A STUDY ON ENGLISH TEACHERS’ LESSON PLAN
DEVELOPMENT IN INTERNATIONAL CLASS AT SMP
MUHAMMADIYAH 5 SURABAYA
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd) in teaching English
ENGLISH TEACHER EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING
SUNAN AMPEL STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
Ainiyah, Kurrotul (2015). A Study on English Teachers’ Lesson Plan Development in International Class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. A Thesis. English Teacher Education Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University, Surabaya. First advisor: Dra. Hj. Arba’iyah YS., MA. Second advisor: Ana Nurul Laila, S.Pd, M. TESOL
Key Words: teachers’ ability, lesson plan
Lesson plan is an important component in teaching and learning process. It plays a crucial role in managing the class and the activities in the class. Moreover, the readiness of teachers in class can be understood from their lesson plan development. It is regarded as the teachers’ professionalism and responsibility to develop the lesson plan based on the students’ characteristic, students’ need and the situation of the school. Thus, the lesson plan of the teachers need to be analyzed regarding with its importance in teaching and learning process.
This study was conducted in an International class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya to know the ability of the teachers in developing lesson plan using a combination between Cambridge curriculum and 2013 curriculum. Furthermore, the difficulties and the solutions during the process were also analyzed.
This study used qualitative approach. The sources of data were gathered from the teachers of SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. The lesson plan documents and an in-depth interview were conducted to collect the data about the development of lesson plan and the difficulties during the process of developing lesson plan. The researcher used documentation study and an in-depth interview as the techniques to gain the data.
Ainiyah, Kurrotul (2015). Kajian Pengembangan Rencana Perangkat Pembelajaran di Kelas Internasional di SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. Skripsi.Prodi Pendidikan Guru Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Guru, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel, Surabaya. Penasihat pertama: Dra.Hj.Arba’iyah YS., MA.Penasihat kedua: Ana Nurul Laila, S.Pd, M. TESOL
Kata Kunci: kemampuan guru, Rencana Perangkat Pembelajaran
RPP merupakan komponen penting dalam proses belajar mengajar.Hal ini dikarenakan dalam mengelola kelas dan kegiatan di kelas, diperlukan sebuah rencana.Selain itu, kesiapan guru dalam kelas dapat dipahami dari pengembangan rencana pelajaran mereka.Hal ini dianggap sebagai sebuah profesionalisme guru dan tanggung jawab mereka untuk mengembangkan rencana pembelajaran berdasarkan karakteristik siswa, kebutuhan siswa dan situasi sekolah.Dengan demikian, rencana pelajaran dari guru perlu dianalisis mengenai dengan pentingnya dalam proses belajar mengajar.
Penelitian ini dilakukan di kelas Internasional di SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya untuk mengetahui kemampuan guru dalam mengembangkan rencana pembelajaran dengan menggunakan kombinasi antara Cambridge kurikulum dan kurikulum 2013.Selain itu, peneliti juga menganalisa kesulitan dan solusi selama proses.
Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif.Sumber data yang dikumpulkan bersumber dari para guru dari SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya.Dokumen rencana pelajaran dan wawancara mendalam dilakukan untuk mengumpulkan data tentang perkembangan rencana pembelajaran dan kesulitan selama proses pengembangan rencana pelajaran.Peneliti menggunakan studi dokumentasi dan wawancara mendalam sebagai teknik untuk mendapatkan data.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE SHEET ... i
ADVISOR APPROVAL SHEET ... ii
APPROVAL SHEET ... iii
MOTTO ... iv
DEDICATION SHEET ...v
ABSTRACT ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... vii
PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN TULISAN. ... ix
LIST OF CONTENTS ...x
LIST OF TABLES ... xiv
LIST OF FIGURES ...xv
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xvi
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study ...1
B. Statement of Research Problems ...5
C. Objective of Study ...6
D. Significance of Study ...6
E. Scope and Limit ...7
CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Review of Related Literature. ...9
1. Teaching and Learning. ...9
2. The Role of Teacher ...11
a. As Controller ...11
b. As prompter ...12
c. As Participant ...12
d. As Resource ...12
e. As Tutor ...12
3. The Role of Learner. ...14
4. The Role of Material ...15
5. English Teaching Document Based on 2013 Curriculum and International Cambridge Curriculum...16
a. English Teaching Document Based on 2013 Curriculum ...16
b. English Teaching Document Based on International Curriculum ...18
6. The Definition of Lesson Plan ...19
7. The Importance of Lesson Plan ...21
8. Lesson Plan Guide ...24
9. Difficulties in Developing Lesson Plan ...26
B. Review of Previous Study. ...27
CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Research Design ...31
C. Data and Source of Data ...33
C. Research Procedure ...34
D. Data Collection Techniques and Instruments ...36
E. Data Analysis ...40
CHAPTER IV : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS A. Research Findings ...42
1. The Development of English Teachers’ Lesson Plan in International Class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya ...42
a. The Teachers’ Perspective of Lesson Plan ...43
b. The Lesson Plan’s Components Developed by English Teachers ...43
c. The Teachers’ Strategy and Process in Developing Lesson Plan ...68
d. Teachers’ way in Combining Cambridge Curriculum Component and 2013 Curriculum Component ...69
2. The Teachers’ Difficulties and The Solution in Developing Lesson Plan in International Class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya ...70
B. Research Discussion ...72
1. The Development of English Teachers’ Lesson Plan in International Class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya ...72
b. The Lesson Plan’s Components Developed by English Teachers ...72 c. The Teachers’ Strategy and Process in Developing
Lesson Plan ...80 d. Teachers’ way in Combining Cambridge Curriculum
Component and 2013 Curriculum Component ...80 2. The Teachers’ Difficulties and The Solution in Developing Lesson Plan in International Class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya ...81
CHAPTER IV : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion ...82 B. Suggestion ...84
LIST OF TABLES
4.4 KD and Indicators for Seventh Grade ... 46
4.5 KD and Indicators for Eighth Grade ... 47
4.10 Source Materials... 53
4.11 Learning Media ... 54
4.12 Teaching and Learning Model ... 55
4.14 Teaching and Learning Procedure of Eighth Grade Teacher ... 58
4.21 Scoring Rubric of Seventh Grade Teacher... 63
4.25 Teachers’ Difficulties in Developing Lesson Plan... 71
