The use of politeness strategies in the conversation between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in the intern movie.

46  16  Download (0)

Teks penuh

(1)

vi ABSTRACT

Astuti, Heni Budi. (2017). The Use of Politeness Strategies in the Conversation between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern Movie. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

This study analyses the use of politeness strategies in a movie entitled The Intern. The movie tells a story about Ben Whittaker, a senior citizen who becomes a senior intern at an online fashion site called aboutthefit.com. It is founded and run by Jules Ostin, who is younger than Ben Whittaker. The interesting interactions between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin provide a good example of the application of politeness strategies. The writer conducts this study to analyse the use of Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies by Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern movie.

The writer employs Brown and Levinson’s theory of politeness strategies to analyse the politeness strategies used between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern movie. In this qualitative research, the writer employs document analysis as the method of the study. The script of The Intern movie becomes the data source of the study.

Based on the result of the analysis, the main characters of The Intern movie applies all politeness strategies proposed by Brown and Levinson. The most frequent strategy used by the main characters of The Intern movie, Jules and Ben, is Positive Politeness. Positive Politeness is applied 41 times, Negative Politeness 36 times, Off-record 26 times, and Bald On-record 13 times.

(2)

ABSTRAK

Astuti, Heni Budi. (2017). The Use of Politeness Strategies in the Conversation between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern Movie. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

Studi ini menganalisis penggunaan strategi kesantunan di dalam sebuah film dengan judul The Intern. Film ini menceritakan tentang seorang pria tua bernama Ben Whittaker. Dia menjadi seorang magang senior di sebuah situs jual-beli online yang bernama aboutthefit.com. Situs jual-jual-beli online tersebut didirikan dan dijalankan oleh Jules Ostin, yang berusia lebih muda dari Ben Whittaker. Interaksi-interaksi yang menarik antara Ben Whittaker dan Jules Ostin memberikan contoh yang baik tentang penerapan strategi kesantunan. Penulis mengadakan studi ini untuk menganalisis penggunaan strategi kesantunan oleh Ben Whittaker dan Jules Ostin di dalam film The Intern.

Penulis menggunakan teori strategi kesantunan dari Brown dan Levinson untuk menganalisis strategi kesantunan yang digunakan oleh Ben Whittaker dan Jules Ostin di dalam film The Intern. Dalam penelitian kualitatif ini, penulis menggunakan analisis dokumen sebagai metode penelitian. Naskah film The Intern menjadi sumber data dari penelitian ini.

(3)

THE USE OF POLITENESS STRATEGIES

IN THE CONVERSATION BETWEEN BEN WHITTAKER

AND JULES OSTIN IN

THE INTERN

MOVIE

A SARJANA PENDIDIKANFINAL PAPER

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana PendidikanDegree

in English Language Education

By

Heni Budi Astuti Student Number: 111214082

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

(4)

THE USE OF POLITENESS STRATEGIES

IN THE CONVERSATION BETWEEN BEN WHITTAKER

AND JULES OSTIN IN

THE INTERN

MOVIE

A SARJANA PENDIDIKANFINAL PAPER

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana PendidikanDegree

in English Language Education

By

Heni Budi Astuti Student Number: 111214082

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

vi ABSTRACT

Astuti, Heni Budi. (2017). The Use of Politeness Strategies in the Conversation between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern Movie. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

This study analyses the use of politeness strategies in a movie entitled The Intern. The movie tells a story about Ben Whittaker, a senior citizen who becomes a senior intern at an online fashion site called aboutthefit.com. It is founded and run by Jules Ostin, who is younger than Ben Whittaker. The interesting interactions between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin provide a good example of the application of politeness strategies. The writer conducts this study to analyse the use of Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies by Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin inThe Internmovie.

The writer employs Brown and Levinson’s theory of politeness strategies to analyse the politeness strategies used between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern movie. In this qualitative research, the writer employs document analysis as the method of the study. The script of The Intern movie becomes the data source of the study.

Based on the result of the analysis, the main characters of The Intern movie applies all politeness strategies proposed by Brown and Levinson. The most frequent strategy used by the main characters of The Internmovie, Jules and Ben, is Positive Politeness. Positive Politeness is applied 41 times, Negative Politeness 36 times, Off-record 26 times, and Bald On-record 13 times.

(10)

ABSTRAK

Astuti, Heni Budi. (2017). The Use of Politeness Strategies in the Conversation between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern Movie. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

Studi ini menganalisis penggunaan strategi kesantunan di dalam sebuah film dengan judul The Intern. Film ini menceritakan tentang seorang pria tua bernama Ben Whittaker. Dia menjadi seorang magang senior di sebuah situs jual-beli online yang bernama aboutthefit.com. Situs jual-jual-beli online tersebut didirikan dan dijalankan oleh Jules Ostin, yang berusia lebih muda dari Ben Whittaker. Interaksi-interaksi yang menarik antara Ben Whittaker dan Jules Ostin memberikan contoh yang baik tentang penerapan strategi kesantunan. Penulis mengadakan studi ini untuk menganalisis penggunaan strategi kesantunan oleh Ben Whittaker dan Jules Ostin di dalam film The Intern.

