• Tidak ada hasil yang ditemukan

An error analysis on the grammar accuracy of the fourth semester students` speaking production.

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2017

Membagikan "An error analysis on the grammar accuracy of the fourth semester students` speaking production."

Copied!
128
0
0

Teks penuh

(1)

AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON THE GRAMMAR ACCURACY

OF THE FOURTH SEMESTER STUDENTS

SPEAKING

PRODUCTION

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Yosephine Nugroho Utami

Student Number: 081214038

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

(2)

i

AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON THE GRAMMAR ACCURACY

OF THE FOURTH SEMESTER STUDENTS’ SPEAKING

PRODUCTION

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Yosephine Nugroho Utami

Student Number: 081214038

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

(3)

ii

A Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis on

AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON THE GRAMMAR ACCURACY

OF THE FOURTH SEMESTER STUDENTS

SPEAKING

PRODUCTION

By

Yosephine Nugroho Utami

Student Number: 081214038

Approved by

Sponsor

(4)

iii

A Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis on

AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON THE GRAMMAR ACCURACY

OF THE FOURTH SEMESTER

STUDENT’S SPEAKING

PRODUCTION

By

Yosephine Nugroho Utami

NIM : 081214038

Defended before the Board of Examiners

on August 15, 2013

and Declared Acceptable

Board of Examiners

Chairperson : C. Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. __________________

Secretary : Drs. Barli Bram, M.Ed., Ph.D. __________________

Member : C. Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd.. __________________

Member : Dr. Ant. Herujiyanto, M.A. __________________

Member : Drs. Barli Bram, M.Ed., Ph.D. __________________

Yogyakarta, August 15, 2013

Faculty of Teachers Training and Education

Sanata Dharma University

Dean,

(5)

iv

I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the

work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper

should.

Yogyakarta, August 15, 2013

The Writer

Yosephine Nugroho Utami

(6)

v

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN

PIBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertandatangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma:

Nama : Yosephine Nugroho Utami

Nomor Mahasiswa : 081214038

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberitahukan kepada

Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul:

AN ERROR ANALYSIS ON THE GRAMMAR ACCURACY

OF THE FOURTH SEMESTER STUDENT’S SPEAKING

PRODUCTION

beserta perangkat yang diperlukan. Dengan demikian, saya memberikan kepada

Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan

dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data,

mendistribusikan secara terbatas dan mempublikasikanya di Internet atau media

lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun

memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai

penulis.

Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya.

Dibuat di Yogyakarta

Pada tanggal: 15 Agustus 2013

Yang menyatakan

(7)

vi

ABSTRACT

Nugroho Utami,Yosephine. (2013). An Error Analysis on the Grammar Accuracy of the Fourth Semester Students’ Speaking Production. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

Speaking is one of the skills of English which is highly demanded by the English learner. This high demand occurs perhaps because the learners’ view of language. Spoken language sees language as a tool of communication which means the accuracy will not matter as long as the learner can deliver an understandable speech to communicate or deliver their ideas. However, when the language is seen as a tool of communication, the learners’ motivation to achieve communication, motivation where the learner wants to deliver the communication to the others, may exceed motivation to produce grammatically correct sentences (Richards.1971).

This study is aimed to analyze errors on the grammar accuracy of students’ speaking production on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B offered in semester four in the Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris of Sanata Dhama University. This study concerns with two problems. First problem is what the students’ common grammatical errors in their speaking productions on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B offered in semester four in the Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris of Sanata Dhama University are. Second problem is why those

common grammatical errors in the students’ speaking productions on the Critical Listening Speaking, class B occur.

The researcher applied document analysis to analyze the data. In order to gather the data, the researcher recorded the speaking productions of the students of the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B. The researcher also held

questionnaire about the students’ opinion, hours of practice, and difficulties in

speaking. The interview held to find the students’ opinion of speaking and reasons why the students produce those errors. The participants of the interview were ten students selected based on their errors levels. Furthermore, the common grammatical errors are analyzed using an error analysis theory in line with speaking theory, grammar rules and use, contrastive analysis hypothesis, non-contrastive approach, the questionnaire’s result, and interview ‘s result.

The researcher finds out that the common grammatical errors found in the

students’ speaking productions on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B are the missing –s or –es suffix and the incorrect verbs sequence on past tense. The possible reasons for the occurrence of those errors are the students’ nervousness

when speaking, students’ understanding of applying English grammar, lack of practice, the students’ high tolerance of errors, mixing Indonesian language rules with English, the students’ fear of producing errors while speaking and also the confusion of the verbs changes in past tense.

(8)

vii ABSTRAK

Nugroho Utami,Yosephine. (2013). An Error Analysis on the Grammar Accuracy of the Fourth Semester Students’ Speaking Production. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Berbahasa lisan adalah salah satu keterampilan bahasa Inggris yang banyak diminati. Permintaan yang tinggi tersebut dikarenakan oleh cara pandang pelajar terhadap bahasa. Bahasa lisan memposisikan bahasa sebagai suatu alat komunikasi yang berarti mengesampingkan ketepatan tata bahasa sejauh para pelajar dapat berkomunikasi dengan bahasa yang dapat dimengerti. Sayangnya, saat bahasa diposisikan sebagai alat komunikasi, motivasi pelajar untuk berkomunikasi melebihi motivasi mereka untuk berbicara dengan bertata bahasa benar (Richards.1971).

Studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kesalahan tata bahasa pada bahasa lisan para murid di Critical Listening and Speaking kelas B yang ditawarkan pada semester empat di Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, perguruan tinggi Sanata Dharma. Studi ini memberikan perhatian kepada dua masalah. Masalah pertama, apa kesalahan umum dari para murid di Critical Listening and Speaking kelas B yang ditawarkan pada semester empat di Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma? Masalah kedua, mengapa kesalahan umum pada bahasa lisan para murid di Critical Listening and Speaking kelas B dapat muncul?

