week and which is each meeting along with

two hours lesson; one hour lesson is 45 minutes.

The problems that the students faced when read English text are the

students have lack of vocabulary mastery, less interest in reading English

text. In addition the tudents assumed that English is difficult. In teaching

and learning process, the tenth years students of SMK N 3 Salatiga faced

some difficulties when their teacher explain the materials. It seen at their

No Date and Time Activities

1 May 18th 2016 permit application

2 May 19th 2016 observation : interview to the teacher

3 August 1th 2016 First meeting cycle 1

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39

response in English learning. Some of them are bored, sleepy and did not

pay attention to their teacher explanation.

TABLE 3. 2

List of X- TSM 2 Class Group of SMK N 3 Salatiga in the Academic

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40

23 1053234 Anwar Male

24 1053235 Bagas Male

25 1053236 Ngainul Male

26 1053237 Ulinuha Male

27 1053238 Habibi Male

28 1053239 Mamcribo Male

29 1053240 Arga Male

30 1053241 Rual Male

31 1053242 Septian Male

32 1053243 Tegar Male

33 1053244 Sutiyono Male

34 1053245 Yuswan Male

Source SMK N 3 Salatiga

D. Method of the Research

The research method used in this research is action research.

According to Suhasimi Arikuto (Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, 2010: 130)

methodology of this research stands from three words, classroom, action

and research. So there are three term can be explained.

1. Research

Research is activities to observe object of research that use a way and

a methodology together information or data to boost quality of thing

which is very interesting and important for teacher.

2. Action

(54)

41 3. A Classroom

A classroom is not limited just one room of class, but in term that more

specific. A classroom is a group of student in same time that already to

catch same material from same teacher.

Beside definition above, there are some definitions of action

research. The first definition is given by Kemmis (1983) in Hopkins

(1993:44) that action research is a form of self reflective enquiryundertaken

by participants in social situation in order to improve the rationality and

justices, their understanding of these practices and the situations in which

the practices are carried out.

Second, according to Ebbutt (1985) in Hopkins (1993:45), action

research is about the systematic research of attempts to improve educational

practice by groups of participants by means of their own practical action and

by means of their own reflection upon the effects of those actions.

Third, definition is given by Robert Rapport in Hopkins (1993:45)

that action research aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of

people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social

science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical

framework.

Based on many definitions above about action research; the writer

concluded that classroom action research is a research which is must stands

for three elements; there was improvement, treatment and certain sequence

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42 E. Research Procedures

This research used classroom action research in SMK N 3 Salatiga on

August 2016, therefore in this case the writer used some steps as Kemmis and

Taggart. There are two cycles in this action research and each cycle consist of

two meetings.

According to Kemmis and Taggart (1990) in Burn (2010: 8) the

procedure of classroom action research are as follows.

1. Planning

The Activities in the planning which do by writer are:

a. Preparing materials, making lesson-plan and designing the steps

indoing the action.

b. Preparing list students’ name and scoring

c. Preparing teaching aids (e.g. cards, text, rewards, etc)

d. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of

teaching-learning process when the method or technique or mode is

applied)

e. Preparing a test. (to know whether students’ vocabulary mastery and

reading comprehension improves or not)

2. Action

a. Introduction/ greeting

b. Check of the present of the students

c. Giving pre-test.

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43

e. Giving Occasion to the students to ask any difficulties or problem

f. Giving post-test.

3. Observation

Observation is one of the research instruments used in collecting

the data. As a scientific method, observation can be systematically used

to observe and note the phenomena investigated like students feeling,

thinking and everything they do in teaching learning process. The writer

plans this observation flexible and open to record the unexpected case.

4. Reflection

The result of the observation is analyzed. It is to remember

what happened that has been recorded in observation. Reflection seeks

to make sense of the process, problems and issues in strategic action.

