Edisi Guru Modul Pecutan Fizik Sbp 2016 Dgn Radioaktif

Teks penuh

(1)

2016

Bahagian Pengurusan

Sekolah Berasrama

Penuh

MODUL

PECUTAN

FIZIK

SET I

Force and Motion

Forces and Pressure

Heat

SET II

Light

Waves

Radioactivity

SET III

Electricity

Electromagnet

SET IV

Mengeksperimen

EDISI GURU

Disediakan Oleh

Nor Saidah Che Hassan TKC (Ketua Panel Penggubal)

● Haslina Ismail SEMASHUR ● Jennyta Noorbi SASER ● Kamariah Mohd Arshad MCKK ● ● Norliza Zainal SESMA ● Nor Rizah Bongkek STF ●

(2)

Konsep Modul

Modul Pecutan disusun mengikut konstruk/kemahiran dan topik yang telah dikenalpasti dapat membantu meningkatkan prestasi pelajar kumpulan sasaran. Guru/fasilitator diharapkan dapat memberikan penekanan terhadap:

1. Kata Tugas,

2. Kemahiran Menjawab Mengikut Konstruk dan 3. Konsep mudah yang dianggap sukar oleh pelajar.

Adalah diharapkan, guru-guru seterusnya menggunakan soalan-soalan SPM atau Peperiksaan-peperiksaan Percubaan SPM SBP tahun-tahun lepas yang berkaitan untuk memantapkan penguasaan kemahiran/konsep pelajar bagi setiap Set dalam Modul Pecutan ini.

Sasaran Markah (Minimum)

1. Diharapkan boleh membantu pelajar kumpulan sasaran mendapat sekurang-kurangnya Gred C (50 markah) Fizik SPM 2016.

2. Sasaran jumlah markah yang perlu dicapai oleh pelajar daripada setiap bahagian mengikut pecahan kertas.

Kertas Bentuk Soalan/Konstruk Markah

Sasaran

Markah

Penuh Markah Penuh

1 MCQ 50 50

2

Mengonsepsi Bahagian A (Soalan 5 dan 6) 10

100

Mengonsepsi Bahagian B 5

Penyelesaian masalah Kualitatif

(Pengubahsuaian) 10

Menganalisis (Membuat Keputusan) 10

Lain-lain 65 3 Mengeksperimen Soalan 1 16 40 Mengeksperimen Soalan 2 12 Mengeksperimen Soalan 3 12 Jumlah Skor 190

(3)

Keterangan Modul 1. Modul dibahagikan mengikut SET berikut:

SET Tajuk Peruntukan Waktu

Semasa Bengkel (jam)

I

Force and Motion Forces and Pressure Heat 1 II Light Waves Radioactivity 1 III Electricity Electromagnet 1 IV Mengeksperimen 1

JUMLAH WAKTU SEMASA KEM PECUTAN SBP 4

2. Set I, II dan III adalah mengikut kumpulan topik Fizik yang merangkumi konstruk: Pengetahuan

Mengkonsepsi,

Membuat Keputusan,

Penyelesaian Masalah Kualitatif/ Pengubahsuaian)

Penyelesaian Masalah Kuantitatif/pengiraan

3. Fokus Set IV adalah kepada Kemahiran Mengeksperimen. Kandungan Modul Edisi GURU

Set Pekara / Tajuk/ Kemahiran Mukasurat pada Edisi Guru (Jawapan)

Mukasurat pada Edisi Pelajar (Soalan)

I

Forces and Pressure Force and Motion Heat 4 - 8 3 - 16 II Waves Light Radioactivity 9 - 15 16 - 29 III Electricity Electromagnet 16 - 19 29 - 38 IV Kemahiran Mengeksperimen 20

(Saranan Untuk Guru)

16

(Saranan Untuk Guru) 38

(4)

SET I

Force and Motion

Konsep Fizik

1. Speed is the rate of change of distance

Kelajuan ialah kadar perubahan jarak

2. Velocity is the rate of change of displacement

Halaju ialah kadar perubahan sesaran

3. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

Pecutan ialah kadar perubahan halaju

4. Deceleration is the rate of decreasing in velocity

Nyahpecutan ialah kadar pengurangan

halaju

5. Inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain its state of rest or

constant velocity motion in a straight line.

Inersia adalah sifat suatu objek untuk

mengekalkan keadaan asalnya samada rehat atau bergerak dengan halaju malar dalam garis lurus.

6. Newton’s First Law of Motion states that every object continues in its state of rest or uniform speed in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force

Hukum Gerakan Newton Pertama

menyatakan setiap objek akan terus kekal pegun atau bergerak dengan halaju seragam dalam garis lurus jika tiada daya luar ditindakkan ke atasnya.

7. Momentum is the multiplication of mass and velocity.

Momentum ialah hasildarad jisim dengan

halaju.