Penulis menggunakan metode analisa dokumen untuk menganalisa data. Dalam pengumpulan data, penulis merekam hasil berbahasa lisan para murid. Penulis membagikan kuisioner tentang opini para murid, banyaknya jam berlatih, dan kesulitan mereka dalam berbahasa lisan. Wawancara diadakan untuk mengetahui opini para murid dan alasan mengapa para murid menghasilkan kesalahan tersebut. Para peserta wawancara adalah sepuluh murid yang dipilih berdasarkan tingkatan kesalahan mereka. Selanjutnya, kesalahan umum tersebut dianalisa menggunakan teori analisa kesalahan, bersama dengan teori berbahasa lisan, penggunaan dan aturan tata bahasa Inggris, contrastive analysis hypothesis, non-contrastive approach, dan hasil dari kuisioner maupun wawancara.

Penulis menemukan bahwa kesalahan tata bahasa umum pada para murid di Critical Listening and Speaking kelas B adalah hilangnya akhiran –s atau –es, dan ketidaktepatan rangkaian kata kerja pada tensis lampau. Kemungkinan munculnya kesalahan tersebut dapat dikarenakan kegugupan para murid pada saat berbicara, pengertian para murid akan pengunaan bahasa Inggris lisan, kurangnya latihan, tingginya toleransi kesalahan pada murid, bercampurnya tata bahasa Indonesia dan Inggris, ketakutan para murid akan produksi kesalahan saat berbicara, dan juga kebingungan dalam perubahan kata kerja dalam tensis lampau.

(9)

viii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My deepest gratitude is to all of them who have helped, supported and

facilitated this thesis. Personally, I would like to express my gratitude to My Lord, Jesus Christ. Because of His blessing and strength I could finish my thesis and study.

For the beneficial feedback and encouragement, I would like to express

my gratitude to my sponsor, Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. She has given me her break time to guide and discuss my thesis in order to be improved and

developed. Without her comments, I could have lost in confusion of my

undeveloped discussion.

I also would like to address my gratitude to miss Adesti Komalasari, S.Pd., M.A. whose class I have interrupted to be my subject of my study. I am really in debt to her because she has always spent her break time for my thesis.

She has also given me a lot of time to discuss many problems regarding my thesis

patiently. Without those discussions probably I would never know that I have

made many undeveloped discussions. I also thank her for letting me know that my

thesis has given a positive contribution regarding the evaluation of her class.

My immeasurable gratitude is addressed to my mother, Yenny Setyawati. She has patiently and confusedly listened to my sighs, and annoying comments

regarding the questions about the development of my thesis. I thank her because

she has always taken care of me very well until now that I could finish my thesis

(10)

ix

I give my sincere gratitude to my family and my sister, Yoanita Nugroho Utami, S.Pd. who is very active asking me about my thesis. I also would like to express my gratitude to my best friends, Irma Enliyani, S.S., and Fenny Octavia Halim, S.T., who have always supported me during my study. I also would like to thank Mrs. Malya Lalita, who lends me her library and books. Her books help me to find the right theories I really need to have to slice my subject. I also would

like to thank my students, Nadia, Richard, Mathew, Angela, and Abel for their distractions which keep me alive and happy during my thesis. I thank them for

making me laugh and recharging my energy to finish my jobs as a private tutor

and a student.

The last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to my dearest

one, Edwin Pranata Laban, S.Ked. I thank him for listening to all my complaints and sighs even though he has many things to do. He has also

encouraged me to do my best and supported me every time.

(11)

x

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TITLE PAGE... i

APPROVAL PAGES... ii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY... iv

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI…... v

ABSTRACT... vi

ABSTRAK... vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS... x

LIST OF TABLES... xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES... xiv

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION... 1

A. Research Background ... 1

B. Research Problems ... 5

C. Problem Limitation... 6

D. Research Objectives... 6

E. Research Benefits... 6

(12)

xi

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE... 9

A. Theoretical Description... 9

1. Public Speaking... 9

a. Important Elements in Producing Speaking Accuracy………... 9

2. Grammar Rules and Use... 11

a. Minimum Grammar Requirement... 11

b. Tenses... 12

c. English Verbs... 12

d. Plural and Singular... 13

3. Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis... 13

4. Non Contrastive Approach... 14

a. Over – Generalization... 14

b. False Concepts Hypothesized... 15

B. Theoretical Framework... 15

CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY... 18

A. Research Method... 18

B. Research Setting……….….…….………...……….….. 19

C. Research Participants... 19

D. Instruments and Data Gathering... 19

1. Recording... 19

2. Questionnaires... 19

(13)

xii

E. Data Analysis Technique... 20

1. Recording…... 20

2. Instruments... 23

F. Research Procedure ... 26

1. Permission…………... 26

2. Data Gathering... 26

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION…….……... 28

A. The Discussion on the Classification of the Grammatical Errors………..…... 28

B. The Discussion on the Occurrence of the Errors………... 30

C. The Discussion on the Common Grammatical Errors... 36

1. Discussion on the Missing –s and –es suffixes………... 36

2. Discussion on the Incorrect Verbs Sequence on Past Tense………..…… 39

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS... 43

A. Conclusions…... 43

B. Suggestions... 46

1. Suggestions for English Teachers... 46

2. Suggestions for Students…... 47

3. Suggestions for Further Researches... 47

(14)

xiii

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 3.1. The first classifications of the error on the transcription found on

the Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B... 21

Table 3.2. The revised classifications of the error on the transcription found on

the Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B... 21

Table 3.3. The table of the questionnaire’s result (Blank)...……….……... 24

Table 3.4. The table of the interview’s result (Blank)... 24

Table 4.1. The classifications of the grammatical errors found on

the Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B... 29

Table 4.2. The result of the questionnaire

(15)

xiv

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDICES... 50

APPENDIX 1 Research Permission Letter from Sanata Dharma University….. 51

APPENDIX 2 The Result of the Questionnaire... 53

APPENDIX 3 The Result of the Interview... 56

APPENDIX 4 The Recording Transcription ... 63

APPENDIX 5 The Common Grammatical Errors... 94

(16)

1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher is going to provide basic information of the

research relating to the subject matter. There are five major concerns presented in

this chapter. Those are research background, research problem, problem limitation,

research objectives, research benefits, definition of terms.

