Kotler14_media.ppt 2291KB Aug 31 2008 09:59:00 PM

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Teks penuh

(1)

MARKETING MANAGEMENT

12th edition

14

Developing Pricing

Strategies and

Programs

(2)

14-2

Chapter Questions

• How do consumers process and evaluate prices?

• How should a company set prices initially for products or services?

• How should a company adapt prices to meet varying circumstances and opportunities?

• When should a company initiate a price change? • How should a company respond to a

(3)

14-3

Whirlpool’s Duet

combo is nearly

four times the

price of

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14-4

Synonyms for Price

• Rent • Tuition • Fee

• Fare • Rate • Toll

• Premium

• Honorarium

• Special assessment • Bribe

• Dues • Salary

• Commission • Wage

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14-5

Common Pricing Mistakes

• Determine costs and take traditional

industry margins

• Failure to revise price to capitalize on

market changes

• Setting price independently of the rest of

the marketing mix

• Failure to vary price by product item,

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14-6

Consumer Psychology and Pricing

Reference Prices

Price-quality inferences

Price endings

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14-7

Table 14.1 Possible Consumer

Reference Prices

• “Fair price” • Typical price • Last price paid

• Upper-bound price

• Lower-bound price • Competitor prices

• Expected future price • Usual discounted

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14-8

Table 14.2 Consumer

Perceptions vs. Reality for Cars

Overvalued Brands

• Land Rover • Kia

• Volkswagen • Volvo

• Mercedes

Undervalued Brands

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14-9

Price Cues

• “Left to right” pricing ($299 versus $300)

• Odd number discount perceptions

• Even number value perceptions

• Ending prices with 0 or 5

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14-10

When to Use Price Cues

• Customers purchase item infrequently

• Customers are new • Product designs vary

over time

• Prices vary seasonally • Quality or sizes vary

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14-11

Steps in Setting Price

Select the price objective

Determine demand

Estimate costs

Analyze competitor price mix

Select pricing method

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14-12

Step 1: Selecting the Pricing

Objective

• Survival

• Maximum current profit

• Maximum market share

• Maximum market skimming

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14-13

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14-14

Step 2: Determining Demand

Price Sensitivity

Estimating

Demand Curves

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14-15

(16)

14-16

Step 3: Estimating Costs

Types of Costs

Target Costing

Accumulated

(17)

14-17

Cost Terms and Production

• Fixed costs • Variable costs • Total costs

• Average cost

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14-18

(19)
(20)

14-20

Step 5: Selecting a

Pricing Method

• Markup pricing

• Target-return pricing • Perceived-value

pricing

• Value pricing

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(22)

14-22

Auction-Type Pricing

English auctions

Dutch auctions

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14-23

Step 6: Selecting the Final Price

• Impact of other

marketing activities • Company pricing

policies

• Gain-and-risk sharing pricing

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14-24

Price-Adaptation Strategies

Geographical Pricing

Discounts/Allowances

(25)

14-25

Price-Adaptation Strategies

Countertrade

• Barter

• Compensation deal • Buyback

arrangement • Offset

Discounts/ Allowances

• Cash discount

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14-26

Promotional Pricing Tactics

• Loss-leader pricing • Special-event pricing • Cash rebates

• Low-interest financing • Longer payment terms • Warranties and

service contracts • Psychological

(27)

14-27

Differentiated Pricing and

Price Discrimination

• Customer-segment pricing

• Product-form pricing • Image pricing

• Channel pricing • Location pricing • Time pricing

(28)

14-28

(29)

14-29

Increasing Prices

Delayed quotation pricing

Escalator clauses

Unbundling

(30)

14-30

(31)

14-31

Brand Leader Responses to

Competitive Price Cuts

• Maintain price

• Maintain price and add value

• Reduce price

(32)

14-32

Marketing Debate

Is the right price a fair price?

Take a position:

1. Prices should reflect the value that consumers are willing to pay.

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14-33

Marketing Discussion

As a consumer, which pricing

Figur

Figure 14.1 Price Tiers in the Ice
Figure 14 1 Price Tiers in the Ice . View in document p.13
Figure 14.2 Inelastic and Elastic Demand
Figure 14 2 Inelastic and Elastic Demand. View in document p.15
Figure 14.4 Cost per Unit as a Function of
Figure 14 4 Cost per Unit as a Function of . View in document p.18
Figure 14.6 Break-Even Chart
Figure 14 6 Break Even Chart. View in document p.21
Table 14.5  Profits Before and
Table 14 5 Profits Before and . View in document p.28
Figure 14.7 Price-Reaction Program for Meeting
Figure 14 7 Price Reaction Program for Meeting . View in document p.30

Referensi

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