LIST OF FIGURES
4.1 Lesson Plan Identity Teacher A ... 44
4.2 Lesson Plan Identity Teacher B ... 45
4.3 KI for Seventh and Eighth Grade ... 46
4.6 Instructional Objectives of Seventh Grade Teacher ... 48
4.7 Instructional Objectives of Eighth Grade Teacher ... 49
4.8 Instructional Materials of Seventh Grade Teacher... 51
4.9 Instructional Materials of Eighth Grade Teacher ... 52
4.13 Teaching and Learning Procedure of Seventh Grade Teacher... 57
4.15 Assessment Technique of Seventh Grade Teacher ... 60
4.16 Self Assessment Rubric for Seventh Grade Students (Attitude) ... 61
4.17 Self Assessment Rubric for Seventh Grade Students (Knowledge) ... 61
4.18 Self Assessment Rubric for Seventh Grade Students (Performance) ... 62
4.19 Listening Exercise for Seventh Grade Students ... 62
4.20 Performance Task for Seventh Grade Students ... 63
4.22 Teacher B’s Assessment Technique and Rubric of Attitude of Eighth Grade ... 65
4.23 Teacher B’s Assessment Technique and Rubric of Attitude of Eighth Grade ... 66
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix A Interview Guide
This chapter provides the background explaining the reasons why the researcher
intends to conduct the study. Then, the problems are formulated along with the
objectives of the study. The significance of the study is presented in the next part to
inform how the results of the study will be useful for educational terms. Some limits
about what are included in this study are explained in the scope and limitation of the
study. The definition of key terms to distinguish the key words from this study is
described at the end of this part.
A. Background of The Study
Generally, most schools apply a particular curriculum to make the teaching
and learning process better. The choice was based on the student’s characteristic
and the context of the school. It needs a set of syllabus, lesson plan, semester
program, annual program, detail of effective weeks and hours, and the media of
teaching. They must be prepared before the teaching and learning process.
One of the most important things of all is preparing the lesson plan. Many
educators believe that lesson plan is a critical element of effective instruction.1
1Duncan, G., & Met., M, “
Startalk:from Paper to Practice,” (College park, MD: National Foreign
So, at least before the new semester comes along, lesson plans, as well as other
teaching materials must be provided.
The 2013 curriculum has provided the component needed for the teacher
with an expectation that this curriculum will make better learning process.
Regarding with this situation, the teacher as manager of the class should be able
to understand how to organize the teaching and learning process. According to
Subarman a teacher at least must have three basic competences. They are
competence of understanding subject or instructional materials, planning a
teaching and learning program, and applying the teaching and learning program.2
This study takes lesson plan as the object of the research. It is because
lesson plan is the starting point of teaching process. All activities in the teaching
process go from the lesson plan. Therefore, the ability of managing, preparing,
organizing, and making joyful teaching and learning be written in a lesson plan is
essential. A good teaching will get a good achievement especially for the
Lesson plans consist both the teacher own ideas about what will be
appropriate for the students and what the syllabus are working towards the
objectives.3 It means that the lesson plan does not only based on syllabus
designer’s understanding but also the teacher’s perceptions of the students’ need.
Enggus Subarman, Kemampuan Dasar Guru dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar, (Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 1992), 30
Thus the teacher should have skill and ability in preparing the learning process
because teachers are one of the most important aspects after the existence of the
students and materials.
However, there are some problems related with this newest curriculum.
One of the problems is that the lesson plan sometimes might not be compatible
with the characteristic of the students in the class. In addition, the school’s
facilities, and the readiness of the teacher in understanding the curriculum and to
apply it in the teaching and learning process are also important in applying 2013
curriculum. Consequently, the teacher should prepare and develop the lesson
plan based on the student’s characteristic and the context of the school. Sugandi
stated that taking an educational decision involves how to interact with the
learners, the use of an appropriate approach, the organization of the material, the
school’s facilities and everything which relates to teaching and learning process.4
Regarding with this theory, the teacher should have the ability to design and
develop the lesson plan well.
On the other hand, Marsigit stated in his study that some teachers have
difficulties to develop syllabus and lesson plan. And yet they are inactive to join
the programs related to the socialization of lesson plan which is held by the
Abdul Hamidran, Thesis, “Analisis Kemampuan Guru Biologi dalam Penyusunan RPP Berdasarkan
school institution or government.5 In addition, similar result of the study
conducted by Supardi shown that the teachers use lesson plan as only the
requirement of the school administration. They prefer using handbook than their
own lesson plan.6 It happens because the ability of the teachers in designing
Ginanjar described that the lesson plan made by the teachers is not detail enough
and not applied in actual teaching and learning process.10 From those results of
the study, it can be concluded that the teachers in Indonesia has low ability in
developing lesson plan. Nevertheless, developing lesson plan is regarded as
priority because it can run well in the class if it is suitable with the students’
characteristic and preferences. 5
As cited in Abdul Hamidran, Thesis, “Analisis Kemampuan Guru Biologi dalam Penyusunan RPP
Berdasarkan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan Di SMA Se Kecamatan Medan Johor,” (Medan: UPT. Perpustakaan UNIMED, 2012), 2
As cited in Abdul Hamidran. “Analisis Kemampuan… 2 7
As cited in Siti Hajar, Thesis, “Analisis Kemampuan Guru Kimia Dalam Menyusun RPP Berdasarkan
Kurikulum 2013 Di SMAN Se Kabupaten Deliserdang,” (Medan: UPT. Perpustakaan UNIMED, 2012), 4
As cited in Siti Hajar. “Analisis Kemampuan… 5 9
As cited in Abdul Hamidran. “Analisis Kemampuan… 2 10
As international school, SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya has the need to
be dynamic. One of the keys to professionalism of the teacher is a good
preparation before lesson.11 In this case, the professionalism ability of the teacher
includes the ability of designing lesson plan and managing the lesson as stated by
Gegne. This theory is a good reason of why the teacher in this school needs to be
observed. The researcher proposed doing a study in this school because this
school is one of best schools in Surabaya especially at junior high school level.