8. Principle of Conservation of Momentum states that the total momentum of a system remains unchanged if no external force acts on the system

Prinsip Keabadian Momentum

menyatakan bahawa jumlah momentum satu sistem tidak berubah jika tiada daya luar dikenakan ke atas sistem itu.

9. Force is defined as anything that changes the state of rest or motion of an object

gerakan satu objek yang bergerak dalam garis lurus.

10. Impulse is defined as the change of momentum.

Impuls ditakrifkan sebagai perubahan

momentum.

11. Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change of momentum

Daya impul ditakrifkan sebagai kadar

perubahan momentum

12. Weight - Force of Gravity / Gravitational force / Pulled force towards the centre of the earth

Berat – Daya Graviti / Daya tarikan

kearah pusat bumi.

13. A free-falling object is an object falling under the force of garvity only

Jatuh bebas suatu objek adalah objek

jatuh hanya dengan tarikan gtaviti.

14. Gravitational Acceleration is the acceleration of objects due to force of garvity

Pecutan gravity ialah pecutan suatu

objek disebabkan tarikan gtaviti.

15. Resultant force is a single force that represents the combined effect of two or more forces in magnitude and direction

Daya paduan ialah daya tunggal yang

mewakili kesan gabungan dua atau lebih daya dalam magnitud dan arah.

16. Unbalanced force produced when the forces acting on an object is not balanced, there must be a net force/unbalanced/resultant force acting on it

Daya tak seimbang terhasil apabila

daya yang bertindak ke atas objek tidak seimbang/terdapat daya paduan.

17. Newton’s third law of motion states that, to every action there is an equal reaction but opposite direction

(5)

18. Work is defined as the product of the applied force ,F on the object and its displacement, s in the direction of the applied force.

Kerja ditakrifkan sebagai hasil darab

daya,F ke atas satu objek dan sesaran,s dalam arah daya yang dikenakan.

19. Energy is the ability to do work.

Tenaga ialah kebolehan.

20. Gravitational potential energy of an object is the energy stored in the object due to its position in a force field.

Tenaga Keupayaan Graviti ialah tenaga

yang tersimpan dalam suatu objek

disebabkan kedudukannya dalam medan daya.

21. Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion.

Tenaga kinetik adalah daya yang

dipunyai oleh objek yang bergerak.

22. Principle of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created nor be destroyed, but energy can be transferred into another kind of energy.

Prinsip Keabadian Tenaga menyatakan

bahawa tenaga tidak boleh cipta atau dimusnahkan tetapi boleh dipindahkan kepada bentuk tenaga yang lain.

23. Power is the amount of work done per second.

Kuasa adalah jumlah kerja yang dilakukan

per saat.

24. Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to return to its original

shape after an applied external force is removed

Elastisiti ialah sifat bahan yang boleh

kembali ke bentuk asalnya setelah daya luar dialihkan.

25. Elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to restored to its original length when the force is removed

Had elastik satu spring ditakrifkan

sebagai daya maksimum yang dikenakan ke atas satu spring yang akan kembali ke bentuk asal jika daya di alihkan.

26. Hooke’s Law states that the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded.

Hukum Hooke menyatakan pemanjangan spring berkadar terus dengan daya yang dikenakan jika tidak melebihi had elastik.

27. Spring constant, k, of a spring is the force that is required to produce one unit of extension of the spring.

Pemalar spring, k, suatu spring adalah

daya yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan seunit pemanjangan spring.

28. Elastic Potential Energy is the energy stored in a spring when it is extended or compressed

Tenaga Keupayaan Kenyal ialah

tenaga yang tersimpan dalam satu spring teregang atau termampat.

Mengkonsepsi

Question 1

QUESTION ANSWER

(a) Rate of change of displacement

(b)(i) Acceleration of the bus in Diagram 5.2 bigger than 5.1

(b)(ii) Time taken for bus to accelerate in Diagram 5.1 longer than 5.2.

(b)(iii) Distance travel by bus during acceleration in Diagram 5.1 same as in Diagram 5.2 (c)(i) Acceleration higher when the time is shorter

(c)(ii) Bus move faster in 5.2 (d) Acceleration

(e) Move with constant velocity/ zero acceleration Total

(6)

Question 2

Distance OA is longer than OB

The time of impact in Diagram 6(a) is shorter than that in Diagram 6(b) Force in Diagram 6(a) is larger than that in 6(b)

The shorter the time of impact, the smaller the force. Impulsive Force

Menyelesai Masalah (Kualitatif)

Characteristic Reason

Type of brakes - using ABS Prevent wheel lock for safer braking.

The number of tyres - more tyres Can withstand strong pressure because the base area is large The size of the tanks - split the tanks

becomes small compartment

Smaller inertia // reduces the inertial impact The material for making the tanks –

did not react with petroleum.