Penulis menggunakan teori strategi kesantunan dari Brown dan Levinson untuk menganalisis strategi kesantunan yang digunakan oleh Ben Whittaker dan Jules Ostin di dalam film The Intern. Dalam penelitian kualitatif ini, penulis menggunakan analisis dokumen sebagai metode penelitian. Naskah film The Internmenjadi sumber data dari penelitian ini.

Berdasarkan hasil analisis, para tokoh utama dari film The Intern menggunakan semua strategi kesantunan Brown dan Levinson. Strategi yang paling sering digunakan oleh tokoh utama dari film The Intern, Jules dan Ben adalah Positive Politeness. Positive Politeness digunakan sebanyak 41 kali, Negative Politeness 36 kali, Off-record26 kali, dan Bald On-record13 kali.

(11)

viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank Jesus Christwho has given me strength

and motivation all this time, especially in writing this paper. I would not be able

to finish my paper without His blessing and guidance.

I would like to express my gratitude to my final paper advisors IbuCarla

Sih Prabandari, S.Pd., M.Hum., and IbuMade Frida Yulia, S.Pd., M.Pd.,for

their attention, patience, guidance, advice, criticism, and encouragement to help

me in finishing this paper. I also thank Bapak Fidelis Chosa Kastuhandani,

S.Pd., M.Hum.He becomes such a great academic advisor, father, and friend for

class B batch 2011. I also thank all PBI lecturers and staff of Sanata Dharma

Universitywho helped me during my study in PBI Sanata Dharma University.

My greatest gratitude goes to my family, Ibu Yuliana Sri Budiati, Bapak

Martinus Kasiyono, MasDanu Wiranto,Mas Rahadian Yudha Pratama, and

Mbak Huri Trimardanti for endless love, prayers, support, and sacrifices so I

can finish my study at PBI Sanata Dharma University. I am so grateful for having

them in my life.

I would also like to thank my best friends Anak Bangsa, Gaiety and Sri,

for their friendship and love. I thank Sosialita Lippo, Riri, Gian, and Joko, for

the confusion, motivation, support, and ideas. Lastly, I would like to thank

everyone who is not mentioned here, but has given valuable contribution in my

life. Nothing can express my gratitude.

(12)

TABLE OF CONTENTS A. Review of Related Literature ... 6

1. Pragmatics ... 6

B. Politeness Strategies Used in The InternMovie ... 11

(13)

x

Page

a. The Use of Positive Politeness by Ben Whittaker to

Jules Ostin... 12

b. The Use of Positive Politeness by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker ... 13

2. The Use of Negative Politeness... 14

a. The Use of Negative Politeness by Ben Whittaker to Jules Ostin... 14

b. The Use of Negative Politeness by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker... 15

3. The Use of Off-Record... 16

a. The Use of Off-record by Ben Whittaker to Jules Ostin 16 b. The Use of Off-record by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker 17 4. The Use of Bald On-Record ... 17

a. The Use of Bald On-record by Ben Whittaker to Jules Ostin... 18

b. The Use of Bald On-record by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker ... 18

CHAPTER III. CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. Conclusion ... 19

B. Implication ... 20

C. Recommendations ... 21

REFERENCES... 23

(14)

LIST OF TABLES

2.1 Politeness Strategies Found in The InternMovie... 11

(15)

xii

LIST OF APPENDIX

(16)

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of three sections namely the background of the study,

research problem, and the method of the study. The background of the study

presents the background information and rationale of the study. Research problem

presents a formulated research question of the study undertaken. The method of

the study presents the method that is used in the study.

A. Background

Aristoteles once says “man is by nature a social animal” (as cited in

Duncan, 2012). It means that every human being needs to communicate with each

other and communication takes an important role in society. Human beings

communicate with each other through languages. Holtgraves (2002, p.1)

mentions “language is a system that allows people to communicate or transfer

propositions among themselves. People use language to accomplish various

things-they request and compliment and criticize, and so on”. Finegan (2004, p.

282) makes a similar claim about language. He states that people employ

language as a means to do things, such as request a favour, make a promise,

report a piece of news, give directions, offer a greeting, and carry out hundreds of

other ordinary verbal actions of everyday life. In the other words, language is

important to fulfil humans’ needs and convey their messages or/and feelings.

(17)

gender, social status, and ethnicity. The differences can be a challenge for human

beings because they need to adjust their language to convey their messages and

feeling to situations. Holtgraves (2002, p. 6) says that people cannot always say

exactly what they mean because they generally do not want to threaten or impose

on or criticize their hearer. Furthermore, Brown and Levinson (1999, p. 315)

mention “….any rational agent will seek to avoid this face-threatening acts or

will employ certain strategies to minimize the threat”. The strategies to minimize

the threat of the hearer are called politeness strategies.

Politeness differs in every culture and place. A particular act can be polite

in one area, but it can also be rude in another area. Since there are differences

between Western culture and Eastern culture, especially Indonesia, Indonesian

EFL learners face the difficulties in using English language appropriately

according to the culture. Kim (2003, p. 138) has an opinion regarding to it.

Even if the learners have developed a great ability in phonology, syntax, and semantics of the target language, miscommunication may occur if s/he has not acquired the knowledge of when to speak what to whom appropriately.