The researcher wants to know how the teacher prepares the lesson before the
teaching and learning process especially in developing lesson plan.
In conclusion, the researcher conducts the study entitled “A Study on An
English Teacher’s Ability in Developing Lesson Plan in International Class at
SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya” to know the preparation, development and
management of the English lesson plans by teacher.
B. Statement of The Research Problem
This study will answer these following questions.
1. How do the teachers develop the lesson plan in the international class at SMP
Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya?
2. What are the difficulties faced by the teacher in developing lesson plan in the
international class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya?
As cited in Nurkaisah Tanjung, Unpublished Thesis, “Hubungan Kemampuan Merancang Pembelajaran dan Sikap Terhadap Profesi Guru dengan Kemampuan Mengajar Guru-Guru Bidang
C. Objective of The Study
The objectives of this study are:
1. To know how the teachers develop lesson plan in international class at SMP
Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya.
2. To know the difficulties faced by the teacher in developing lesson plan in
international class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya
D. Significance of The Study
1. For teachers
After conducting this study, it is expected that the teachers know and
understand that developing lesson plan is important in order to reach the goal
of the teaching and learning process. Moreover, this study will also describe
briefly about lesson plan and how to use it in the class. Hopefully, it can be
used as a future reference on how to make lesson plans for better English
2. For the researcher
It is important for the writer as the future English teacher to be able to
make a good lesson plan based on some references related with this study
because it is regarded as prior instrument of teaching and learning process.
After conducting this study, the researcher will know how to develop and use
the lesson plan more effectively. In addition, another researcher can use this
E. Scope and Limit of The Study
There are many requirements to design and develop lesson plan. This study
focuses on the lesson plan developed by the English teacher in international class
in SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. The lesson plans to be analyzed is based on
one chapter from the book. The chapter is from one chapter because the teachers
and the school use the revision book from the government. Consequently, the
teachers develop from the beginning. In this study, there are two teachers will as
the source and the developer of the lesson plans.
F. Definition of The Key Terms
Regarding with this study, the researcher explain more about these key
words to help the reader understand easily. They are:
1. Teacher ability
An ability may refer to:12
a. Aptitude, a component of a competency to do a certain kind of work at a
b. Intelligence, logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness,
communication, learning, having emotional knowledge, retaining,
planning, and problem solving
c. Knowledge, a familiarity with someone or something, which can include
facts, information, descriptions, or skills
d. Skill, the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results
In this study, the ability of the teacher is based on the third definition which
shows the awareness of something, understanding and skill related to teaching
and learning process. So the study is focused on the knowledge of the teacher in
knowing facts, information, descriptions, or skills.
2. Lesson plan
Lesson plan in Asfaw’s research was defined as a daily preparation of the
teachers related to the instructional materials to be used in the class during the
teaching and learning process.13 Lesson planning is also showing the readiness of
a teacher to present an effective and valid lesson.14 Planning effectively help
learners reach their goals and objectives. Lesson planning communicates to
learners what they learn and their goals, and helps the teachers organize content
of the lesson, instructional materials, time, instructional approaches, and
assistance in the classroom.15
In conclusion, lesson plan is a guidance of the teacher in preparing an
effective daily plan to communicate with the students by organizing content,
materials, time, instructional strategies and assistance in the classroom.
13Abebe Asfaw, Unpublished Thesis, “
An Analysis of Lesson Plans: The Case of English Teaching in Kafa Zone, (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 2002), 1
Enggus Subarman, Kemampuan Dasar Guru dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar, 30 15TEAL Center Staff, “
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter reviews the theory related to the topic of the research. It is about
teaching and learning. To be more specific, this review of related literature discuss
the essential of education, teaching and learning and its component, the role of
teacher, learner and media, the teaching document, the lesson plan, its definition and
importance, and also lesson plan guide. This chapter also presents several similar
studies taken before. The analysis conducted in this study relies on some theories
discussed in this chapter.
A. Review of Related Literature
1. Teaching and Learning
Based on Oxford dictionary1, teaching is “imparting knowledge or to
instruct (someone) how to do something”. In his book, Brown defines
teaching as “guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn,
setting the condition for learning.”2 Teaching also shows and helps someone
to learn how to do something, gives instructions, guides in the study of
something, provides knowledge, causes to know or understand.3 In other
H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language … 7 3
words, teaching is one of the ways to help and guide someone to have more
understanding about something using some particular instructions and
Based on Schivener, teaching is managing a well-organized
performance in which one has:4
A stage on which to perform… a show to present… an audience watching your every move… a character to step into… when you’re on the stage. “being” the teacher, you’re not playing yourself.
It can be concluded that teaching is one activity which needs many
preparations before doing it.
In addition, a similar definition of teaching according to Banks is “an
active process in which one person shares information with others to provide
them with the information to make behavioral changes.”5 By knowing these
definitions, it can be known that teaching assist someone to make his/her
behavior better by providing information to be considered.
According to Haynes, teaching includes three activities.6 The first step
consists of activities before teaching a class which relates to planning and
preparation. The second activities in the classroom include classroom
management, teaching, and learning. The last activities take place after the
Jim Schivener, Classroom Management Techniques, (New York: Cambridge university press, 2012), 37
Teresa Banks. Teaching-Learning Process: Assess, Plan, Implement, Evaluate, and Document. (North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, 2000), 1
lesson assessment, with linked activities and task. It can be inferred that by
conducting those three steps, it will help the planner to make a better teaching.