Avoid from licking // long lasting. Distance between the trailer and

the tractor - far / further Ensure that the trailer will not collide with the tractor Membuat Keputusan

Characteristic Reason

Small angle Produce bigger resultant force

Streamlined Reduce resistance

Steel Rod Strong// able to withstand high tension Inelastic Produce uniform force during towing. Arrangement K is chosen small angle, Streamlined, Steel Rod, Inelastic

(7)

FORCE AND PRESSURE

Mengkonsepsi

Question 1

(a) (i) Depth of holes in diagram (b) is bigger than diagram (b)

(ii) Horizontal distance travelled by water jet in diagram (b) is further than (a) (iii) The bigger the horizontal distance, the higher the water pressure

(iv) The bigger the depth of water the higher the water pressure (b) Density of water

Question 2

1. Bottle in liquid Q floats lower

2. Weight and the buoyant force are equal and the same in both cases. 3. Density of liquid P is higher.

4. As the density of liquid decreases, the lower the bottle floats.

5. When density of liquid decreases the volume of liquid displaced increases to produce the same buoyant force

Menyelesai Masalah (Kualitatif)

Modification Reason/ explaination

Low density//strong//nylon Light // Does not tear easily

Big size Buoyant force increase // Weight of air displaced increases Gas burner To heat up air in balloon // Reduce density of air in the balloon Rope tied to the balloon Avoid the balloon to moves away // To hold the balloon //

Easy to descent the balloon

Early in the morning// late evening Air surrounding is cooler // Has high density Membuat Keputusan

Specification Reason/explaination

Size of air hole is big More air can flows into Bunsen burner Size of gas nozzle is small Produce high velocity / lower pressure Size of base is wider More stable

Has moveable collar To control the amount of air entering the Bunsen burner through the air hole

Chosen design: R

(8)

HEAT

Mengkonsepsi

Question 1

(a) Mass of the water in Diagram (b) > (a) (b) (i) The reading in of thermometer in (c) < (d)

(ii) The rate of heat loss from water in Diagram (c) > (d)

(c) Quantity of Heat in Diagram (d) > (c)

(d) When the mass increases quantity of heat increases Question 2

1. The volume of air trapped are the same/ remains unchanged 2. The temperature in Diagram (b) is higher than in (a)

3. The pressure exerted in Diagram (b) is higher than in (a) 4. When temperature increases , the pressure increases. 5. Physics law ; Pressure Law

Menyelesai Masalah (Kualitatif)

Aspects Modification

1.Low specific heat capacity 1.Heat transfer is faster, the temperature will increase faster 2.Higher thermal conductivity 2.Increase heat transfer

3.Higher melting points 3. the wok cannot melt easily 4.Low specific heat capacity (cooking

oil)

4.Increase heat transfer

Pemindahan haba cepat

5.High boiling point 5.Not easy to evaporate Membuat Keputusan

Specification Reason/explaination

Thermal conductivity of the bag Is Low As heat insulator// prevent heat loss/ heat gain Specific heat capacity

of the bag is Low

Absorbs less heat from the food // Lower final temperature Density of the bag is Low Light

Material of the inner lining Is Aluminium foil

Reflects heat back to the food// help transfer escaped heat back to the food// contains the heat within the cooler bag as long as it remains closed// Metallic material

Choose S :

cooler bag with low thermal conductivity, low specific heat capacity, low density, aluminium foil as inner lining

(9)

SET II

LIGHT

Konsep Fizik

1. Law of Reflection states that the angle of incidence i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r.

Hukum pantulan menyatakan bahawa sudut tuju,I sama dengan sudut pantulan,r.

2. Parallel rays that are reflected by a concave mirror will converged at the focal point, F.

Sinar selari yang dipantulkan oleh cermin

cekung akan ditumpukan pada titik focus,F.

3. Parallel rays that are reflected by a convex mirror will diverged from the focal point, F.

Sinar selari yang dipantulkan oleh cermin cembung akan dicapahkan dari titik focus,F.

4. Focal point is the point where parallel rays that strike the surface of a concave mirror will be reflected and converged.

Titik focus adalah titik di mana sinar selari yang

menghentam permukaan cermin cekung akan dipantul dan ditumpukan.

5. Refraction of light occurs when light passes through two mediums of different optical densities, will change direction and speed.

Pembiasan cahaya berlaku apabila sinar yang merambat melalui dua medium yang berlainan ketumpatan optic berubah arah dan kelajuan.

6. Critical angle is the angle of incidence in an optically more dense medium which results in angle of refraction of 90o .

Sudut genting adalah sudut tuju dalam

medium optic yang lebih tumpat yang menghasilkan sudut biasan 90o

7. Total Internal Reflection of light occurs when the incident angle of light travelling from optically more dense medium to optically less dense medium is greater than the critical angle.

Pantulan dalam penuh berlaku apabila

sudut tuju sinar yang merambat dari medium optic yang lebih tumpat kepada medium optic yang kurang tumpat lebih besar daripada sudut genting.

8. Parallel rays that passes through convex lens will be refracted and converged at focal point.

Sinar selari yang merambat melalui kanta cembung akan terbias dan menumpu pada titik focus.

