• Tidak ada hasil yang ditemukan





Academic year: 2017


Menampilkan lebih banyak ( Halaman)

Teks penuh





(A Case of Study in 7


grade of MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo)


Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the degree of

Sarjana Pendidikan (S. Pd) in Teaching English


Andyna Rakhma Ilahi

NIM D05212004






Ilahi, Andyna Rakhma. 2016. The Implementation of Language Improvement

Program in Uplifting Students’ Writing Ability (A Case of Study in 7th grade of MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo). A Thesis. English Education Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Sunan Ampel State Islamic

University, Surabaya. Advisor: Dra. Hj. Arba’iyah YS., MA

Key words: Implementation, Language Improvement Program, Uplift, Writing Ability

Writing is the productive skill and also the important skill among four English skills. Most of people who study English as their foreign language feel difficult in this skill, because writers should think hard in producing words, sentences, even paragraphs at the same time. It considered difficult because the writer should be mastered in writing aspects such as content, organization, purpose, vocabulary, grammar, spelling and punctuation. In MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo, there is a compulsory extracurricular program named Language Improvement. Language improvement program aimed to

improve students’ English and Arabic ability.

This study focused on English writing activity in Language Improvement program. The aim of this study is to know the implementation of Language Improvement

program and to know whether this program improve students’ writing ability or not.

Descriptive qualitative were used as research method in this study. To know whether

this program improve students’ writing ability or not, the researcher used the student’

writing mark from the test before and after joining the program. The subject of study is 31 students from seventh grade students of MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo. Observation checklist was used to know the implementation of this program and

students’ writing score to know the improvement between pre-test and post-test, it used writing rubric assessment by Brown.

After analyzing the data, the researcher found that this program can support the






MOTTO ... iv










A. Background of Study ...1

B. Statement of Problem ...6

C. Objectives of Study ...6

D. Significance of Study ...6

E. Scope and Limitation of Study ...7

F. Definition of Key Terms ...8


A. The Previous Study...10

B. Theoretical Review ...15

1. Writing ...15


b. Types of Writing Taught in Junior High School ...19

c. Process of Writing ...21

d. Students’ Difficulties in Writing ...23

e. The Way to Improve Students’ Writing Skill ...25

2. Descriptive Writing ...28

a. Definition of Descriptive Text ...28

b. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text ...29

3. Teaching Writing ...30


A. Research Findings ...47

1. The Implementation of Language Improvement Program ...47

2. Language Improvement Program Uplifts Students’ Writing Ability ...52

B. Discussion...58


A. Conclusion ...61

B. Suggestion ...62





This chapter discusses about the background of study, statement of problem,

objectives of study, the significance of study, scope and limitation of study, and the

definition of key terms.

A. Background of Study

Human is social being which cannot live alone without any help from

others, they need other people and social environment for their socialization

tool, and they use them as a media interaction. In order to make a good

socialization easily, they should able to communicate in a good way. The

communication tool here called “language”.

Based on Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, language is a system of

communication in speech and writing used by people of a particular country.1

According Susan Dostert, language can be used to refer to a variety of

concepts or things. It means that language is the way people expressing their

thought. According to Charles W. Kreidler, language is a system of symbols

through which people communicate.2 The symbols may be spoken, written, or

signed with the hand. In short, language is form of words which used by

people in a country area or social group. They used language to communicate

1Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary fourth edition (2008), 247



each other in sharing ideas, feeling and information both in written and

spoken form.

There are many languages in this world; one of them is English

language. English language becomes prime language in the world. And most

of citizen use English language as second language to communicate with other

people from other country. Mastering in English language can make us easy

to communicate with people from different country. Not only that, mastering

in English language can help us to continue our study or find a job overseas.

So, learning English language is very important in this era. But, some of

non-English citizen like Indonesia feels difficult in learning non-English language,

especially in four English basic skills, such as listening, reading, speaking and

writing, since they do not use English language as their daily language. In

addition, English is used extensively by people who do not use it when

speaking or writing to their compatriots.3 It means that, for non-English

citizen, English language will be difficult because they are not use English as

their daily language.

One of the important English basic skills is writing and it is the one of

the productive skill besides speaking skill, it is also the final step in learning

English language. Most of people who study English as their foreign language

feel difficult in this skill, because writers should think hard in producing

words, sentences, even paragraphs at the same time. Jack C. Richard and



Willy A. Renandya argued that writing is the most difficult skill for second

language learners to master. The difficulty lies not only in generating and

organizing ideas, but also in translating these ideas into readable text.4 They

think that mastering writing is not easy; finding the ideas to be written in

readable text is difficult. Finding the information that the readers need and

make them interested in our writing is also difficult thing in writing.