Based on Kimble and Garmezy, “learning is a relatively permanent
change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice.”7 This
is because according to Banks, teaching and learning is “a planned
interaction” which can cause behavioral change that is not a result of
maturation or concurrence.8 It can be inferred that teaching and learning
process is inseparable activity to create behavioral changes by practicing,
studying, understanding and providing knowledge and information.
2. The Role of Teacher
The important role of teacher is to help the learners to learn. Teachers
have to follow the curriculum and provide, make, or choose materials which
can be adapted, combined, and mixed those materials and also monitor the
progress and students’ need and finally evaluate them.9 Based on Harmer, in
the class, the teacher has five important roles.10
a. As controller
They have responsibility to control the class and the activity. They are
usually in front of the class to lead the students.
As cited in H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language… 7 8
Teressa Banks, Teaching-Learning Process…1 9
Kenji Kitao, Selecting and Developing Teaching/Learning Materials, The internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No.4, 1997 accessed on http://iteslj.org/Articles/Kitao-Materials.html on Sunday August 10, 2014 10
b. As prompter
They are involved in role-play activity. In this role, the teachers are
intense to encourage the students to think productively because they will
not directly give the truthful answers, but they suggest some alternative
choices which relate to the answer.
c. As participant
They stand back from the activity and let the learners concern with the
activity and only get involved later to provide feedback and/or correct
mistakes. Sometimes the teachers act not only just as an instructor but
also as a member of the activity.
d. As resource
They are as the source of some information that the learners want to know
when they need that information in the middle of activity.
e. As tutor
They are combining the roles of prompter and resource. It means that the
teachers both take position in the activities among the students and as the
source of any information.
According to the nature tasks of the teacher, Saikh and Khoja have
similar descriptions about the roles of teacher in personal learning
environment (PLE).11 They are explained below:
Zaffar ahmed shaikh and shakeel ahmed khoja, Role of Teacher in Personal Learning Environment.
1) The planning and design aspect.
It is related with how to organize students’ PLEs, design learning
activities, create learning areas, manage instructional decisions, and solve
programming difficulties. The teachers should plan and prepare course
design, promote teamwork in design process, define procedures of
instructional design, conduct students’ needs assessment, present content
and questions, in-line existing courses with PLE requirements, creation
interactive content, ensure course design works with technology, etc.
2) Instruction and learning
It is related to informative and cognitive aspects of instruction in PLE
settings. The teachers do not only act as a tutor to guide the students,
evaluate the learning process, observe students’ performance, but also as
advisor to give some suggestion to the students, etc.
3) Communication and interaction.
It is related to the learners’ rapport with peers, other students, and the
teachers. The duties are to foster peer learning and social communication,
understand, be a tutor of collaborative learning activities, respond or
underpin student involvement, promote learning and create climate for
learning, ensure participation, stimulate and control discussion, and
4) Management and administration.
It is related with capability which allows developing and adapting
organized actions such as motivate and understand the students’ need,
respond to students’ interest quickly, and conducting communication and
5) Use of technology
It is related to practical awareness of support services, social
computing applications, open access and proprietary software, data analysis
and design skills.
3. The Role of Learner
Learners should be the center of instruction and learning.12 The
learners are as important as teachers, materials, curriculum, methods, or
evaluation because they are designed for the learners and their needs.13
According to Brooks and Brooks, the learner controls their own learning
themselves.14 Furthermore, they also explain that the learners also share their
opinion and viewpoints and demonstrate their knowledge in many ways. In
the classroom setting, Brooks and Brooks stated that the learners would ask
questions and express their interest during the activities, and the learners also
make decisions and share ideas confidently. As the result, learners can achieve
Kenji Kitao. Selecting and Developing Teaching… 13
Kenji Kitao. Selecting and Developing Teaching… 14
the outcomes of teaching and learning process through completing those
4. The Role of Material
Materials are used to facilitate learning for better result. Based on
Allwright, the materials are aimed to teach students to learn, to be resource for
ideas and activities for teaching and learning, and give teachers suggestions
for what they should do.15 Furthermore according to O’Neill, materials are
suitable for the students to review and prepare their lesson.16 He emphasizes
that the textbooks help teaching and learning.17 Also, most educators
generally agree that the creative use of variety of instructional materials will
increase the probability that student would learn more, retain better and bring
about the skills they are expected to perform.18 In conclusion, the materials
could help the learners to be more independent in understanding the lesson
and developing the skills they may execute. The materials give both teachers
and students space to be more confident during the teaching and learning
According to Cunningsworth, the role of materials especially course
books in language teaching as19:
1. A resource for presentation materials whether spoken or written.
As cited in Kenji Kitao, Selecting and Developing Teaching…
As cited in Kenji Kitao, Selecting and Developing Teaching…
As cited in Kenji Kitao, Selecting and Developing Teaching…
J. A. Adewoyin, Introduction to Educational Technology, (Lagon: John-Lad Publisher Limited, 1991), 23
2. A source of activities for learners’ practice and communicative
3. A reference for learners on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and so
4. A stimulation tool and ideas in classroom activity.
5. A syllabus which can reveal the objectives of the learning which have
6. A support for those novice teachers who has less experience in teaching
and less confident.
It can be concluded that the materials are vital elements in every almost
teaching and learning program. The materials give both teachers by providing
the basis for the content of the lesson and learners by serving the basis for
learners’ input and practices.
5. English Teaching Document Based on 2013 Curriculum and
International Cambridge Curriculum
1. English Teaching Document Based on 2013 Curriculum
As one of the purposes from the government to implement the
newest curriculum, SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya applies the 2013
curriculum. It is a well designed curriculum to prepare Indonesian
students by applying an active teaching and learning process (KBM).20 Based on education and culture minister’s regulations
(PERMENDIKBUD) paragraph 77 the curriculum is an operational
document to facilitate development, implementation and curriculum
assessment document. It consists of curriculum document of every
educational program, curriculum document of every subject, a curriculum
implementation guide, textbook, teacher’s book, and other documents.