For example, a native speaker gives compliment, “You are good at English,” and

the Indonesian ELS learner answers, “No, no. That’s not true.” This kind of

response is uncommon in an English community, or even considered impolite. In

addition, Herbert (1968, p. 77) states that “although prescriptive norms of

American speech behaviour state that the appropriate response to a compliment is

to say ‘thank you,’ speakers will often downgrade the compliment or return it to

the complimenter” (as cited in Han, 1992, p. 21). Thus, someone who learns a

(18)

culture. One of the cultures that should be learned is about politeness.

Seeing the fact above, the researcher is interested in conducting the study

regarding to the politeness issue. The focus of this study is to observe and analyse

the use of politeness strategies as proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987),

namely Bald-on Record, Positive Politeness, Negative Politeness, and Off Record

in the comedy movie entitled The Intern (2015). The Intern movie conveys a

story about Ben Whittaker, a retired senior who starts the internship in an online

fashion site called aboutthefit.com. He has discovered that retirement is not

something he enjoys. Seizing an opportunity to get back in the game, he becomes

a senior intern at the online fashion site founded and run by Jules Ostin.

Becoming a senior intern means he has to work with boss and co-workers who

are younger than him. The awkward communication happens at the first part of

the movie, but in the following part, Ben Whittaker and his co-workers can get

along pretty well. The interesting exchange of communication between Ben

Whittaker and his co-workers will likely provide a good study case for politeness

strategies. Thus, the study focuses on how politeness strategies are used in the

conversation between Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in the movie.

The researcher chose the movie as data source to conduct the research

because the movie provides dialogues which show interpersonal relationship.

Language is used in the dialogues of the movie characters to communicate. Thus,

the movie provides appropriate examples of the use of language and politeness in

society.

(19)

language learners to understand more about the use of English language in the

society according to the context. This study will help EFL learners to use English

expressions more politely and avoid a misunderstanding conversation because of

appropriate English expressions.

B. Research Problem

The researcher proposes one formulated problem in this study. The

formulated problem is “What are the politeness strategies that are used by Ben

Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern (2015) movie according to politeness

strategies as proposed by Brown and Levinson (1978)?”

C. Research Method

To answer the formulated research question, the researcher conducted a

qualitative research. Nkwi, Nyamongo, and Ryan (2001) state that “qualitative

research involves any research that uses data that do not indicate ordinal values.

In short, qualitative research involves collecting and/ or working with text,

images, or sounds” (p. 1). In accordance to Nkwi et al. (2001, p. 1), Brown and

Rodgers (2002, p. 12) also state that qualitative research is “research which is

based predominantly on non-numerical data, reveals that it can be subdivided into

various different non numerical qualitative research techniques for gathering data,

for example observations/field notes, case studies, diaries, etc.”

Since this study analysed the scripts of The Intern (2015) movie, the

(20)

Document analysis is a form of qualitative research in which documents are

interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around assessment topic.

Ary, Jacob, and Razavieh (2002, p. 442) define content or document analysis as

“a research method applied to written or visual materials for the purpose of

identifying specified characteristic of the materials.” The materials are usually in

the form of the newspapers, scripts, textbooks, advertisements, and any other

types of documents.

The unofficial script of The Intern (2015) movie was downloaded from

Ivana Chubbuck Studio (2015) and had been doubled checked by the researcher.

Afterwards, the researcher analysed the use of politeness strategies used by Ben

(21)

6 CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

This chapter consists of the review of related literature and the finding as

well as interpretation of the findings.

A. Review of Related Literature

In this section, the researcher is going to discuss three major theories,

which are pragmatics, sociolinguistics, and politeness strategies theory. The study

focuses on the conversations between the main characters of The Intern movie.

Therefore, pragmatics theory is needed to analyse the meaning of the conversation

in accordance to the context. Sociolinguistics is presented in order to make

distinct understanding of the topic discussed. Since the study will discuss about

politeness strategies used in The Intern movie, politeness theory is used as the

basic theory to analyse the conversation of the main characters of The Intern

movie.

1. Pragmatics

Levinson (1983) defines pragmatics as “the study of those relations

between language and context that are grammaticalized, or encoded in the

structure of a language” (p. 9). In addition, according to Leech (1992),

“pragmatics is the study of how language is used to communicate. It concerns

(22)

particular ways” (p. 19). Those theories show that pragmatics studies about how

language is used in contexts.

Furthermore, Yule (1996) states that “pragmatics is concerned with the

study of meaning as communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a

listener (or reader)” (p. 3). It has a relation to the way speaker says what they want

to say in accordance to the contexts: to whom they are talking to, where, when,

and under what circumstances. So, the hearer is able to interpret what the speaker

means in particular context.

2. Sosiolinguistic

According to Chamber (2002, p. 3) “Sociolinguistics is the study of the

social uses of language” (as cited in Wardhaugh, 2006, p. 11). Holmes (2013, p.1)

also mentions that sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and

society. They are interested in explaining why we speak differently in different

social contexts, and they are concerned with identifying the social functions of

language and the way it is used to convey social meaning.

3. Politeness Strategies

Before explaining the notions of politeness and politeness strategies

proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987), the researcher discusses the notion of

face. As a technical term “face means the public self-image of a person (Yule,

1996, p. 60). Furthermore, Brown and Levinson (1987, p. 311) also mention that

(23)

are two kinds of face, negative face and positive face (Yule, 1996, pp. 61-61).

Negative face is the need to be independent, to have freedom of action, and not to

be imposed on by others. Meanwhile, positive face is the need to be accepted,

even liked, by others, to be treated as a member of the same group, and to know

that his or her wants are shared by others.