A. Research background

Speaking is one of the skills of English, which is highly demanded by the

English learner. However, many people and learners of English, often seek for

fluency rather than accuracy. Mostly they want to be able to speak and

communicate, and usually ignore the accuracy. In order to understand the

difference between about of fluency and accuracy, BBC (2003) states that:

Speaking English fluently is a goal for many learners of English. Fluency means being able to communicate your ideas without having to stop and think too much about what you are saying. However, many learners also have the goal of spoken accuracy. Speaking accurately means that you speak without errors of grammar and vocabulary. Which is more important – and more difficult – for you? It might depend on how you have learnt.

One of the factors of this popularity is the view of language. Spoken language

sees language as a tool of communication which means it is important to be able

to communicate with understandable language. From this point of view, fluency is

important in communicating our ideas. The grammar matter or accuracy will not

be the focus of the learning because as long as the learner can deliver an

(17)

journal also agree with the fact that conversational situation is more popular and

seen to be more important, as it is stated below;

Generally speaking, most of the English learners believe that their knowledge in English is nearly assessed by the way they can interact in the target language. They maintain that their linguistic knowledge and their abilities in other skills—reading, writing, and listening—are not that much important. What is significant is their ability in conversational situations.

Richards (1971, p. 177) also supports Kianiparsa (2010) about the interest of

communication rather than mastery on grammar accuracy. Richards states that the

second language learners are also the second language learners of English who are

interested perhaps primarily in communication. In this study the second language

learners include the students of the Critical Listening and Speaking,

However, when the Critical Listening and Speaking, stated as CLS, students

are prepared to be teachers, they should not eliminate the grammar accuracy, even

though it is not wrong to see language as a tool of communication. According to

Richards (1971) ―when the language is seen as a tool of communication, the learner‘s motivation to achieved communication, motivation where the learner wants to deliver the communication to the others, may exceed motivation to

produce grammatically correct sentences‖ (p. 177). Based on Richards‘s statement, it is wise to say that as the students who are prepared to be teachers, they should

not only see the language as a tool communication but also as a teaching tool, and

a role model.

BBC (2003) also states the important of accuracy or grammar when they want

(18)

You may be someone who really likes to talk, and you are willing to try out language even though you produce some grammatical errors. This can help make you sound very fluent. However, if you produce too many errors which you do not stop to correct, you can find that it is difficult to make others understand your ideas.

Although the English learners have good fluency in speaking, that is not enough

because if they ignore the accuracy or grammar continuously, the others may not

understand what they talk about. If the motivation to achieve communication

exceeds the motivation to produce correct sentences continuously occur, it will

increase the numbers of error in the learners‘ speech. If the errors are ignored, the English learners can certainty get confidence and fluency easier but they will be

lack of grammar accuracy. Furthermore, one of the important factors to teach

good English for the students on the Language Art and Department prepared to be

English teachers and professional educators is grammar accuracy.

Based on this phenomenon, an error analysis is needed because by learning an

error, ―it provides evidence of the system of the language .that he is using (i.e. has learned) at a particular point in the course.‖ (Corder, 1967, p. 26). The reason why the researcher analyzes error and not mistake is because errors and mistakes are

different. A mistake is a random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement,

etc. and therefore can be readily self-corrected (Corder in Larsen, 1992, as stated

by Ruspita, 2011). Moreover, a mistake can be corrected by the learner because

they know they make that mistake. In contrast with the meaning of mistake,

(19)

An error is a noticeable deviation, reflecting the competence of the learner. It is a systematic deviation made by the learner who has not yet mastered the rules of the target language. The learner cannot self-correct an error because it is a reflective product of his or her current stage of L2 development, or underlying competence.

According to Larsen (1992), an error cannot be self-corrected because it can occur

for many reasons and in many conditions. The English learner can self-correct a

mistake they made, but they cannot self-correct an error.

In this study, the researcher is studying errors that occur in the CLS class B.

The researcher chooses to study errors because as Corder (1967) has stated that

―learners‘ errors provide evidence of system of the language that he is using (i.e. has learned) at particular point in the course (and it must be repeated that he is

using some system, although it is not yet the right system).‖ Based on that significance on studying errors, there are some benefits of analyzing errors. Firstly,

it is for the learners of English, especially the CLS students of Sanata Dharma

University. The benefit for the students is that they will be able to improve their

verbal English. Secondly, for the English teachers, they can improve their

teaching materials that can increase the students‘ grammar accuracy when the students give speech. The errors that occur on the students‘ production also can help the teachers to analyze their teaching materials.

The Critical Listening and Speaking, class B is offered in semester three and

four in the Sanata Dharma University. The ―critical‖ in Critical Listening and Speaking is named to propose students‘ disagreement with others as long as they can give arguments and proofs. This class is aimed to encourage the students to be

(20)

to present opinions with evidences, development and elaboration in their speaking.

The elaboration can be the 5W 1H Questions (what, why, where, when, who, and

how).

The students of the CLS also had already taken the listening, speaking, critical

reading and writing, and structure class. The students of the CLS can be assumed

to have a good understanding of English since they have been exposed to English

actively for four semesters. Moreover, they also took the structure class before

and during the CLS class. This condition should help the students to apply their

English knowledge when they are in the condition where they need to actively

speak English.

The students of the CLS, class B, who are prepared to be English teachers and

professional educators should not only see and use English language as the tool of

communication, but also as a teaching tool or a role model for the students. When

they are prepared as the English teachers, their spoken English will be the role

models for their students. In order to be good role models of English, they should

be able to produce good spoken English with also good fluency and accuracy.

B. Research Problems

In this thesis, the researcher has two research problems. Those research

problems are:

1. What are students‘ common grammatical errors in their speaking productions on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B offered in semester four in the

(21)

2. Why did those common grammatical errors in the students‘ speaking productions on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B occur?

C. Problem Limitation

In this research, the limitation of the accuracy is on the grammar accuracy on

the students‘ speaking production. The minimum grammar requirements are also

included. The researcher also examines, observes, and makes a transcription of the

students‘ production on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B, offered in semester four in the Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris of Sanata Dharma University.