9. Parallel rays that passes through concave lens will be refracted and diverged from focal point.

Sinar selari yang merambat melalui kanta

cekung akan terbias dan mencapah dari

titik focus.

10. Real image is the image that can be displayed on a screen.

Imej nyata adalah imej yang boleh

ditayang di atas skrin.

11. Virtual image is the image that cannot be displayed on a screen.

Imej maya adalah imej yang tidak boleh

ditayang di atas skrin.

Mengkonsepsi Question 1

(a)(i) Refractive index : Diagram A same as Diagram B (ii) Real depth: diagram A > diagram B

(iii) Apparent depth: diagram A > diagram B

(iv) As real depth increases apparent depth increases (v) Refraction of light

(10)

Question 2

Menyelesai Masalah (Kualitatif)

Aspects Suggestion Reason

the type of lenses Both eyepiece and objective lens are convex lenses Converge the light Power of lenses used High power lenses To magnify the image The distance between

two lenses greater than the sum of their focal lengths (> fo + fe ) To produce larger image

Normal adjustment of the specimen

The specimen should be placed between F and 2F of the objective lens

To produce real and larger image Extra component for

lighting Source of light / concave mirror under the specimen Brighter image can be formed Membuat Keputusan

Choice Reason

Convex mirror Wider field of view

Big size of curved mirror More images can be seen / wider view Curved mirror is placed at high position Views are not blocked

Strong reflector Images seen are clearer Choice : S

Justification: The cuved mirror is convex mirror, big in size, placed at high position and is strong reflector

(i)

1. Thickness of lenses: J > K 2. The focal length lens K > J 3. The size of image: J > K

4. The longer the focal length , the smaller the size of virtual image. 5. The longer the focal length the lower the power

(11)

WAVES

Konsep Fizik

1. Waves are carriers of energy. They transfer energy without transferring matter.

Gelombang adalah pembawa tenaga. Ia memindahkan tenaga tanpa memindahkan jirim.

2. Longitudinal Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles is parallel to the direction of the propagation of the wave.

Gelombang membujur ialah gelombang di mana getaran zarah adalah selari dengan arah perambatan gelombang.

3. Transverse Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave.

Gelombang melintang ialah gelombang di mana getaran zarah adalah berserenjang dengan arah perambatan gelombang.

4. Wavefronts are the lines joining all points which vibrates in phase.

Muka gelombang adalah garisan yang menghubungi semua titik yang bergetar dalam fasa yang sama.

5. Wavelength is the distance between two adjacent points of the same phase.

Panjang gelombang adalah jarak antara dua titik sefasa yang bersebelahan.

6. Amplitude is the maximum displacement from its equilibrium position.

Amplitud adalah sesaran maksimum dari kedudukan keseimbangan.

7. Frequency of a wave is the number of waves produced by a source in one second.

Frekuensi gelombang adalah bilangan gelombang yang dihasilkan oleh satu sumber dalam satu saat.

8. The period of a wave is the time taken for an oscillation to complete one cycle

Tempoh gelombang adalah masa yang

diambil untuk membuat satu ayunan lengkap

9. Forced Oscillation is the external force applied to an oscillating system.

Daya memaksa adalah daya luar yang bertindak terhadap system ayunan.

10. Natural frequency is the frequency of a system which oscillate freely without the action of an external force.

Frekuensi asli ialah frekuensi satu sistem yang bergetar tanpa sebarang daya luar bertindak

ke atasnya.

11. Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency equals to its natural frequency by an external force

Resonans berlaku apabila satu system

dipaksa berayun pada frekuesi yang sama dengan frekuensi aslinya oleh daya luar.

12. Damping is a process whereby the amplitude of oscillations decreases due to a loss of energy to frictional forces.

Pelembapan adalah satu proses dimana amplitude ayunan berkurang disebabkan kehilangan tenaga kepada geseran.

13. Diffraction is the spreading and bending of waves as they pass through an aperture or around the edge of a barrier.

Pembelauan adalah penyebaran atau pembengkokkan gelombang setelah gelombang melalui celah atau bucu penghalang.

14. Coherent Waves are waves that have same frequency and in phase.

Gelombang koheren adalah dua gelombang yang mempunyai frekuensi dan fasa yang sama.

15. Monochromatic Light is light with one colour or wavelength

Cahaya monokromatik adalah cahaya yang mempunyai satu warna atau panjang gelombang.

16. Principle of Superposition states that when two waves coincide at a point, the sum of the displacements at that point is equal to the sum of the displacements of the individual waves by vector method.

Prinsip Superposisi menyatakan bahawa apabila dua gelombang bertemu di satu titik, jumlah sesarannya adalah bersamaan dengan hasil tambah sesaran individu secara kaedah vektor.

17. Constructive interference occurs when a crest meets a crest and when a trough meets a trough.

Inteferens membina berlaku apabila

puncak bertemu puncak dan

(12)

18. Destructive interference occurs when a crest meets a trough. Resultant amplitude is zero.

Interferens memusnah berlaku apabila puncak bertemu lembangan. Amplitud paduan adalah sifar.