In the society, sometimes we cannot avoid saying something that will

threaten another person’s face. As Yule (1996, p. 61) mentions “If speaker says

something that represents a threat to another individual regarding self-image, it is

described as a face threatening act.” In order to have a good communication

without threatening each other faces, speaker needs to employ strategies to

minimize the threat. The strategies to minimize the threat of the hearer’s face are

called Politeness Strategies.

Politeness refers to behaviour which actively expresses positive concern

for others. In other words, politeness may take the form of an expression of

good-will or ‘camaraderie’ (Holmes, 1996, p. 5). In addition, Yule (1996, p. 60) also

mentions that “Politeness, in an interaction, can be defined as the means

employed to show awareness of another person’s face”. Thus, politeness can be

described as a regressive action to counter-balance the disruptive effect of

face-threatening acts (FTAs).

Brown and Levinson (1999, pp. 315-317) propose four types of politeness

strategies: bald on-record, negative politeness, positive politeness, and off-record

(24)

a. Bald On-record

According to Brown and Levinson (1999, p. 316), bald on-record strategy

is a direct way of saying things, without any ministration on the imposition, in a

direct, clear, unambiguous, and concise way. Furthermore, Cutting (2002, p. 46)

points out that if a speaker makes a suggestion, request, offer, or invitation in an

open and direct way, we say that they are doing an FTA bald on-record, for

example “fix it” or “give that note to me.” Normally bald on-record will be used if

the speaker does not fear of the retribution from the hearer. For example in a

matter of urgency or efficiency; when the danger to hearer’s face is very small,

such as in offers, request, suggestion that are clearly in hearer’s interest (‘come in’

or ‘Do sit down); and when the speaker is superior to the hearer.

b. Negative Politeness

According to Brown and Levinson (1999, p. 317), negative politeness

strategies are oriented toward the hearer’s negative face and emphasize avoidance

of imposition on the hearer. The speaker recognizes and respects the hearer’s

negative-face wants and will not or will only minimally interfere with the hearer’s

freedom of action. In addition, Cutting (2000, p. 47) mentions that speaker uses

them to avoid imposing or presuming, and to give the hearer options. For

example, “Sorry to bother you, I couldn’t borrow $30, could I, if you don’t need it

right now?” the speaker gives the hearer the option to refuse the request for

(25)

c. Positive Politeness

According to Brown and Levinson (1987, p. 106), positive politeness is

redress directed to the addressee's positive face, his/her perennial desire to the

his/her wants or actions acquisitions, and value resulting from them should be

thought as desirable. Positive politeness is used to make the hearer feel good

about himself, his interests or possessions, and usually seen in groups of friends,

or where people of given social situation know each other fairly well. For example

“You look sad. Can I do anything?” or “That's a nice haircut you got, where did

you get it?”

d. Off-record (indirect)

Brown and Levinson (1999, p. 316) define off-record strategy as a

communicative act which is done in such a way that is not possible to attribute

one clear communicative intention to the act. Off record utterances are important

in indirect use of language. For example if somebody says “Damn, I’m out of

cash, I forgot to go to the bank today”, the hidden meaning of the utterance can be

that the speaker wants the hearer to lend him/her some money. The off-record

(indirect) strategies include metaphor and irony, rhetorical question,

understatement, tautologies, and all kinds of hints as to what a speaker wants or

(26)

B. Politeness Strategies Used in The InternMovie

In this section, the researcher presents the findings and discussion of the

study in order to solve the research problem which has been formulated in Chapter

I. The formulated research problem is about the politeness strategies that are used

by the Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin in The Intern movie according to the

politeness strategies proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987).

The utterances of the main characters of The Intern movie; Ben Whittaker

and Jules Ostin, were analysed by using politeness strategies proposed by Brown

and Levinson (1987). Based on the analysis, the researcher found that all of the

main characters use the four politeness strategies proposed by Brown and

Levinson (1987) in their utterances. The politeness strategies found in the

utterances of the main character of The Intern movie are illustrated in the table

2.1.

Table 2.1 Politeness Strategies Found in The InternMovie

No Speaker Addressee Politeness Strategies Frequency

1 Ben Whittaker Jules Ostin Positive Politeness 12

Negative Politeness 22

Off-record 8

Bald On-record 9

2 Jules Ostin Ben Whittaker Positive Politeness 29

Negative Politeness 14

Off-record 18

(27)

In table 2.1, Ben Whittaker applies Positive Politeness 12 times, Negative

Politeness 22 times, Off-record 8 times, and Bald On-record 19 times. Jules Ostin

applies Positive Politeness 29 times, Negative Politeness 14 times, Off-record 18

times, and Bald On-record 4 times.

More elaborate description of the finding and discussion of the study on

the use of politeness strategies by the main character of The Internmovie will be

presented in the following part. The researcher is going to discuss the analysis of

the application of politeness strategies in a descending sequence from the most

frequents strategy to the least one.

1. The Use of Positive Politeness

Positive Politeness is redress directed to the addressee’s positive face

(Brown and Levinson, 1987). It is used to minimize the threat to the hearer’s

positive face. The purpose of Positive Politeness is to make the hearer feels good

about himself, his interest or possession. It is usually found in groups of friends or

where people know each other fairly well.