It looks account of the variety of perspectives possible in the social

situation and comprehends the issues and circumstances in which they

arose. Reflection has evaluative aspect; is asks the writer to weight the

experience, to judge whether effects (and issues which arose) were

desirable and suggest ways of proceeding. The writer’s reflection is

done by discussing with his collaborator. The target of passing grade

was 75%. The passing grade was 75. If the target could not reached,

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44

The procedures above are briefly ilustrated in the following

scheme.

Kemmnd Taggart (1990)

Figure 2 :

Kemmis and McTaggart (1988: 14) as quoted by Hopkins (1993:

48)

F. Technique of Collecting Data

In this research the writer uses test, observation and documentation in

collecting the data.

1. Test

Arikunto (2010: 226) stated that test is used to measure the

students basic ability and achievement. He mentions that there are two

kinds of achievement test which usually used by school:

a. Test made by the teacher; that arranged by certain procedure, but it has

not been examined many times so its characteristics and strength has

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45

b. Standardized test; a test that usually has been available in a testing

institution and has been guaranteed its effectiveness.

In this research, writer collected data by using test made by teacher.

From the result of the test the writer is able to know the improvement of

students’ comprehension. The writer made pre- test and post- test in each

cycle. Pre- test is used to know the students’ ability in learning English

especially in reading lesson. While post-test, it is used to measure how

far their improvement after apply the game in reading lesson. Pre-tes and

post-test use to know the differences of the students’ ability before and

after the teacher applied the game.

2. Observation

According to Arikunto (2010: 199) observation is a limited

activity to observe something using eyes.

Observation would be used to monitor the students’ activity

during English teaching and learning process in reading. Based on the

observation, can be known interest, motivation and the improvement of

students’ vocabulary mastery and reading comprehensions that occured

in learning process.

. The table below show the example of observation sheet as follow:

TABLE 3.3

Student’s Observation sheet for students

No Nama Object Note

1 Adi A B C D

(59)
(60)

47 33 Sutiyono

34 Yuswan

Explanation:

A. Pay attention C. Activeness in responding question

B. Activeness in asking question D. Enthusiasm in doing test

3. Documentation

In this research, the researcher used documentation as one of the

instrument. According to Arikunto (2010: 274), documentation is an

activity to look for variable like notes, transcribes, books, newspapers,

magazines, etc. In this method, writer holds a check- list to look for the

variable that had been decided.

The writer collected all the data from the school and the teacher

document such as students’ reading result in pre-test and pos-test and

also the students’ reading scores in pre-test and pos-test. Photo in this

research will be used to documented all situation in this class.. Another

instrument was the data from the school and from the teacher about the

situation of the SMK N 3 Salatiga, and especially the students in X

TSM 2 of SMK N 3 Salatiga. Beside the writer also prepare some video

as documentation.

G. Technique of Analyzing Data

The writer conduct the actoin research of the implementation of

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48

reading comprehension. To analyzing data, there are two ways to analyze

the data, they are:

1. Descriptive technique

The writer used the descriptive technique to analyze students

participation, interest, and students behaviour during the teaching

learning process. The writer described all activity that happened in the

classroom. In descriptive technique, the researcer analyzed the

observation sheet which has been made by the collaborator.

2. Statistical technique

A statistical technique was used to calculate the result of the test,

before and after applied using Find the Stranger Game to improve

students’ vocabulary mastery and reading comprehension. According to

Sudijono (2008:81) by using formula:

a. Mean

M = ∑XN

Where,

M : Mean of students’ score

∑X : The sum score of students’ reading test

N : The total number of students

b. Percentage of students’ passing grade

According to Sudijdono (2008: 43) the formula to sought

percentage of students’ passing grade is:

P=𝑓

(62)

49 Where:

f= frequency were sought the percentage

N= numer of cases (students who pass the passing grade)

P= Number of percentage

D : Difference between pre-test post-test

N : Total number of students

d. T-test

To be able to know whether there is a significant

improvement or not between pre-test and postest, writer using

t-test after calculate the SD. The formula is :

o

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50

D : Different between pre-test and post-test

Gambar

Figure 2.1
Candy   Table
Table. 3.1 Time setting of the Research
TABLE 3. 2
+6

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