19. Antinodal lines are lines joining the antinodes or points of constructive interference.

Garisan antinod adalah garisan yang menyambungkan semua titik antinod atau titik yang mengalami inteferens

membina.

20. Nodal lines are lines joining the nodes or points of destructive interference.

Garisan nod adalah garisan yang menyambungkan titik nod atau titik yang mengalami inteferens memusnah.

Mengkonsepsi

Question 1

Aspects Modification

(a)(i) The depth of water in region X is greater than in region Y

(ii) The wavelength of the waves in region X is longer than that in region Y (iii) The deeper the water is, the longer the wavelength.

(iv) The deeper the water is, the slower the speed og the wave (v) Refractions of waves

Question 2

1. Before passing through the narrow and wide gaps, plane wavefronts can be observed. After passing through the gaps, the waves emerging from the gap have circular wavefronts

2. The wavelengths of the waves before and after passing through the narrow and wide gaps are the same

3. The curvature of the bending is more obvious in the diagram, where the gap is narrower.

4. When a wave passes through a gap, the wave bends. The narrower the size of the gap is, the bigger the bending/ curvature of the wave will be

5. Diffraction of waves

Menyelesai Masalah (Kualitatif)

Specification Reason/explaination

Concrete structures, solid and rigid Can withstand the impact of the waves, not easy to crack Has narrow gaps Diffraction will occur, the smaller amplitude of the diffracted

waves causes the sea to be calm Must be high To ensure no overspill of the waves The new jetty is built in the region of the

bay

The waves in the bay calmer (amplitude is lower) than in the cape

(13)

Membuat Keputusan

Aspect/Aspek Reason/Sebab

Large diameter/Diameter besar receives more signals /menerima lebih banyak isyarat The distance of the signal receiver from

the centre of the parabolic disc is the same as the focal length

This will produce a better reception. Distant signals which travel in parallel lines will be reflected and focused onto the signal receiver

The type of wave transmitted should be microwave

has high frequency/high energy/ short wavelength, so is easily reflected

The height of the parabolic disc from

the ground should be high The signal is not blocked/easy to be detected

K is chosen. Because the diameter of the parabolic disc is large, the distance of the signal receiver from the centre is the same as the focal length, it transmits microwave, and has a high position

(14)

RADIOACTIVITY

Konsep Fizik

1 Nuklid

A : Nombor Nukleon Z : Nombor atom X: Element / unsur

4 Separuh hayat ialah masa yang diambil oleh keaktifan bahan radioaktif untuk berkurang menjadi separuh daripada aktiviti asal.

2 Keradioaktifan ialah proses reputan nukleus yang tidak stabil melalui pengeluaran sinaran radioaktif secara spontan dan rawak untuk membentuk nukleus baru yang lebih stabil

5 Radioisotop adalah merupakan nukleus yang kurang stabil yang mereput dan mengeluarkan sinaran radioaktif seperti zarah α , zarah β atau sinar γ. 3 Jenis sinaran α β γ Sifat semula jadi nukleus Helium Satu elektron berhalaj u tinggi Gelomba ng elektrom agnet Kuasa pengio nan Tinggi Sederha na Rendah Kuasa penem busan Renda h Sederha na Tinggi

6 Pembelahan nukleas merupakan pembelahan nukleus berjisim besar kepada dua atau lebih nukleus yang lebih ringan dan disertai pembebasan tenaga.

7 Pelakuran nukleus ialah cantuman dua nukleus yang lebih ringan untuk membentuk nukleus yang lebih berat dan disertai dengan pembebasan tenaga.

Mengkonsepsi Question 1

Bahagian Jawapan Catatan

(a) Radioactive substances are substances that have unstable nucleus

and always emit radioactive radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles or gamma rays in order to become stable.

(b) (i) Positive charge

(ii) Diagram 1.2 > diagram 1.1 (iii) Diagram 1.2 > diagram 1.1

(c) (i) The higher the voltage of EHT , the higher the strength of the electric field

(ii) the higher the strength of the electric field, the greater the depletion

(d) (i) Gamma radiation

(ii) Gamma does not has any charge

Question 2

Bahagian Jawapan Catatan

(a) Curve graph/exponential/ shape 2.1 same as 2.2

Time taken for activity to become half shorter in diagram 2.2 (b) P= 5 hours

(15)

Menyelesaikan Masalah (Kualitatif)

Soalan Jawapan Catatan

(i) The equipment is set up

Two radioactive sources P and Q that releases beta- radiation is kept on the left side of the bottle.

P is on top of standard volume and the ray is detected by R. Q is below the standard volume and the ray is detected by S (ii) Radioactive substance used

Use material that releases beta-radiation because it is easy to handle. The penetration rate is medium and safe.

Use material with longer half-life because can last longer. Use GM-tube to detect the beta-radiation

(iii) how the system works.