The setting of the movie is in an office, even though the relationship

between the employees and employer is super casual. As Jules’ trainee, Ben

spends most of his time in office with Jules. Thus, they know each other fairly

well.

a. The Use of Politeness Strategies by Ben Whittaker to Jules Ostin

Positive Politeness is frequently used by Ben Whittaker, a senior citizen

who becomes an intern at ‘About the Fit’. He applies Positive Politeness by

(28)

Dialogue 1

Time :01: 31:42 – 01: 31: 50

Setting :On the plane to San Francisco

Situation : Jules and Ben are on their way to San Francisco, on the plane Jules keep working on her laptop, so Ben asks her to have some little fun since it is their day off.

Participants :Jules Ostin and Ben Whittaker.

Ben : Jules, what are we doing here? We got the day off. We’re travelling in first-class. Let’s at least have a little fun.

Jules : Now, that I can do.

The act of Ben Whittaker to ask Jules to have a little fun by including both

speaker and hearer in the activity shows Ben and Jules’ friendship, which is the

example of Positive Politeness.

b. The Use of Positive Politeness by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker

Another example of Positive Politeness strategy is avoiding disagreement.

By avoiding disagreement, the speaker minimalizes the threat of hearer’s positive

face, which is the need to be accepted (Brown and Levinson, 1987). Jules avoids

the disagreement with Ben Whittaker when they talks about Jules’ husband who

chooses to be stay-at-home dad in order to support Jules’ career in ‘About the Fit’.

Dialogue 2 shows the conversation between Jules Ostin and Ben Whittaker which

shows that Jules avoids the disagreement with Ben.

Dialogue 2

Time :00:43:46 – 00:44:23

Setting :In the car, on the way to Jules’ daughter’s school.

Situation : Ben thinks that Matt, Jules Ostin’s husband, is a terrific guy. Participants :Ben Whittaker, Jules Ostin, and Paige (Jules’ daughter). Ben : Matt seems like a terrific guy.

(29)

Jules : That’s okay. I agree. He is. Paige : Who? The Dad?

Jules : That’s what the other kids call Matt because he is the only Dad in the sea of Moms.

Ben : I’ve read about these househusbands. It’s interesting how that all worked just now.

Jules : They actually prefer to be called stay-at-home Dads.

Ben : Oh, sorry. Did not know that. Well, it’s very admirable. He’s a real 21st-century father.

Jules : He is. He actually had a great job in marketing, but when ‘About the Fit’ took off, he left to be a full-time Dad. Totally saved our butts.

In the dialogue 2, Jules expresses her agreement to Ben’s statements about Matt

by saying I agree and He is. She also avoided disagreement about the term

“househusband” that is used by Ben, by saying “They actually prefer to be called

stay-at-home dads” instead of voicing her disagreement with “no, you are wrong”.

2. The Use of Negative Politeness

Negative Politeness strategies are oriented toward the hearer’s negative

face and emphasize avoidance of imposition on the hearer. The speaker

recognizes and respects the hearer’s negative-face wants and will not or will

minimally interfere with the hearer’s freedom of action.

a. The Use of Negative Politeness by Ben Whittaker to Jules Ostin

Ben also applies negative politeness strategies as shown in dialogue 3. Ben

says, “Not really, sir. I’m terribly sorry, excuse me.” to refuse Jules’ offer to

transfer to another division. The acts of refusing Jules’ offer threatened Jules’

negative face-wants. Giving deference, such as Sir, and saying sorry are often

(30)

Dialogue 3

Time :00:17:42 – 00:09:33 Setting :‘About the Fit’ office.

Situation : Jules wants to persuade Ben to move to another division, but Ben refuses the offer.

Participants :Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin.

Jules : I’m not gonna have a lot for you to do. That’s the truth. And you being assigned to me is kind of just for me to set an example for the rest of the team. If you ask me, I think that you’d be much better off working in creative or marketing. It’s a little bit slower pace, maybe a little bit easier to grasp. If you requested to transfer, we can make that happen.

Ben : If that what you’d prefer.

Jules : You’ll be happier, believe me. I’m not so fun to work for.

Ben : That’s what I gather, but I can get along with anyone, and I’m here to learn about your world, give help where I can, so…

Jules : So, you don’t want to transfer?

Ben : Not really, sir. I’m terribly sorry, excuse me. Jules : Okay. Well then looks like you’re stuck with me. Ben : Great, I am excited.

Jules : I will email you when I have something for you to do. Ben : Or I could just stop by a few times a day, check in?

Jules : I’ll email you. Also don’t feel like you have to dress up. I mean, we’re super cass here.

Ben : Well, I’m comfortable in suit, if it’s okay? Jules : No, it’s fine. Old school.

Ben : exactly. At least I’ll stand out.

Jules : I don’t think you need a suit to do that.

Ben : True. Well, I think we did it in less than two minutes. I’ll wait to hear from you. Want the door open or close?

Jules : Doesn’t matter. Open, actually. Ben : Look forward to it.

b. The Use of Negative Politeness by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker

The applications of Negative Politeness also occur in the conversation

between Jules Ostin and Ben Whittaker, as shown in dialogue 3. It happens at

their first meeting. Jules, who at first does not want to have senior citizen as her

intern, wants to persuade Ben to move to another division. Ben, who chooses to

(31)

Jules, who does not want Ben to be her personal intern, persuades Ben to

move to another division. She gives him some reason why working in another

division is better than to be her personal intern. At the end of her speech, she says,

“If you requested to transfer, we can make that happen.” The action of asking Ben

to transfer to another division was the threat to Ben’s negative face. It threatened

Ben’s freedom of action. Therefore, by saying “if you want to transfer” she

respects Ben’s negative face-wants.