In this latest curriculum, the government which has coordinated
with the education and culture minister has designed the instructional
documents to support the implementation of the curriculum. The
government has prepared a document of the curriculum, the syllabus, the main competence, the basic competence, the student’s book, and the
teacher’s book.21 However the teachers still have a big responsibility to
improve and develop the lesson plans from the syllabus. They should develop the lesson plans whether individually or collectively in teacher’s
subject conference (MGMP)22 because according to Gegne, a
well-prepared teacher has a good preparation before lesson to show their
professionalism.23 This means that the professionalism of the teacher in
managing and preparing the lesson can be acquainted with the readiness
of the lesson plans. Those lesson plans help the teacher to be well
prepared in teaching and learning process.
http://www.kemdikbud.go.id/kemdikbud/artikel-menyongsong-penerapan-kurikulum2013 accessed on Tuesday, September 23rd 2014
http://kemdibud.go.id/kemdikbud/berita/1005, accessed on Tuesday, September 23rd 2014 23
As cited in Nurkaisah Tanjung, Unpublished Thesis, “Hubungan Kemampuan Merancang
Pembelajaran dan Sikap Terhadap Profesi Guru dengan Kemampuan Mengajar Guru-Guru Bidang
2. English Teaching Document Based on International Curriculum
The international curriculum in this case is Cambridge curriculum.
Cambridge educational programs and qualifications are “deliberately
designed to be flexible so that they can be used by schools and school
systems in ways that best meet local needs”.24 It means that the
Cambridge curriculum could be modified and applied based on the
students’ need and characteristics.
This curriculum has provided the teaching document from the
Cambridge official management to make it easy to be applied. Those
Curriculum materials and resources to support teachers in the delivery of
subject curricula are well designed. The teaching resources which like
syllabus, schemes of work, teacher guide on planning and teaching,
textbook and publisher resources, and example candidate responses
(standard booklets) are included in Cambridge curriculum development.
In addition, the exam preparation materials included past question papers,
examiner reports, grades threshold, and mark schemes are also required.25
This means that the teachers and the school do not have any responsibility
in designing the curriculum and the teaching documents because the
Cambridge curriculum affairs have provided the teaching document
http://Education.cambridge.org./as/whats-new/Cambridge-news/2013/03/implementing-the-curriculum-with-cambridge, accessed on Tuesday, September 23rd 2014
included lesson plan. However the school still has rights to modify and
combine this curriculum with another curriculum especially 2013
curriculum with the students need and school’s characteristic although
most of teaching documents are well designed.
6. The Definition of Lesson Plan
Psychologically, according to Lorin, planning in teaching and learning is
a process of the teachers to visualize and design an outline to guide their
proceedings in the future.26 Meanwhile, planning, according to Scrivener, is
“imagining the lesson before it happens which includes prediction,
anticipation, sequencing, organizing, and simplifying.”27 Planning helps most
teachers to predict what they will perform by using a guide.
In teaching and learning program, the teachers need a guideline of
teaching procedures called lesson plan. As stated by Anderson, lesson plan is
a document that describes what will happen and when, during the specific
period of class.28 When the teachers make lesson plan, they try to develop the
preparation of teaching and learning process carefully.
Furthermore, Harmer stated that lesson planning is:
the art of combining a number of different elements into a coherent whole so that a lesson has an identity which students can recognize, work within, and
Lorin W. Anderson, The Effective Teacher, (Singapore: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1989), 47 27
Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching 2nd edition, (Oxford: Macmillan, 2005), 109 28
react to-whatever metaphor teachers may use to visualize and create the identity.29
From Harmer’s statement, it can be concluded that a lesson plan is such
a teacher’s ideas and creativity to provide and create a lesson in which the
students can engage to.
According to O’Bannon, a lesson plan is a teacher’s complete course’s
explanation and description of instruction for one class.30 He further explains
that details may be varied depending on the teacher’s preference, covered
subject, and students’ interest and need. This statement means that a lesson
plan is designed for guiding teacher to run the activities based on the students’
need, the subject, and the school system related with it.
Arrends also states similar definition regarding lesson plan. According
to him, daily lesson plan outlines what content to be taught, motivational
techniques to be used, specific steps and activities for students to be done, the
materials needed, and the evaluation process.31 The lesson plan should provide
those criteria in order to achieve the goals of instructional objectives of the
According to Hamm and Adams, a good lesson plan provides the
teacher with a reservoir of well-reasoned questions, activities, direction for
Jeremy Harmer, The practice of English Language teaching 3rd edition, (Essex: Longman, 2001), 308
O'Bannon, B. "What is a Lesson Plan?" Innovative Technology Center, (The University of Tennessee, 2008), Cited in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesson_plan assessed on Monday, March 17, 2014 at 4:06
exploration, and alternative assessment techniques.32 Lesson plan is like a tour
guide and provides clear instruction, related question and appropriate
technique of assessments.
In conclusion, all of those statements are basically similar. As the object
of this study, the lesson plan is as same as the statement of O’Bannon. It is a
comprehensive description of the teaching for one class. Details will vary
depending on the teacher’s preference, subject being taught, and the students’
need. A good lesson plan is outlining the teachers about the content of the
materials to be taught, the techniques to motivate learners to be used,
well-arranged procedure and activities for students to be done, the instructional
materials and the evaluation process to be utilized in the classroom.
This study will clarify the content of the lesson plans which have been
developed by the teachers of SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. The
descriptions related to the content, the techniques, the specific procedure and
activities for students, the instructional materials and the evaluation process to
be utilized during teaching and learning process.