If R could detect high radiation means the volume at the bottle is lower and if R detects low radiation means the volume is higher than the standard volume.

If S could detect low radiation means the volume at the tin is higher and if R detects high radiation means the volume is lower than the standard volume.

For a standard volume the R must detect high radiation and Q must detect low radiation.

Membuat Keputusan

Characteristics Reason Note

State of matter - Liquid Easy to absorb by the root of plant Half life of radioisotope -Short

half life

Does not stay long in the plant // less harmful // decay quickly

Type of radiation - Beta Ray Medium penetrating power Type of detector - GM tube

detector Can detect ray effectively // portable

Y - Because it is in liquid state , has short half life, emits beta ray and can be detected easily detected by GM tube detector.

(16)

SET III

ELECTRICITY

Konsep Fizik

1. Electric field is a region around a charged object which any other charged body experience a force.

Medan Elektrik adalah kawasan sekeliling

objek bercas di mana jasad bercas yang lain mengalami daya.

2. Potential Difference, V between two points in a circuit is defined as the amount of work done when a unit of charge passes from one point to the other point

Beza Keupayaan , V di antara dua titik

dalam satu litar ditakrifkan sebagai jumlah

kerja yang dilakukan apabila seunit charge melalui dari satu titik ke titik yang lain.

3. Ohm’s Law states that the current that passes through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied accross it if the

temperature and other physical conditions are constant.

Hukum Ohm menyatakan bahawa arus

yang mengalir melalui konduktor ohm adalah berkadar terus dengan beza

keupayaan merentasinya jika suhu dan kuntiti fizik yang lain adalah malar.

4. Resistance, R of a conductor is the ratio of the potential difference, V to the current, I.

Rintangan, R satu konduktor ialah

nisbah beza keupayaan, V dengan arus, I.

5. Electromotive Force (e.m.f) is defined as the work done by the source to move a coulomb of charge around a complete circuit.

Daya Gerak Elektrik (d.g.e)

ditakrifkan sebagai kerja yang dilakukan oleh sumber untuk menggerakkan satu coulomb charge dalam satu litar lengkap.

6. Internal resistance ,r is the resistance within a cell due to its electrolyte and electrodes or source of electricity.

Rintangan Dalam, r adalah rintangan

dalam satu sel disebabkan elektrolit dan elektrod atau sumber elektrik.

Mengkonsepsi Question 1

5(a) Resistance is a material's opposition to the flow of electric current (b)(i) Wire in diagram 5.2 thicker than wire in diagram 5.1

(ii) The voltmeter reading in diagram 5.2 is lower than voltmeter reading in diagram 5.1

(iii) The thicker the wire the lower the potential difference (c) Temperature/length of wire (d) R = 𝑉 𝐼 = 2 0.5 = 4Ω (e)

(17)

Question 2

1. In Diagram 10.1(a), the dry cells connected in parallel, while in Diagram 10.1(b), the dry cells connected in series

2. The voltage supplied in Figure 10.1(a) is smaller 3. The ammeter reading in Figure 10.2(a) is smaller

4. The greater the voltage supplied, the greater the energy transferred to flow the electric charges around the circuit// directly proportional

5. The greater the current flowing around the circuit, the faster that the energy is transferred

Menyelesai Masalah (Kualitatif)

Membuat Keputusan

Choice Reason

Thin diameter High resistance

Coil wire Increase length / resistance

Parallel arrangement If one panel not function, others still function High melting point Withstand high temperature

The choice is G, because thin diameter, coil wire, parallel arrangement and high melting point. Suggestion / Modification Explanation / Reason

Number of dry cell: more higher voltage

Arrangement of dry cells: series higher e.m.f. for dry cells in series

Energy converter: LED / / less waste of energy / not easily burn out / / not getting hot easily / low cost Number of energy converter : more More energy can be converted to gain more brightness of bulb parallel

If one of the device burnt, the rest of the device still bright / all the device share the same e.m.f. / all the devices same brightness / the devices not dimmer

(18)

ELECTROMAGNETISM

Konsep Fizik

1. An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced in a conductor when current flow.

Elektromagnet adalah alat yang boleh

menghasilkan kemagnetan di dalam konduktor apabila arus mengalir.

2. An electromagnet acts as a temporary magnet.

Elektromagnet bertindak seperti magnet

sementara

3. A magnetic field is a region in which a

ferromagnetic material experiences a force.

Medan magnet ialah satu kawasan

dimana bahan ferromagnetic mengalami daya.

4. The direction of a magnetic field is from north pole to south pole.

Arah medan magnet ialah dari kutub

utara ke kutub selatan.

5. The direction of magnetic field produced by a current carrying conductor can be determined using Maxwell’s cork screw rule (right hand grip rule).

Arah medan magnet yang dihasilkan oleh dawai konduktor yang membawa arus boleh ditentukan dengan menggunakan

petua skru gabus Maxwell (petua genggaman tangan kanan).