3. The Use of Off-Record

Off Record is an indirect politeness strategy in which the speaker says

something that can be interpreted in more than one way. It depends on the hearer’s

ability to decide the real meaning. It usually uses hints in ordering something,

rhetorical questions, metaphors, overstates something and incomplete utterances.

a. The Use of Off-record by Ben Whittaker to Jules Ostin

As shown in Dialogue 3, Ben wants to refuse Jules’ offer to move to

another division by saying, “That’s what I gather, but I can get along with anyone,

and I’m here to learn about your world, give help where I can, so…” He is

purposely not finishing his utterance, but his intention is to tell Jules that he does

not want to move to another division.

In addition, Ben employed Off Record strategies by saying, “I didn’t

actually. My blood pressure was through the roof. But it was worth it. Good

times!” He overstated the condition of his blood pressure by adding through the

(32)

blood pressure was high enough because of what he and his fellow employees did

before, broke-in to Jules’ parents’ house. Besides, Ben also employed Off Record

strategies by using metaphors. He compared himself with a big bowl of a mush.

He used the term a big bowl of a mush to explain that he is actually a sensitive

man despite what other people think about him.

b. The Use of Off-record by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker

Jules also employs Off Record strategies by not finishing her utterances as

shown in Dialogue 4. Before she meets with a possible CEO for her company, she

told Ben that she forgot to eat. She said,” I think I forgot to eat.” She gives Ben a

hint to buy her something to eat. Ben, who understands what Jules’ wants, asks

her whether she wants some sushi or not. She replies Ben’s question by not

finishing her utterance. It contains a hidden meaning that she wants to eat

something that could ease her nauseous.

Dialogue 4

Time :00:33:29 – 00:33:39

Setting :In front of the meeting place.

Situation : Jules told Ben that she forgot to eat and she felt nauseous. Participants :Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin.

Jules : I think I forgot to eat.

Ben : Should I pick you up some sushi?

Jules : No, I eat too much mercury. I’ll be fine. I’m good. I’m actually kind of nauseous, so…

4. The Use of Bald-On Record

Bald-on Record strategy is a direct way of saying things, without any

(33)

It usually used among people who know each other really well, when the speaker

is superior to the hearer, and in a matter of urgency.

a. The Use of Bald On-Record by Ben Whittaker to Jules Ostin

Ben uses Bald On-record when he wants to give Jules an advice and boost

her confidence. Jules feels a little bit down because the sponsors of her company

force her to find a CEO for her company. They think that the development of the

company is too much for Jules to handle it by herself. The conversation between

Jules and Ben can be seen in Dialogue 5.

Dialogue 5

Time :00:35:47 – 00:36:16 Setting :In front of Jules’ house.

Situation : Ben gives Jules an advice and boost her confidence. Participants :Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin.

Ben : You started this business all by yourself a year and a half ago, and now you have a staff of 220 people. Remember who did that. Jules : Who? Um, thank you.

Ben : And I hate to say it, but try to get some sleep.

b. The Use of Bald On-record by Jules Ostin to Ben Whittaker

The expression of welcoming someone, like “come in” is one of the

examples of Bald On-record. Jules welcomes Ben by saying,” No, no, come in.”

to invite him into her office. She also uses Bald On-record when she wants to

encourage Ben to tell her something by saying. “What? Tell me.” It also expresses

Jules’ despair because at the moment Jules is trying to find a way to delete her

(34)

CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter consists of three parts namely conclusion, implication and

recommendation. Conclusion deals with the summary of the study. Implication

deals with implication in language teaching and learning. Recommendation

consists of input for future researchers and English learners to conduct further

studies on the same topic.

A. Conclusion

The study is conducted to analyse the use of politeness strategies by the

main characters of The Intern movie, Jules Ostin and Ben Whitaker. It aims

especially to analyse the four politeness strategies, namely Bald-on Record,

Negative Politeness, Positive Politeness, and Off-Record, proposed by Brown and

Levinson (1987).

Based on the data found, both main characters ofThe Intern movie use all

four politeness strategies. The most frequent strategy used by Jules and Ben is

Positive Politeness. Both of the characters acknowledge the hearer’s Positive Face

wants to maintain their relationship.

There are some other factors affected the use of Politeness Strategies by

Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin, such as gender, age, and power relation. However,

the limitation of this paper is to discuss the use of Politeness Strategies by Ben

(35)

Levinson. Thus, the factors that affected the use of Politeness Strategies are not

going to be discussed.

B. Implication

Learning a language does not merely mean learning the grammar structure

of the language, but also learning how language is used in the society. Politeness

is one of the things that need to be learned when someone learns a language,

because politeness is essential in language use in society. Based on the conclusion

of the study, Positive Politeness strategy is the most frequent politeness strategies

used by Ben Whittaker and Jules Ostin. Jules is Ben’s boss, but they are also

friends. Positive Politeness is good to maintain relationship between friends,

family, and co-workers. By applying Positive Politeness, someone can make

another person feel accepted and feel good about themselves. For example by

saying,” I’m feeling really hungry. Let’s stop for a bite,” the speaker wants to stop

and have something to eat and wants to get the hearer to agree to do this. The

speaker gets what he wants and also he can maintain the hearer’s positive face by

including both speaker and the hearer in the activity. It makes the hearer feel

accepted and feel good about themselves. So, Positive Politeness should be

frequently applied in the conversation to maintain relationships between friends,

(36)

C. Recommendations

In this part, the researcher gives recommendation regarding to this study.