7. The Importance of Lesson Plan
Regarding the importance of a lesson plan, although in different terms,
several scholars, had said almost the same thing. The teachers should have
excellent guide before the class begins because lesson plan is planning,
organizing and designing the content will be presenting, and preparing to
perform successfully in the classroom.33
Woodward stated some reasons why the teachers should plan courses
and lessons, including the following:34
1. Thinking things deeply before teaching helps to reduce doubt or
uncertainty feelings and motivates teachers to be more confident.
2. It can increase confidence for the students who pick up a feeling of
purpose, progression and consistency.
3. It helps teachers to comprehend what research they need to do.
4. It reminds teachers to arrange materials beforehand to make it easier and
organize them in appropriate time and activity in classes.
5. It can be shared with the students and try to congregate their thoughts and
ideas with the teachers.
6. Plans can be used in lessons to get started, and prompt memory, and help
the teachers to answer student questions.
7. Working on planning after lessons, as well as before, ensures that the
class will get a reasonable mixture of different kinds of materials, content
and interaction styles through the course.
8. Course and lesson planning help the teachers in developing a personal
style to represent the art of development of lesson plan.
Cristina Patricia Fuentes Valentino, Language teaching and learning …61 34
As stated by Hamm and Adams, “a well-designed lesson plan will take
the teachers throughout the whole journey to tell them where to stop, where to
review, what assignment, etc.”35 By having lesson plan, a teacher has taken a
giant step toward “owning” the content she/he teaches and methods used.36
Moreover, Milkova said that a lesson plan is the instructor’s map of
what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the
class time.37 As a result the students know what lesson will be learned, how to
understand it, and how to use it. This statement means that if the teachers do
not have lesson plan, they will have no idea how to manage the class, conduct
the lesson and assess the learners’ work.
Furthermore, Brown said that lesson planning is regarded as a vital
element of the teaching and learning process. He further stated that orderly
planning almost always yields better result in teaching.38 From that statement,
it can be concluded that planning lesson will get the better result of teaching
and learning process.
Amin stated that developing lesson plan brings several advantages in
pre-, whilst-, and post-teaching. They are described as follows:39
Mary Hamm and Dennis Adams, Activating Assessment …109 36
Cristina Patricia Fuentes Valentino, Language teaching and learning… 61 37
Stiliana Milkova. Strategies for effective Lesson Planning, (University of Michigan: Center for Research on Learning and teaching, 2014), retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/gsis/p2_5 on Friday, 21 March, 2014 at 6:37
G. Brown, Micro Teaching. (London: Methuen and Co. Ltd, 1975), 23 39
1. Pre-teaching: as the informer to a teachers focusing all activities which
they will do during the teaching and learning process.
2. Whilst-teaching: as a compass or guideline, especially for new teachers
with less experiences of teaching, to convey the learning activities in the
3. Post-teaching: as a reference to reflect the process and activities which
have already done. The reflection is really essential to improve the quality
and effectiveness of the next learning process.
From all of those statements regarding the importance of lesson plan,
Amin’s opinion is quite familiar among English teachers. Lesson plan is
important because it guides and reflects the teaching and learning process.
Therefore, it will keep them on the track and can be used as a reflection to
improve the quality of the next teaching process especially in international
8. Lesson Plan Guide
Though a lesson plan may contain a lot of main and specific elements,
most scholars; Hamm and Adams40, Valentino41, Haynes42, Harmer43 and
Chatel44 agree that a lesson plan should indicate the objectives to be achieved
(products of the learning), the content of the presentation, the procedure
Mary Hamm and Dennis Adams. Activating Assessment For…111 41
Cristina Patricia Fuentes Valentino, Language teaching and learning... 63 42
Anthony Haynes, The Complete Guide to Lesson Planning and Preparation, 65-66 43
Jeremy Harmer, The practice of English Language teaching 4th edition, 371-374 44
included activities and methods, the main materials and supported materials
even homework and resources that help achieve the objectives and the
According to Barosso and Pon in TEAL (Teaching Excellence in Adult
Literacy), the lesson planning has different model.45 It is called as WIPPEA
Model, an acronym that stands for Warm-up, Introduction, Presentation,
Practice, Evaluation, and Application. They are described below:
1. Warm-up assesses preceding knowledge by reviewing previous materials
relevant to the current lesson, introduce an activity that reviews
previously learned content, and also include an activity that focuses on
the topic to be taught.
2. Introduction provides a broad overview of the content and concepts to be
taught and focuses the learners’ attention on the new lesson.
3. Presentation to teach the lesson content and concepts, create an activity to
introduce the concept or skill and then introduce information through a
variety ways using visuals, realia, description, explanation, and written
text and check learners’ understanding of the new material and make
modification in lesson procedures if necessary.
4. Practice acts as models of the skills and provides opportunities for guided
5. Evaluation helps the instructor to assess each learner’s attainment of the
objective, include oral, aural, written, or applied performance assessments
and omit the word bank for more advanced students.
6. Application provides activities that facilitate learners to practice their
knowledge to their own lives.
This study analyzes the content of the lesson plans, the strategy used in
developing lesson plans, the specific procedure and activities for students, the
instructional materials and the evaluation process to be utilized during
teaching and learning process.
9. Difficulties in Developing Lesson Plan
Developing a lesson plan takes thinking and practice. There are some
problems might find when teachers and planners develop the lesson plan.
According to Gafoor and Farooque, those difficulties are specifying the
educational objectives, deciding and allotting the time, identifying and
developing proper learning aids, sequencing the lesson, and using appropriate
teaching methods.46 The similar statement also stated by Kizlik which
explained that the most common problems in developing lesson plan are
specifying the objectives, the selection of the lesson assessment, the selection
Gafoor and Umer Farooque, Ways to improve lesson planning: A Student Teacher Perspective,
of the materials and choosing the students activities.47 It can be inferred that
when develop a lesson plan, the planners and the teachers may find some
difficulties related with its components.