The researcher analyzes students‘ speaking production in order to find the

common grammatical errors in their speech and the possible reasons of the

occurrence of the common grammatical errors. The possible reasons mean than

the researcher is not going to find out the exact reasons but to find the predictions

about the occurrences of error.

D. Research Objectives

The objectives of this research are:

1. To find the common grammatical errors of the fourth students‘ speaking production on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B offered in semester

four in the Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris of Sanata Dhama University.

2. To find the possible reasons of the occurrence of the common grammatical

(22)

E. Research Benefits

This research wants to give benefits to the students, English teachers, and the

researcher. The benefits are aimed to improve the speaking production,

particularly in the fourth semester students in the Sanata Dharma University.

1. The students

The students will be able to know their grammar accuracy and they can

increase their speaking performances.

2. The teachers

The teachers may know students‘ grammar accuracy that may help teachers to develop the materials.

3. The researcher

This research can help the researcher improves the researcher‘s speaking production in order to be a good role model.

F. Definition of Terms

There are some terms that need to be clarified in this study:

1. Accuracy

Accuracy is the use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and

pronunciation. In an accuracy activity, teachers and learners typically focus on

using and producing language correctly. (University of Cambridge local

examinations syndicate, 2011). In this study, accuracy is seen only on the use of

(23)

2. Grammar

Formal grammar is a systematic way of accounting for and predicting an

ideal speaker‘s or hearer‘s knowledge of the language. This is examined by a set

of rulers or principles that can be used to generate all well-formed or grammatical

utterances in the language (Purpura, 2004). In this study, grammar is seen as a set

of principle to produces correct sentences in English language.

3. Error Analysis

Error analysis is an activity to reveal errors found in writing and speaking.

Those are the learners‘ error which can be observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the learners led to a surge of

study of learners‘ error, called ‗error analysis. (Brown, 1987 as stated by Sanal, 2008). In this study, an error analysis is revealing errors found in speaking

recording that has been transcribed. The students‘ errors are observed, analyzed

and classified under certain labels.

4. Awareness

Awareness that is used in this study is the awareness that has relationship

with language. Furthermore, language awareness is defined a learner‘s

understanding of the rules of how language works and his or her ability to notice

language. (University of Cambridge local examinations syndicate, 2011). In this

study, awareness is the language awareness: awareness that is concerned about the

students‘ understanding of the rules of language and their ability to notice errors

(24)

9

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the researcher is going to provide basic information of the

research relating to the subject matter. There are two major concerns presented in

this chapter. Those are research theoretical description and theoretical framework.

A. Theoretical description

In this study, the researcher uses some theories as the guideline. This section

is divided into four parts. The first part is public speaking, which contains the

important elements in producing speaking accuracy. The second is grammar rules

and use, the third is contrastive analysis hypothesis and the last is non-contrastive

approach.

1. Public Speaking

In this study, the researcher will examine the function of accuracy more on

the public speaking. Wilson, et.al. (1990) define public speaking or public speech

as a speech that occurs when person(s) assumes special communicative

responsibilities to others – whether the participants number few or many, whether

the speaking is performed on a podium, an easy chair, or under a tree. In short, a

speech can be said as public speaking when somebody gives a speech and where

there are listeners.

a. Important Elements in Producing Speaking Accuracy

The first element is confidence which is the majorly influenced by audiences.

(25)

able to deliver their ideas fluently. If they do not have confidence, they will also

produce more errors compared with those who have confidence when speaking in

public. In many cases of public speaking, the major distraction is the audiences.

The audiences usually wait the speakers to deliver their speech by staring

continuously at them. Pittenger as stated by Carnegie (1905) also explains the

unpleasant atmosphere in front of the audiences:

There is a strange sensation often experienced in the presence of an audience. It may proceed from the gaze of the many eyes that turn upon the speaker, especially if he permits himself to steadily return that gaze. All researchers have borne testimony to the power of a speaker's eye in impressing an audience. This influence which we are now considering is the reverse of that picture— the power their eyes may exert upon him, especially before he begins to speak.—William Pittenger, Extempore Speech. As stated by Carnegie (1905).

The second important element which has relation with confidence is the

concentration on delivering ideas. The speakers who do not have confidence may

not be able to concentrate their delivering ideas. This condition will trigger many

distractions when they deliver their speech. One of the distractions can be from

the uncooperative audiences during the speech. Another distraction, which is also

important, is when the speakers continuously think about the sentence followed

when they are talking. ―When they keep doing this, the possibility is they will

produce more errors or fillers‖ (Carnegie, 1905).

Carnegie (1905) advises that while speaking one sentence, it is better not to

think of the sentence to follow. When the speakers can concentrate in delivering

their ideas and overcome the distractions, they will be able to perform a good

(26)

Those two factors are important because they are the basic elements of public

speaking. Confidence and concentration help the speakers of public speaking to

maintain their language and their speech‘s content.

2. Grammar Rules and Use

Grammar theory is important for the English learner because having a correct

grammar understanding will help the learners of English understand the language.

Besides understanding the language, it helps the learner to use the language and

increase their language awareness. However, having low a grammar

understanding might lead the learners to confusion.

Formal grammar is defined as a systematic way of accounting for and

predicting an ideal speaker‘s or hearer‘s knowledge of the language. This is done

by a set of rules or principles that can be used to generate all well-formed or

grammatical utterances in the language (Purpura, 2004). The rules of grammar

are:

a. Minimum grammar requirement

In grammar, spoken or written, the minimum requirements are the same. Every

sentence needs at least one finite, independent clause. If either of those two parts,

subject or predicate, were missing, the sentence would not be complete (Close,

1975). Therefore a sentence may not have object, but it should have at least a

subject and a predicate. (e.g.: she sleeps).

1) Subject-verb agreement

(27)

without –s or –es. This condition is called as subject-verbs agreement, the subject affects the verbs. This condition only appears in present tense.

b. Tenses

Tenses are used to express events, in the past, present or future. English has

three tenses; past tense, present tense and future tense. Using tenses properly is

important since the use of tenses affects the meaning of what the speakers want to

inform.