These recommendations are addressed to the language learners, language teachers,

and the future researcher. The researcher expects that these recommendations will

help them in learning, teaching, or conducting a research in this topic.

1. Language Learners

As EFL learners, learning about politeness is important. By studying

politeness, EFL learners understand how language is appropriately used in social

contexts. Thus, the researcher encourages the EFL learners to study politeness.

Thus, they can use the language appropriately and avoid misunderstandings.

2. English Teachers

Studying politeness can help English teachers to design materials which do

not only focus on the grammatical aspect, but also focus on the use of language in

social contexts for their students. This will support the students to learn and

practice how the language is used not only grammatically correct, but also

appropriately and politely. They can provide exercise that requires the students to

use language according to the context and situation.

3. Future Researchers

The researcher encourages future researchers to conduct the research

regarding to the politeness issue. This study is aimed to analyse the use of

(37)

conduct a research in light of the factors that influence the used of politeness

strategies, such as age, gender, and power relation. The future researchers can use

the politeness theory proposed Brown and Levinson (1987) and Holmes (2001) to

(38)

REFERENCES

Ary, D., Jacob, L. C., & Razavieh, A. (2002) Introduction to research in education (6thed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.

Brown, J. D. & Rodgers, T. S. (2002). Doing second language research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brown, P. & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: some universal in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, P. & Levinson, S. (1999). Politeness: some universal in language usage, in A. Jaworski & N. Coupland (eds) The discourse reader. London: Routledge.

Cutting, J. (2002). Pragmatics and Discourse; A resource book for students. New York: Routledge.

Duncan, S. (2012). Humans are social beings. So if you’re not social, what are you?Retrieved February 14th, 2016, from

http://www.stuartduncan.name/autism/humans-are-social-beings-so-if-you re-not-social-what-are-you/

Finegan, E. (2004). Language: It’s structure and use (5thed.). Boston: Michael Rosenberg.

Han, C. (1992). A comparative study of compliment responses: Korean females in Korean interactions and in English interactions. Working papers in Educational Linguistics 8: 17-31. [Online] Available: https://www.gse.upenn.edu/wpel/sites/gse.upenn.edu.wpel/files/archives/v 8/v8n2_han.pdf

Holmes, J. (1996). Women, men, and politeness. London: Longman.

Holmes, J. (2013). An introduction to sociolinguistics (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.

Holtgraves, T. (2002). Language as social action. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.

(39)

Leech, G. (1992).Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.

Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Meyers, N. (2014). The intern. Retrieved May 11th, 2016, from http://www.ivanachubbuck.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/The-Intern-Ben-Patty-Entire-Screenplay.pdf

Nkwi, P. N., Nyamongo, I. K., & Ryan G. W. (2001). Field research into socio-cultural issues: Methodological guidelines. International Center for Applied Social Sciences, Research, and Training.

Wardaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

(40)

25

APPENDIX

1. The List of Politeness Strategies in “The Intern” Movie

No Characters Politeness Strategies Utterances

1. Ben Whittaker Bald on-record 1. Look forward to it. 2. Remember who did that.

3. And I hate to say it, but try to get some sleep. 4. Don’t worry.

5. You get some rest.

6. Hold on, hold on, hold on. Wait a minute, wait a minute

7. Extend your left arm, Jules. Left knee up, breath and relax for inner balance. 8. Tell me when we are done.

9. Breathe deeply, Jules. That’s it, out there. This up. Negative Politeness 1. If that’s what you’d prefer.

2. Not really, Sir. I’m terribly sorry, excuse me. 3. Or I could just stop by a few times a day, check in? 4. Well, I’m comfortable in suit, if it’s okay.

5. Excuse me, I apologize, but Becky said you needed something taken care of on your jacket?

6. Should I pick you up some sushi? 7. Sorry, didn’t mean to interrupt. 8. Sorry, did not know about that. 9. By 12 minutes, at least. Can I try?

(41)

26

No Characters Politeness Strategies Utterances

11. Can I take this? 12. Should I come back?

13. Not really. Not one that takes me to San Francisco. If you want the company, I’d love to go.

14. Another? You sure about that?

15. You’re not gonna drink anymore, right? 16. I thought you were gonna sit in a chair.

17. Yesterday. I’m sorry. I mean it was an accident that I saw them, but I did. 18. You’re not actually taking the rap for any of this, are you?

19. You can be buried with me and Molly. I happen to have space, okay? 20. I guess you came over here because you wanted to hear some of this. 21. So? Shall we?

Positive Politeness 1. Be hard not to. 2. Great, I’m excited.

3. Exactly. At least I’ll stand out. 4. Want the door open or close?

5. I couldn’t agree more. I find that surprising. 6. Jules, I think there’s only one thing we can do. 7. Oh, thanks, Ace.

8. It’s okay. It’s okay.

9. Jules, Jules, what are we doing here? We got the day off. We’re travelling in first-class. Let’s at least have a little fun.