B. Previous Study
There are some studies related with lesson plan. The first research was
conducted by Asfaw, done in 2002 in Kafa Zone. From this study, the researcher,
Asfaw found that the attention given to the importance of lesson plan is
negligible. According to the findings of the study, the lesson plans were not
powerful enough to guide and inform the user. Therefore, the lesson plans
prepared by teachers were not dependable to guarantee successful teaching.48
The second study was conducted by Herny in 2013. It was done in
SMKN 8 Malang. He analyzed the formats of the lesson plans which were
aligned by two different curriculums. The results showed that the English
syllabus and lesson plans are influenced by the vision and missions of the school
and the curriculum used for English subject was combined the curriculum of
SMA and SMK. In addition, the formats of the syllabus and lesson plans apply
the criteria of KTSP syllabus and lesson plan using character values. The
procedures of the syllabus do not completely follow the criteria of KTSP while
Bob Kizlik. “Five Common Mistakes in Writing Lesson Plans(and How to Avoid Them)”, accessed on www.educationoasis.com/instruction/bt/five_common_mistakes.htm, on Tuesday, 27th January 2015
Abebe Asfaw, Thesis, An Analysis of Lesson Plans: The Case of English Teaching in Kafa Zone,
the procedures of lesson plans follow the criteria based on KTSP. In fact, the
developed lesson plan does not take significance roles in determining the
learning outcomes of the students and are only the documentation of school
The third study in 2012 was conducted in SMAN 3 Malang by
Nurichsania. The result of the study showed that the teacher did not implement
and develop her English syllabus and lesson plan in accordance with SBI
regulation ruled by Education and Culture Minister. Furthermore, the teacher’s
syllabus and lesson plans have not satisfied all criteria in developing syllabus and
lesson plans based on KTSP yet.50
The next study was conducted by Kodriyah in 2011 at two national junior
high schools, SMPN 1 Malang and SMPN 5 Malang. The researcher concluded
the result of this study which showed that the teachers have already developed
the competence standards and basic competence, the learning indicators, learning
objectives, time allotment, the instructional materials, the teaching and learning
methods, and the teaching and learning procedure, the assessment based on the
KTSP curriculum to comprehend the curriculum to achieve the students’
49Herny Istiqomah, Thesis, “
The Development of English Syllabus and Lesson Plans at SMK Negeri 8
Malang”, (Malang: Fakultas sastra Inggris Universitas Negeri Malang, 2013) 50Nurichsania, Nina Amalia Thesis, “
A Study on The Implementation of an English Syllabus and Lesson Plan in SMAN 3 Malang”, (Malang: Fakultas sastra Inggris Universitas Negeri Malang, 2012) 51Kodriyah, Lailatul, Thesis, “
An Analysis of Lesson Plans on Teaching Speaking at National Junior
The next study was a research dealing with designing a lesson plan which
conducted by Rini in 2013. Her study focused on student teachers of English
Education Department of The State Islamic Institute for Islamic Studies
Surabaya. She tried to explore the quality of the lesson plan which has been made
by student teachers. The result described that the ability of the pre-service
English teachers in designing lesson plans are quite good although there are some
The difference between those studies with this study is that the subject of
the study is the level of the school; senior high school and vocational high
school. Meanwhile, this study is conducted in junior high school which although
the same as the last study which is conducted by Kodriyah, her study was
focused on KTSP curriculum while this study is focused on integrated
Furthermore, the previous study by Asfaw was focused on knowing the
quality of the lesson plans designed by the teachers, and how the teachers applied
the lesson plans in conducting teaching, while this study focuses on how the
teachers develop the lesson plan using the integrated curriculum, Cambridge and
The difference between this study and Rahayu’s study is the subject of
the study. This study is conducted in junior high school while Rahayu’s study
52Rini Budi Rahayu, Thesis, “
An Analysis of Pre Service teacher ability in designing lesson plan at
was conducted in the state Islamic studies of bachelor degree. She analyzed the
quality of the lesson plan designed by the students of pre-service teachers of
English Education Department. Meanwhile this study conducts to describe how
the teacher develops the lesson plan using integrated curriculum. Moreover, this
study focuses on teachers in one of junior high school with special treatment
using integrated curriculum.
In conclusion, the lesson plans in this study focuses on the development
of its component regarding with the curriculum alignment of Cambridge and
national curriculum called 2013 curriculum. This study also concentrates to the
junior high school teachers in that special which apply this kind of curriculum.
The researcher will analyze how the teacher develop the lesson plans and to
know whether they ensue the alignment curriculum. Furthermore, the researcher
A. Research Design
This research is a descriptive research which uses qualitative approach. The
descriptive research is used to identify and classify the elements or characteristics
of the subject.1Descriptive research is to describe or to get information about the
current condition of certain objects. Therefore, it includes “describing, taking
notes, analyzing, and interpreting the existing facts”.2In addition, Arikunto states
that descriptive research is not aimed at testing a certain hypothesis, but only
describes the phenomenon, situation, and condition that happen during the
As stated by Sugiyono, Bogdan and Biklen propose several characteristics
of qualitative research as follows: 4
1. Qualitative research has the natural setting as the direct source of data and
researcher is the key instrument
2. Qualitative research is descriptive. The data collected is in the form of words
of pictures rather than number
1Association of MBAs, ”
Introduction to research and research methods,” (Bradford: University
School of Management), 3 2
Mardalis, Metode Penelitian, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 1995), 26 3
Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1996), 10 4
3. Qualitative research are concerned with process rather than simply with
outcomes or products
4. Qualitative research tends to analyze their data inductively
5. “Meaning” is essential to the qualitative approach
Therefore, this study attempted to presents the description, analysis, and
interpretation of the existence of the lesson plan which has been developed by the
teacher of international class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. The researcher
would explain the result of the study about how the teacher develops the lesson
plan. In addition, the researcher also wanted to know some difficulties faced by
the teacher in developing the lesson plan.