6. The polarity of the magnetic field around a solenoid carrying current can be determined by using right hand grip rule.

Kekutuban medan magnet mengelilingi solenoid yang membawa arus boleh ditentukan dengan menggunakan petua

genggaman tangan kanan.

7. The direction of the resultant force of a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field can be determined using Fleming’s Left hand rule.

Arah daya paduan yang dihasilkan oleh konduktor yang membawa arus dalam medan magnet boleh ditentukan dengan menggunakan petua tangan kiri Fleming.

8. Catapult field is the resultant magnetic field produced when the magnetic field

surrounding a current carrying conductor combines with the magnetic field of permanent magnet.

Medan lastik adalah medan paduan

yang terjadi apabila medan magnet yang dihasilkan oleh konduktor yang membawa arus bergabung dengan medan magnet yang dihasilkan oleh magnet kekal.

9. Electromagnetic induction occurs when a conductor experience a change of magnetic flux or when the conductor cuts the magnetic flux. When this happen current or emf is induced in the conductor .

Aruhan electromagnet berlaku apabila konduktor mengalami perubahan fluks magnet atau apabila konduktor memotong medan magnet. Apabila ia berlaku

arus .atau dge diaruhkan dalam

konduktor.

10. Faraday‟s law states that “ The magnitude of the induced current or induced e.m.f. is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux .”

Hukum Faraday menyatakan

bahawa “Magnitud arus aruhan atau d.g.e aruhan adalah berkadar terus dengan kadar perubahan fluks magnet.”

11. Lenz‟s law states that” The direction of an induced current always flow in a direction so as to oppose the change which is causing it.”

Hukum Lenz menyatakan bahawa “Arah arus aruhan sentiasa mengalir pada arah yang menentang perubahan yang menghasilkannya.”

12. We can determine the direction of induced current produced in dynamo by using Fleming’s right hand rule.

Kita boleh menentukan arah arus aruhan yang dihasilkan oleh dynamo dengan menggunakan petua tangan

(19)

Mengkonsepsi Question 1

(a) (i) Diagram A: towards the solenoid and Diagram B away from the solenoid.

(ii) Direction of current on the solenoid upwards for diagram A and downwards for diagram B. (iii) P : South pole and Q: North pole

(b) (i) When the south pole moves into the solenoid the polarity of the solenoid is South and when the south pole moves away from the solenoid the polarity of solenoid is North.

(ii) Lenz’ law Question 2

Menyelesai Masalah (Kualitatif)

Aspects Suggestion Reason

the type of material used : Copper Good conductor and low resistance the diameter of wire Bigger diameter To reduce resistance

the type of material of the core Soft iron core Easy magnetised and demagnetised

characteristics of the core laminated Prevent eddy’s current the distance between primary coil

and secondary coil

Wound the

secondary coil on top the primary coil

To prevent leakage of magnetic flux Membuat Keputusan

Choice Reason

Np:Ns = 200:20 000 is the lowest to step-up voltage / output voltage increases soft iron core easily magnetized and demagnetized Thinner laminated iron core to reduce the magnitude of eddy’s current ‘O’shape to reduce the leakage of magnetic flux Choice : T,

Justification: Np:Ns = 200:20 000 is the lowest, soft iron core, thinner iron core and ‘O’shape

(i)

1. Strength of both magnets are the same 2. The number of turns: diagram b > diagram a 3. The size of deflection: diagram b > diagram a (ii)

4. When the number of turns increases the size of deflection increases

5. When the number of turns increases the rate of change of magnetic flux increases. 6. When the rate of change of magnetic flux increases the magnitude of current increases.

(20)

SET IV :

Scientific Competencies (Kemahiran Mengeksperimen)

Kelemahan Umum Jawapan Pelajar dalam Peperiksaan SPM:

Kompetensi Kelemahan Umum Pelajar Saranan Untuk Guru

Membuat pengukuran

a. Gagal membaca alat pengukuran dengan betul

b. Tidak mencatat unit bagi setiap pengukuran

c. Bacaan /data yang salah

1. Kemahiran membaca alat pengukur yang sering digunakan di makmal.

2. Penggunaan tempat perpuluhan dan unit yang betul. 3. Kejituan setiap alat pengukur yang ada di dalam

makmal. Mengenalpasti

Pemboleh ubah

a. Tidak menyatakan pembolehubah dengan betul

b. Memberi jawapan yang bukan kuantiti fizik

Bantu pelajar mengkaji situasi soalan dengan teliti untuk menentukan pembolehubah

Penjadualan data

a. Tidak menjadualkan semua kuantiti fizik yang disenaraikan

b. Tidak mencatat unit pada jadual data. c. Menjadualkan data yang salah

1. Ketelitian membaca arahan menjadualkan data dengan teliti.

2. Setiap turus data dilabel dengan kuantiti fizik dan unitnya.

3. Tempat perpuluhan data yang konsisten. Memindahkan

data daripada jadual kepada graf

a. Menggunakan data yang salah untuk memplot graf

b. Paksi tidak dilabel dengan unit

c. Bilangan titik-titik diplot tidak mencukupi d. Graf yang bukan garisan terbaik e. Melukis graf yangtergantung

1. Pemilihan skala yang sesuai (mempertimbangkan nilai maksimum sebelum menentukan skala pada graf) 2. Pindah dan plot titik-titik dengan tepat

3. Melukis garisan terbaik. Menganalisis /

menterjjemah data dan membuat kesimpulan.