(42)

27

No Characters Politeness Strategies Utterances

12. So, did we like him?

Off-record 1. That’s what I gather, but I can get along with anyone, and I’m here to learn about your world, give help where I can, so…

2. Really? You want to give her more to do?

3. And Jules, Becky was a huge help in this. You know she has a business degree from PENN?

4. I’m sure my blood pressure was through the roof, but it was worth it. 5. Oh, my God. You’re all nuts. I’m 100%.

6. Under all this man stuff that you so admire, I’m just a big bowl of mush. 7. Jules, it’s simple. If you think Townsend is gonna be good for you and good

for the company, then do it. And if not… 8. You know those are like 15 bucks each? 2 Jules Ostin Bald On-record 1. No, no, come on in.

2. What? Tell me. 3. Trust me on this. 4. Just run! Run!

Negative Politeness 1. If you requested to transfer, we can make that happen.

2. And everything you hear in this car is strictly confidential, okay?

3. Okay, so this shouldn’t take more than an hour. But if you can’t stay here I’ll call Becky and the she’ll find you. And then you can just pull up…

4. Ben, we’re gonna drop Paige to school, okay? 5. Well better late than never, you want some help? 6. Well, you can friend me.

(43)

28

No Characters Politeness Strategies Utterances

8. I hope you’ll accept my apology and come back to work for me, if you want. And I’m not saying this because I screwed up his morning. But I was thinking that I’d like to bring you up to my area, next to Becky.

9. Can I give you lift back to the office?

10. Actually, do you mind driving? I don’t technically have a licence.

11. Oh, Ben. Can you like deal with that for me? Maybe come up with the better plan? I mean, if you have the time?

12. Okay Ben, if I am giving you too much to do or working you too hard, please do not feel that you have to go with me to San Francisco.

13. So I was ready kind of early this morning, since about 4:00, and Matt and Paige left an hour ago for a field trip so I thought I’d come by. I hope that’s okay.

14. I’m sorry to interrupt.

Positive Politeness 1. I’m glad you also see the humour in this.

2. So, Ben…. I was gonna say what is a nice guy like you doing at a place like this. But, Cameron gave me the drill, so can I just be honest with you? 3. No, it’s fine. Old school.

4. Brilliant, thank you. Best thing that’s happened around here all week. 5. We all good?

6. I hope you don’t mind if I don’t get in the front. I’m not trying to be rude. I just think better in the back. I mean, I can get in the front but…

7. I just wanted to say thank you for helping out with Mike today and for getting me chicken soup. Oh, and for cleaning that mess. That was awesome.

Seriously.

8. Uh, that’s okay. I agree. He is.

(44)

29

No Characters Politeness Strategies Utterances

10. He is. He actually had a great job in marketing, but when’ About the Fit’ took off, he left to be a full-time Dad. Totally saved our butts.

11. Big jobs.

12. I know. I mean, I forget, but I know. I’ll say something to her.

13. Break into her house and steal the computer? Are you kidding me? That’s freaking genius.

14. Thank you so much for doing that. So, you excited about our trip to San Francisco tomorrow?

15. Now, that I can do.

16. Do you think I can take a Xanax if I had two glasses of wine an hour ago? 17. You can lie down. I know you’re tired. I’ll sit in the chair.

18. Please let me be here. I need to lie down, too. 19. God, I envy that.

20. No, no, no. he is the one doing something wrong. I get that. Monogamist is now what I’m after. I’m just, I’m taking a sec, and I’m hoping that it’s just a horrible lapse in judgment and not like love.

21. Right on.

22. Me too. But such is life, my friend.

23. Thank you so much, that is… and to think I didn’t even want to hire you. 24. Do we have any like real booze, like vodka or something?

25. Congratulation. I love her.

26. Well, I was gonna say intern/best friend. But there’s no need to get all sentimental about it even though we could potentially be buried together. Can’t get closer than that.

(45)

30

No Characters Politeness Strategies Utterances

28. I like your house so much, by the way. 29. Am I doing it right?

Off-record 1. You’ll be happier, believe me. I am not so fun to work for. 2. I think I forgot to eat today.

3. No, I eat too much mercury. I’ll be fine. I’m good. I’m actually kind of nauseous, so…

4. It’s okay. I really won’t bite.

5. God. Taking the high road is exhausting. It’s 2015. Are we really still critical of working moms? Seriously? Still?

6. I hate eating alone.

7. Apparently selling clothes makes us a ‘chick site.’ I mean really? How is this not legit?

8. It was nice to have an adult conversation with an adult man, you know what I mean? Like, not about work, not about…

9. Doris! Doris! Doris!

10. Oh God, I can’t tell you how much I hate that I jumped the gun and I made you feel…

11. Who says ‘yep’ to ‘I love you’?

12. I’m leaving in a minute. Just working on making the worst possible day for you.

13. That’s it? That’s what 24 hours of crazy comes to? That you’re a sensitive bowl of mush?

14. Yeah, just thinking, tomorrow I meet the guy who may become my Boss, kind of. I mean a lot of people have Bosses, right?

(46)

31

No Characters Politeness Strategies Utterances

Figur

Table 2.1 Politeness Strategies Found in The Intern Movie

Table 2.1

Politeness Strategies Found in The Intern Movie p.26

Referensi

Memperbarui...