1) Present tense

Present tense expresses events or situations that exist always, usually,

habitually; they exist now, have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the

future (Azar, 1993)

2) Past tense

Past tense indicates the activities or situations begin and end at particular time

in the past (Azar, 1993). The formula for this tense changes the verbs into the

simple past form.

c. English Verbs

1) English regular verbs

English regular verbs are the verbs which simple past‘s and past participle‘s

forms are added with –ed. The verb forms do not change, but they are added with

–ed. (e.g.: play played) to indicate that the actions are already done in the past. 2) English irregular verbs

English irregular verbs are the verbs which simple past‘s form and past

(28)

The example of verbs that has two forms is ‗sell’. The simple past‘s and past

participle‘s form of ―sell‖ is ―sold‖. The example of verbs that has three forms is

ring‖. The simple past of ring is ‗rang’, and the past participle‘s form is ―rung‖. d. Plural and Singular

1)Singular

The verbs after singular nouns should be added with suffixes -s or –es for present tense. Moreover, the linking verbs ―be‖ should be changed into ―is‖ for

present tense and ―was‖ for past tense. e.g.: My friend lives / lived in Boston; this

is/ was my bag.

2)Plural

The verbs after plural nouns should not be added with suffixes -s or –es for present tense. The linking verbs ―be‖ should also be changed into ―are‖ for

present tense and ―were‖ for past tense. e.g.: My friends live/ lived in Boston;

these are/ were my books. Moreover, the nouns themselves should be added with

suffixes -s or –es. However, in some cases the plural nouns have special forms,

such as ―mouse‖ which has plural form ―mice‖ and not ―mouses

3. Contrastive analysis hypothesis

Contrastive analysis hypothesis is used to help the researcher to examine the

similarities or differences of the first language, Indonesian and the second

language, English. This theory helps to find possible reasons outside the

grammatical and public speaking area.

There are three versions of contrastive analysis hypothesis. However, in this

(29)

hypothesis. In the weak version, contrastive analysis hypothesis starts with the

learner‘s errors and explains at least a subset of them by pointing to the

similarities and differences between the two languages. (Slar, p. 57 as stated by

Hagopian.)

The history and theoretical origin of this contrastive analysis in behaviorist

psychology are that one – third of the deviant sentences from second language

learner could be attributed to language transfer. (Dulay and Burt, 1972, as stated

by Richards and Sampson)

4. Non-Contrastive approach

The non – contrastive approach helps the researcher to not see the errors from

first language interfere but to focus on the types of error. This approach is

proposed by Richards (1971) who states that the major factor of errors produced

by the second language (L2) learners of English is not from the first language (L1)

interference. This approach focuses on several types of error, observed in the

acquisition of English as a second language, which do not derive from transfer

from another language.

a. Over-generalization

Over-generalization covers instance where the learner creates deviant structure

on the basis of his experience of other structure in the target language.

Over-generalization generally involves the creation of one deviant structure in place of

two regular structures which is the result of the learner reducing his linguistic

burden. (Richards, 1971). The common example of over-generalization is the

(30)

past tense. Richards (1971) says that over-generalization is associated with a

redundancy reduction.

According to Richards (1971), a redundancy reduction is condition where the

English learner omits the items which are contrasted in the grammar of the

language but which do not carry significant and obvious contrast for the learner,

i.g.: -ed marker and third person singular ending. He adds that it may occur, for instance, with items which are contrasted in the grammar of the language which

do not carry significant and obvious contrast for the learner.

b. False concepts hypothesized

A false concept hypothesized is a class of developmental error, which derive

from faulty comprehension of distinctions in the target language. ―Developmental

error illustrates the learner who attempts to build up hypotheses about the English

language from his limited experience in the classroom or textbook‖ (Richards ,

1971). The example is this analogy:

Is = present state, is + ing = present action Was = past state, was + ing = past action

Thus was pr was +ing may be used as past markers. Used together with the verb +ed this produces such sentences as he was climbed the tree. Interpreted

as the form for ‗past actions‘ it gives I was going down town yesterday instead of I went down town yesterday.

B. Theoretical Framework

This section discusses the relation of the theories that supports one another to

analyze the data. The first theory used is the public speaking theory. This theory is

used to help the researcher develops the questions for the questionnaire. Based on

(31)

mostly asked the participants about their opinions and difficulties in public

speaking. Furthermore, this theory is also used to develop the questions on the

interview. The questions on the interview ask about the participants‘ opinion and

feeling when they are delivering their speech publicly.

The second theory used is the grammar rules and use. This theory is used to

mark the errors on the transcription. Based on the rules and use of the English

grammar, the researcher marks the errors and classifies the errors produced by the

fourth semester students of the Critical Listening and Speaking Class B.

The grammar theory is also used on the interview. The researcher uses this

theory to develop several questions about suffixes, quantifiers, and tenses that

occur on the common grammatical errors. These questions help the researcher to

find out whether the participants understand the function and use of several

suffixes, quantifiers and tenses. The suffixes and tenses asked are those which

occur on the common grammatical errors.

The third theory is the contrastive analysis hypothesis. The researcher uses

this theory to develop questions on the interview section. The questions based on

theory ask about the participants‘ opinions whether certain errors occurred are

because of their native language, Indonesian. Based on this theory, the researcher

also develops questions about the significance of the English suffixes on

Indonesian language.

The fourth theory used is the non – contrastive approach. This theory helps

the researcher to develop questions on the interview section. The non – contrastive

(32)

their experiences of using the language. Based on this understanding, the

researcher creates questions about their opinions about their difficulties when

experiencing using English.

The psychological side of speaking is not strong enough to develop the

questionnaire and interview; hence, the psychological side leads the researcher to

find the general reasons of the occurrences of the error. The grammar rules and

use, contrastive analysis hypothesis and contrastive approach fill the

non-psychological side of speaking to balance the development of the questionnaire

(33)

18

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the researcher is going to provide basic information of the

methodology. There are six major concerns presented in this chapter. Those are:

research method, research setting, research participants, instruments and data

gathering, data analysis technique, and research procedure.