Regarding with the first research question, the researcher used
documentation study and interview as the techniques to explain the detail of
developing lesson plan. While the second research question was described by
interviewing the teacher of international class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5
B. Research Subject
The subject of this research is SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya because
this school is on its way to be an international school. The researcher focused on
two teachers who taught in international class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5
Surabaya. The teachers should teach in international class, and apply the newest
C. Data and Source of The Data
This study was conducted to describe lesson plan developed by the teachers
in international class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. For the purpose of the
study, some data that were collected from the subjects were:
1. The teachers’ consideration
The teachers’ considerations to develop lesson plans were needed to be
analyzed. This data were from the teachers as the main source. The additional
data might be taken from the school’s principal to clarify the urgency of
developing the lesson plans. Furthermore, some written sources found in
books, journal articles, and undergraduate thesis were to be used by the
researcher to explain the detail of those considerations.
2. The teachers’ strategy
In developing lesson plans, the teachers’ strategy was also considered as
important variable to be observed. It was taken from the English teachers as
the primary source of the data. In addition, the secondary source has taken
from weekly teachers meetings to know the strategy used by the teachers. The
researcher used semi structured interview to clarify the data about the way
how the teachers develop the lesson plan.
3. The lesson plan development components
The lesson plans had many critical components. The researcher wanted
interview and formal document were used as the primary technique to get the
data. Meanwhile the data source was from the teachers themselves.
4. The teachers difficulties
The researcher would describe the difficulties the development of
lesson plans which have been written down in formal document. The teachers
would clarify the complexity in developing lesson plans. The primary data
source was taken from the teachers.
D. Research procedure
Based on Suharsimi, research has five steps to be done. They are
preliminary study, research preparation, research action, analyzing data and
writing result of the study.5Knowing this research procedure’s theory, the
researcher implements those steps in this study. They are described as follows:
1. Preliminary Study
It is regarded as the researcher’s preparation of the study. This
preliminary research gave an opportunity for the researcher to observe directly
about anything related with the study. This preparation was done by asking
some questions dealing with the lesson plan development. In this study, the
researcher has conducted this step since Monday, March 3rd 2014. Proposing a
good title, studying some literatures, choosing the subject and instrument of
the research were included in this step. It was conducted to make research
proposal to know the possibility of the research.
2. Research Preparation
This was the continuing step after the researcher conducts the
preliminary study about lesson plans in international class at SMP
Muhammadiyah 5 Surabaya. The researcher has done this research
preparation which was started from Thursday, June 12th 2014 to Friday,
October 24th 2014 to. In this step, the researcher managed the research design,
review the instruments, prepare the study, and do trial study with the focus on
how the teachers develop the lesson plan and their difficulties.
3. Research Action
The researcher conducted the research action after the researcher has
prepared for the study. This research action was completed during
Wednesday, November 26th 2014 to Wednesday, December 10th 2014. This
step had two main points. The first, the researcher interviewed the teachers to
know the development of lesson plan and also the teachers’ difficulties during
the process. The second part was documentation study to describe how the
teachers develop lesson plans.
4. Analyzing Data
The researcher used the data from the instruments which have been
obtained from the research. Then, the researcher analyzed both of the
researcher had to present some conclusions based on related literatures and
experts. The researcher has examined the analysis which was started from
Thursday, December 11th 2014 to Friday, December 19th 2014.
5. Writing The Result of The Study
This step gave opportunity to the researcher to arrange the design of
the report, the main explanation of the result of the study, some parts of the
result’s complement and written format of the report. In this step, while
analyzing the data which have been obtained from the study, the researcher
also wrote the result of the study. The researcher started from Saturday,
December 20th 2014 to Sunday, December 28th 2014.
E. Data Collection Techniques and Instrument
Marshall and Rossman, stated that “the fundamental methods relied on by
qualitative researchers for gathering information are, participation in the setting,
direct observation, in-depth interviewing, and document review.”6 Knowing the
nature of this study, the researcher used documentation and in-depth interview. In
addition, the researcher also acted as human instrument because this study is
regarded as qualitative research.7They are described as follows:
As cited in Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif dan R&D, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2007), 225
1. Documentation Study
Sukmadinata describes documentation as “a technique to collect the
data by assembling and analyzing the documents, either written documents,
pictures, or electronic ones.”8In addition, Ary stated that documents can be
classified into four categories; public records, personal documents, physical
materials, and researcher-generated documents.9These definitions clarify that
documentation is one of collection data technique to be analyzed and
described based on either written or oral documents.
In this study, the researcher used documentation to collect the data of
well-developed lesson plan which has been done by the teacher. It was used
to answer the first research question which is focused on how teacher
develop the lesson plan. In this case, the researcher would explain how the
teacher develops the lesson plan whether individually or group.
Esterberg defines interview as “a meeting of two people to exchange
information and idea through questions and responses, resulting in
communication and joint construction of meaning about a particular topic.”10
Interview is described as the way of getting information and opinion by
Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, (Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya, 2007), 221
Donald Ary, Lucy Cheser Jacobs and Chris Sorensen,Introduction to research in education,(California: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010), 442
questioning, answering, and concluding meaning of the certain topic
between two people.
Furthermore, Stainback explained that “interviewing provide the
researcher a means to gain a deeper understanding of how to participant
interpret a situation or phenomenon than can be gained through observation
along.”11 This means that after conducting interview, it is expected that the
researcher will get more understanding about the problems of the study.
Esterberg categorized three types of interview. Those are structured
interview, semi structured interview, and unstructured interview.12
a. Structured Interview
It is used if the researcher can suppose the particular information related
to the topic of the study.
b. Semi Structured Interview
It is categorized as in-depth interview because the researcher has more
chances to ask the interviewee about the data. The researcher will get the
data deeper and more free.
c. Unstructured Interview
It is used to know the information about the data but the researcher does
not have any systematic and completed interview guides.
As cited in Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian…, 231