Tidak dapat memberikan hubungan antara pembolehubah secara lebih terperinci.

1. Mengenal pasti sama ada garisan melalui pusat kordinat atau tidak

2. Memastikan hubungan yang dinyatakan

sepadan dengan pembolehubah yang digunakan. 3. Latihan dengan merujuk kepada pelbagai bentuk graf.

Graph

Conclusion

directly proportional

a is

to b

a

increases linearly

with b

a

decreases linearly

with b

Graph

(21)

1. Science Process Skill (Paper 3, Section A)

Contoh: Soalan 1 Kertas 3 Percubaan SPM SBP 2011

No Answer Mark

1(a)(i) mass 1

(ii) Volume of air, V 1

(iii) Mass of air//temperature 1

(b) Tabulate m, V and 1/V correctly in the table A Shows a table m, V and 1/V

B State the correct unit of m, V and 1/V C 3 values of V are correct

D All values of V are correct

E All calculations values of 1/V are correct F State V consistent to 1 d.p.

G State 1/V consistent 2 or 3 d.p

Mass, m/kg Volume of air, V/cm3 1/V / cm-3 0.5 9.0 0.111 1.0 4.8 0.210 1.5 3.3 0.303 2.0 2.5 0.400 2.5 2.0 0.500 7

(c) Draw the graph of 1/V against m A – Label y-axis and x-axis correctly B – State the unit at the axis correctly

C – Both axes with the even and uniform scale D – 5 points correctly plotted

E – a smooth best straight line

F – minimum size of the graph is 5 x 4 squares of 2 x 2 cm No of ticks Score 6 5 5 4 3-4 3 2 2 1 1 5

(d) State the correct relationship based on the candidate’s graph

1/V is directly proportional to m // 1/V is increasing linearly to m 1 TOTAL MARK 16

(22)

Question 2: Soalan 2 Kertas 3, SPM 2008

(a) (i) a is directly proportional to h. (ii) a = 1.49 ms-2 (iii) m = 1.49 – 0 0.3- 0 = 4.97 s-2 (b) m = g = 4.97 l g = 4.97 x l = 4.97 x 2 = 9.94 ms-2 (c) a = g x h l = 9.94 x 0.10 15 = 0.066 ms-2

(d) Ensure the trolley moves down the inclined plane in a straight path without knocking the sides of the inclined plane.

(23)

3. Science Process Skill – Planning Experiment (Paper 3, Section B)

Contoh: Soalan 4, Kertas 3, Peperiksaan……….

a. Inference

Distance between two consecutive antinodal lines depends on the distance between two vibrating sources.

Jarak antara dua garis antinod yang berturutan bergantung kepada jarak antara dua sumber yang bergetar.

b. Hypothesis

The distance between two consecutive antinodal lines increases as the distance between two vibrating sources decreases.

Jarak antara dua garis antinodal berturutan bertambah apabila jarak antara dua sumber yang bergetar berkurang.

c. i. Aim

To investigate the relationship between the distance between two consecutive antinodal lines and the distance between two vibrating sources.

Untuk menyiasat hubungan antara jarak antara duci garis antinodal yang berturutan dengan jarak antara dua sumber yang bergetar.

ii. Variables

Manipulated variable/ Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan: Distance between two vibrating sources, a

Jarak antara dua sumber yang bergetar, a

Responding variable:

Pembolehubah bergerak balas:

Distance between two antinodal lines, x

Jarak antara dua garis antinod yan berturutan, x Constant variable:

Pembolehubah dimalarkan:

Distance between sources and the position where x is measured Jarak antara sumber dan kedudukkan dimana x diukur

iii. Apparatus

Power supply, ripple tank with two spherical dippers, stroboscope and metre rule

(24)

iv. Apparatus Setup

v. Procedure

1 Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram 2 Switch on the power supply

3 Start the experiment with the distance of two vibrating sources, a = 2.0 cm 4 Use the stroboscope to freeze the image of wave motion

5 Measure the distance between two antinodal lines, using the metre rule

6 Repeat steps 2 to 5 with a = 4.0 cm, 6.0 cm, 8.0 cm and 10.0 cm with a constant Distance between sources and the position where x is measured

vi. Data tabulation

Distance between two vibrating sources Jarak antara dua sumber yang bergetar a/cm

Distance between two antinodal lines Jarak antara garis antinod yang berturutan x/cm 2.0

4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 vii. Analyze data

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...

Related subjects :