A. Research Method

The researcher used document or content analysis technique to analyze the

accuracy in a form of grammatical errors list of the students’ speaking production on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B offered in semester four in the

Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris of Sanata Dhama University. A content or document analysis is defined by Krippendorff (2004) as a research technique involving

specialized procedures for making replicable and valid inferences from texts (or

other meaningful matter) to the contexts of their use (p.18). In this study, the

document analyzed was in the students’ speaking production on the final presentation of the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B offered in semester

four in the Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris of Sanata Dhama University in a form of recording that had been transcribed.

The reason why the researcher used this methodology was because the data

were transcribed recordings, which needed to be interpreted and analyzed. Nunan

(34)

method applied to written or visual materials for purpose of identifying specified

characteristic material.”

B. Research Setting

The research was conducted in 2012, in the Sanata Dharma University on the

fourth semester and on the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B. The research

was conducted on the last two meetings, which were the final presentation.

C. Research Participants

The participants were the fourth semester of the 2010 students on the Critical

Listening and Speaking, class B of Sanata Dharma University. The total number

of the students in the Critical Listening and Speaking, class B was forty-five

students. The participants of the questionnaire were the whole class. The

participants of the interview were ten students randomly selected based on their

errors levels.

D. Instruments and Data Gathering

1. Recordings

The researcher recorded the students’ speech when they were presenting their interview result as their final presentation on the class. The recording activities

were held twice on Tuesday, May 22, 2012 and Monday, May 28, 2012. The

recordings’ duration was around one hour and thirty minutes for each meeting. 2. Questionnaire

The questionnaire was conducted on Monday, May 28, 2012, after the

(35)

general opinions from the students about speaking and public speaking. The

questions had been matched with the public speaking theory.

3. Interview

The interview was conducted on January 16, May 1, May 6, and May 7, 2013.

The interview was aimed to answer several questions based on the theories to

search the possible reasons of the occurrence of the common grammatical errors.

In this study, the researcher used cluster sampling to select the participants of the

interview. The researcher used cluster sampling by finding “the list of larger groups of such units, or cluster, and then select among them stratificationally” (Krippendorff , 2004).

The time span of the date of the recordings and the interview was one year.

The consideration of this decision was because the researcher expected the

students of the CLS would answer the questions naturally without knowing their

errors.

E. Data Analysis Technique

1. Recordings

The first technique used was transcribing, a technique that covered the verbal

language in the recording into a written form language. The researcher listened to

the recordings and typed what the researcher heard into written form in the papers.

After the transcriptions were completed, the researcher typed them on the

computer. There were eight groups that had been transcribed, with total forty-five

speakers. After the recordings were transcribed, the researcher marked the

(36)

only focus on the errors, but the researcher also had tried to understand the context

and meaning of what the speakers wanted to say before marking a certain error.

The second technique was listing the errors found on the transcriptions into

several classifications in a table.

Table 3.1 the first classifications of the error on the transcriptions found on the

Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B.

Group Errors

article possessive infinitive Others Occupation

The researcher listed the errors under the first several classifications that

commonly found on the transcriptions. However, after the researcher analyzed the

results of the first listed errors in the table, the researcher found that there were

many classifications did not present in the first table. The researcher decided to

revise and complete the classifications.

Table 3.2 the revised classifications of the error on the transcriptions found on the

Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B.

No. Classifications Examples Numbers of occurrence

1. Missing to be Our presentation (-) about

(37)

No. Classifications Examples Numbers of occurrence

2. Possessive The pesantren (-) name

...

3. Preposition ..our group consist (-) 6 member..

(38)

No. Classifications Examples Numbers of

22. Other S-V Agreements Dap Supri meatballs is only one in the campus

23. Incorrect verb sequence on present tense

common grammatical errors. The common grammatical errors were analyzed

using the answers of the questionnaires and interview supported by the theories of

public speaking, contrastive analysis hypothesis and non – contrastive approach. With those answers and theories, the researcher drew conclusion of the possible

reasons of the occurrence of errors found in the Critical Listening and Speaking,

class B students.

2. Instruments

The instruments in this study were questionnaire and interview. The

questionnaires were analyzed by listing the answers in tables. After listing the

answers in the tables, the researcher found the general opinions of speaking and

public speaking from the students. The result of the questionnaire was expected to

(39)

Table 3.3 the table of the questionnaire’s result.

The Interviews were analyzed by transcribing the recordings into written form.

After researcher transcribed the recordings, the researcher listed the answers in a

table.

Table 3.4 the table of the interview’s result.

(40)

Questions

In their opinion, what percentage for “ A. Using the correct sentences

grammatically so that the audiences will understand their speech.

B. Talking fluently, and they may not use correct grammar sentences, but at least understandable.

Based on the answers in those tables, the researcher found the possible reasons of

the occurrence of the common grammatical errors. The results of the interviews

and questionnaires were expected to support the public speaking theory,

(41)

F. Research Procedure

The research will be divided into some stages, they are:

1. Permission

The researcher gave a permission letter to the CLS lecturer in order to be able

to record the CLS, class B students’ speaking production on their final presentation.

2. Data Gathering

a. Recordings

The researcher recorded the students of the Critical Listening and Speaking,

class B on their final project. The recordings were recorded in two days following

their final project performance schedule.

b. Questionnaire

In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was needed to complete

researcher’s observation. This questionnaire was done after the class. c. Transcribing the recordings

The researcher transcribed the recordings into written forms in order to be

analyzed. The transcriptions were done after the recordings were collected.

d. Marking errors in the transcribing

The researcher searched and marked the errors in the transcriptions.

e. Clustering the errors

The researcher clustered the errors based on their frequency. The clustering

(42)

f. Interviewing

The researcher held the interview to strengthen the information in order to find

the possible reasons of the occurrences of errors after the errors were all tabling.

g. Analysis

The researcher used the results of the questionnaire and interview in line with

the theories of public speaking, contrastive analysis hypothesis and non – contrastive approach. With those answers and theories, the researcher drew

conclusion of the possible reasons of the occurrences of error.

h. Conclusion and Suggestions

Based on the data, the researcher concluded the possible reasons of the

occurrences of error and gave some suggestions to the students and lecturer in the

(43)

28

CHAPTER

IV

RESEARCH

FINDINGS

AND

DISCUSSION

This chapter describes the results and discussions of the analysis of the

common grammatical errors in students’ speaking production on Critical

Listening and Speaking, class B. This chapter is divided into three sections. The

first section is the discussion on the classification of the common grammatical

errors. The second section is the discussion of the occurrences of errors. The third

section is the discussion of the common grammatical errors.

A. The discussion on the classification of the grammatical errors

In order to answer what common grammatical errors on the students of the

CLS, class B, in this section the researcher shows the common grammatical errors

found on the recording recorded on their final presentation, performing their

interviews’ result in group in front of the class. The recording held on May 22 and

May 29, 2012. In this section, the researcher also discusses the classifications on

the common grammatical errors.

In this study, the common grammatical errors refer to the errors that occur

50 times or more in the transcriptions of 44 students of the CLS, class B. The

errors were marked based on the grammar rules; however, the researcher also had

tried to understand the meaning of the sentences before marking the errors. This

action was carried out to avoid any misunderstanding on what the students of the

CLS, class B meant or tried to say and what the researcher heard in term of

(44)

try to understand the meaning and the context, the researcher believed that there

were more errors would be found. In this section, there are several the

classifications of the grammatical errors found in the students of the CLS, class B.

Table 4.1 the classifications of the grammatical errors found on the Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B.

No. Classification Numbers of

occurrence 13. Adjective parallelism 1

14. Adverbs 3

15. Missing s or es suffix 114

16. Incorrect verb sequence on past tense 59

17. Incorrect verb form after “Go, Keep, and See” 3 18. Incorrect verb form after “Do, Did, Does” 2 19. Verbs after preposition 7 20. Misuse comparative 1

21. Misusage 7

22. Other subject-verb agreements 13 23. Incorrect verb sequence on present tense 2

The grammatical errors on table above are found on the transcriptions based on

the three-hours recording of the students of the CLS, class B. Based on the table

4.1, the missing –s or –es suffix has the highest number of occurrence which is 114 errors during the recording. Another grammatical error that has a high number

(45)

The first common grammatical errors is the missing –s or –es suffix. The missing –s or–es suffix is found on the verbs after subjects “he, she, and it” and also on the nouns as the plural marker. The second common grammatical error is

the incorrect verb sequence on past tense. On the incorrect verb sequence on past

tense, the researcher also finds the missing –ed as past participle.

B. The discussion on the occurrences of errorss

In order to answer what are the possible reasons of the occurrences of

errors found on the students’ of the CLS, class B, the researcher had held

questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire was held on May 29, 2012 after

the students’ final presentation. The participants that filled the questionnaire were

46 students.

In this section the researcher discusses the results of the questionnaire and

interview to conclude the possible reasons of the occurrences of errors found on

the students’ of the CLS, class B.

Table 4.2 the results of the questionnaire of the Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B.

No Questions Answers Number of

answers*

(46)

No Questions Answers Number of

 Only during the speaking class

(47)

Besides the questionnaire, the researcher also held interviews. The

participants of the interviews were chosen based on their error levels and the

numbers of errors that appeared the most. The error levels were divided into three

levels; low, medium, and high. Every level had a range number of error. The low

level was from 0-6 errors, the medium was from 7-14 errors and the high was

from 15-21errors. The participants of the interview were selected also based on

the number of the errors that appeared the most, which were 3, 4, 9, 11, 14, 20,

and 21. However, there was one student could not be contacted. Because of that

condition the researcher searched another student randomly. The researcher asked

10 students in total as the participants of the interview.

The first question asked about their feeling when they were delivering

their speech publicly. Most of the participants stated that they were nervous and

they agreed that nervousness did increase someone’s errors while speaking. The

participants stated that nervousness made them uncomfortable, and made them

produce incorrect sentences. The audiences also seemed to find their errors.

The researcher also asked about whether they were aware of their errors

when they were speaking or not. All the participants answered that they were

aware, but only seven participants said that they corrected their errors if they had

time. During the interview, the researcher also found that not all the participants

knew the function of –s, –es and –ed suffixes. When the participants did not understand the function of certain grammatical rules, they would likely produce

(48)

Besides asking about the functions of certain suffixes, the researcher also

asked about the significance of this suffix when the English sentences were

translated into Indonesian. Six from ten participants stated that –s or –es suffix were insignificant, but only –ed suffix that was significant in Indonesian sentences. This finding proves the theory on over generalization, the English learner omits

the items which are contrasted in the grammar of the language but which do not

carry significant and obvious contrast for the learner (Richards. 1971).

Based on the interview the researcher also found that seven participants

usually translated Indonesian sentences to English when they were delivering their

speech. The participants also agreed that past event or past tense was difficult in

speaking. They said that they could not remember the verbs’ change.

The researcher also asked the participants to give percentage for “A”;

using the correct sentences grammatically so that the audiences will understand

their speech; or “B”; talking fluently and may not use correct grammar sentences

but at least understandable. Most of them gave the higher percentage for “B”.

However, when the researcher explained that they were prepared to be teachers,

some of them changed the percentage and gave higher percentage for “A”.

After examining those findings, the researcher concludes some possible

reasons of the occurrence of the errors in general occurred on students of the CLS,

class B. The first possibility is the students’ nervousness while speaking in public.

Pittenger as stated by Carnegie (1905) states that “there is a strange sensation that

is often experienced in the presence of an audience. It may proceed from the gaze

(49)

(1905) agrees that the eyes staring the speakers would likely make the speakers

uncomfortable, or created unpleasant atmosphere. This condition increases the

speakers to produces more errors because of their nervousness.

The second possibility is that many students of the CLS, class B were

afraid of producing errors and mistakes on their speeches. Their focus on errors

was increasing their nervousness and errors. Carnegie (1905) on his book, The Art of Public Speaking, says that “when people are thinking about the sentence followed when they are talking, the possibility is they will produce more errors or

fillers.”

Their being afraid of producing errors may because the third possibility,

their confusion of tenses usage. The researcher had asked whether the various

rules of English grammar burdened them when learning English or not. Most of

their answers were “not”, various rules of English grammar were not a burden for

them. Nevertheless, they said that they were still confused with the usage of tenses,

though those rules were not a burden. Their confusion supported them in

increasing the errors.

In addition to the explanation above, through the interview, some of the

students said that they could do better in writing, meaning that they could produce

less grammatical errors in writing. In writing, it is obvious that they can read their

previous sentences and they will be able to analyze whether their sentences are

correct or not. However, they cannot correct their sentences in speaking which

(50)

supported them to focus on delivering their ideas and being understood by the

audiences.

The fourth possibility is because of the lack of practice from the student of

the CLS, class B. From the questionnaire, most of them did not answer the

question asking about the time they spent to practice. Based on the questionnaire,

only thirteen answers answered they practiced speaking more than two hours in a

week. These answers showed that most of them did not practice their speaking

outside the class. The preparations they made mostly were in forms of notes and

individual practices. Moreover, they practiced them mostly during the speaking

class.

The fifth possibility is because of the students’ high tolerance of speaking

accuracy. Through the interview the researcher found that most of the students of

the CLS, class B, preferred to deliver their speech by eliminating the grammar

rules than to deliver correct sentences. One of students argued that even though

they eliminated the grammar rules, their friends still could understand them. This

statement was one of the reasons of their intention of eliminating the grammar

rules.

The last possibly is that the students were not fully aware that they were

prepared to be teachers. The researcher asked them to give percentages on two

criteria. The first criterion was “A”, having grammatically correct sentences in

order to be understood by others. The second was “B”, not having grammatically

correct sentences but still understandable. The result was that most of them gave

(51)

On the other hand, after the researcher explained that they were prepared

to be teachers even though they were willing to be teachers or not, most of them

changed the percentages. They used their second chance to give the “A” higher

percentage. Examining these answers, the researcher concludes that the students

are not fully aware that they are prepared to be teachers who should be a good role

model on speaking, writing, listening and reading. Their unawareness led them to

ignore grammar rules when they were speaking. Furthermore, since they were not

aware that they were prepared to be teachers, it might trigger their

communication-only goal. According to Richards (1971), when the language is

seen as a tool of communication, the learners’ motivation to deliver the

communication to others will exceed the motivation to produce grammatically

correct sentences.

C. The discussion on the common grammatical errors

In order to answer what are the possible reasons of the occurrence of the

common grammatical errors found on the students’ of the CLS, class B, in this

section the researcher discusses the results of the questionnaire and the interview.

The discussions are divided into two discussions. The first discussion is on the

missing –s or –es suffix and follows by the second discussion on the incorrect verb sequence on past tense.

1. Discussion on the missing –s or –es suffix

Before the researcher discusses this section, there is a little explanation about

(52)

plural marker. However, this classification was originally under the subject-verb

agreement, but the researcher decided to separate the classification.

The researcher separated the classification because on this classification the

missing –s or –es suffix on nouns as the plural marker was not an error of subject-verb agreement. The errors on the subject-subject-verb agreement could be in form of the

incorrect paired subjects or verbs, such as “…..we does not know…”or “….Dab Supri’s meatballs is…..” Another reason is because the researcher found that this

classification had specific triggers of errors that were different with the triggers on

the subject-verb agreement error.

The first grammatical errors discussed is the missing –s or –es suffix. Based on the interview, there were two participants answered that they did not know the

use or function of –s or -es. However, there were seven others that were able to explain briefly about the function or the use of that suffix. Based on their answers,

most of them understood the function of –s or –es suffix that was as the plural marker (six answers), but only four answers that were able to explain that the

suffix was also used for the 3rd person singular. Examining those answers; the

researcher concludes that the first possibility of the occurrences of the missing –s or –es suffix error is their understanding of the function of that suffix.

The second possibility is the significance of the –es or -es suffix in Indonesia sentences. Most of the participants were accustomed to think the Indonesian

thought pattern first and then they converted that into the English thought pattern

when they were speaking. It could be assumed that they thought of the Indonesian,

Gambar

Table 3.1. The first classifications of  the error on the transcription found on
Table 3.2 the revised classifications of the error on the transcriptions found on the Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B
Table 3.3 the table of the questionnaire’s result.
Table 4.1 the classifications of the grammatical errors found on the Critical Listening and Speaking’ students, class B
+2

Referensi

Dokumen terkait

Setelah saya memastikan keberadaan polip di dalam hidung bapak/ibu, selanjutnya saya akan mengambil sebagian/sedikit polip tersebut dengan menggunakan alat pencubit untuk diperiksa

So, when we want to send a message or command to our target from the Kali side, first we will encrypt that message using the target's public key and then we will send it over the

Dari hasil uji f dalam regresi linear berganda diketahui bahwa seluruh variabel bebas (kepercayaan, kemudahan dan kualitas informasi) secara simultan

2) Memeriksa dan mempelajari kondisi lahan dan dokumen untuk pelaksanaan konstruksi yang akan dijadikan dasar dalam pengawasan pekerjaan di lapangan. 3) Mengawasi dan menyetujui

tidak demikian yang berlaku bagi umat percaya, yang dibangkitkan bukan tubuh. jasmaniah melainkan tubuh

Galapama dan peri berjalan menuju ke  istana Raja Hindi. Sesampai di  istana, mereka disambut dengan gembira oleh  Raja  Hindi  dan  permaisuri.  Galapama 

tingkat keberhasilan maksimal (istimewa), Optimal (baik sekali), minimal (baik) dan kurang untuk setiap bahan yang dikuasai anak didik. Faktor Kegiatan Pengajaran. Keberhasilan

2015 akan melaksanakan Pelelangan Sederhana dengan Pascakualifikasi Harwat CCTC / PPC pada Bid TI Polri Polda Bali T.A.. 2015 secara elektronik melalui website LPSE Polda