The explanation above showed why learning English language is

important for our life and mastering in English language is not easy for Asian

country like Indonesia. So, Indonesia government chooses English as the first

foreign language to be taught at the formal school.5 Schools have an important

role with the students’ knowledge. In Indonesia, English language already

taught in school from kindergarten by drilling some vocabularies, until senior

high school by understanding its structure and context. Teachers also do their

best in delivering their knowledge to the students in order to uplift their

learning, especially in English language which is important subject. But some

students still have difficult in understanding this language and they cannot

apply this language in real world.

By those problems, most of schools make their efforts to uplift

students’ English language skill. Some schools choose to use English

language as daily language in speaking or explaining, some of them were


Jack C. Richard - Willy A. Renandya, Metodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of current Practice (New York, Cambridge University Press:2002), 303



adding more time in English subject and some others make an extracurricular

program out of students’ daily schedule which focused on English language.

And for MTs Bilingual Pucang, since they are bilingual school, they

choose to use English and Arabic language for daily speaking and explaining

lesson and also they have an extracurricular program for uplift students’

English language ability. Based on Faye Arco, the counselor who started

SKATERS program said that "Participation in extracurricular and school club

activities increases resiliency in youth by promoting protective factors and

reducing risk factors”.6 It means by Extracurricular can make teenager enjoy

their youth by good activity and reduce bad factors. Extracurricular activities

may uplift students’ abilities outside the class, such as sports, English club,

scout, etc. Extracurricular activities can be defined as learners’ activities that

fall outside the normal curriculum of educational institution7. It means that

extracurricular is the additional program to uplift students’ knowledge about

prime subject in normal curriculum of education.

MTs Bilingual Pucang has an extracurricular program named

Language Improvement which has many activities that can uplift students’

ability in English language, especially in 4 Basic English skills. Between

those four skills, most of students find many difficulties in their writing

6 Iowa College Students Aid Commission, The Importance of Extracurricular Activities for Teens. (https://goo.gl/TjluYg, 2009, Accessed on January 7, 2016)



activities. But many practices make perfect, by understanding and practicing

much, we can make it easier. Some students argued that by joining this

program, they start to enjoy writing activity.

The seventh grade is the fresh students which come from different

school and also different ability, especially in English language skill. Many

students must come from state elementary school which is not focus on

language and they have different comprehension and skill level towards

English language. They will face the difficulties with English language. And

in this MTs Bilingual Pucang, they should speak and understand the lesson by

bilingual; English and Arabic. Therefore, this school has an extracurricular to

uplift students’ language skill. And hoped this program will uplift students’

comprehension about English language.

Based on background above, the writer conducted a research for

seventh grade students. To know whether the implementation of language

improvement program can uplift the students’ writing ability or not and also

the implementation of language improvement program in uplifting students’

writing ability, the writer puts the research under the title “The

Implementation of Language Improvement Program to Uplift Students’


B. Statement of Problem

Based on background above, the research problems that will be observed in

this study are:

1. How is the implementation of language improvement program to uplift

students’ writing ability?

2. Does language improvement program uplift students’ writing ability?

C. Objectives of Study

Based on the problem study above, the objective of this study are:

1. To know the implementation of language improvement program in

uplifting students’ writing ability.

2. To know whether the language improvement program uplift students’

writing ability or not.

D. Significance of Study

The writer hopes this study will have good benefits to all who were a part of

education institution.

1. For teacher

The writer hopes this study may give information to teachers that there are

many activities and techniques which can uplift students’ English

language skill easily. And also this research may motivate teachers to find

more innovation about teaching and learning activities to uplift students’


2. For students

Extracurricular activities make students’ were not bored in learning

process. The result of this study expected to motivate students to practice

more in writing through language improvement program especially in

writing activities.

3. For readers

This research was expected to be able to uplift the knowledge and

information about uplifting English skills. And this research may be used

as reference for further research about teaching English, especially


E. Scope and Limitation of Study

The scope and limitation in this research is the writing activity in Language

Improvement program. And the respondent of this research is seventh grade

students of MTs Bilingual Pucang at the first semester 2015/2016 academic

year. There are three classes of seventh grade; those are 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3. This

study focuses on the writing activities which held in language improvement


F. Definition of Key Terms

1. Implementation

Implementation is the act of accomplishing some aim or executing some

order.8 The writer wants to know the execution of language improvement

program in MTs Bilingual Pucang.

2. Language Improvement Program

Language improvement program is the compulsory extracurricular in MTs

Bilingual Pucang which already included in daily learning schedule and

has an hour meeting on Monday until Thursday. Language Improvement

program held to help students’ in mastering English and Arabic language.

3. Uplifting

Uplifting is an acting to raise moral, spiritual cultural, level, etc.9 Level is

the appropriate thing that should be raised in this research, because in this

research focused on uplift or raise students’ writing ability.

4. Writing Ability

Writing is the act or process of producing and recording words in a form

that can be read and understood.10 Ability is a skill, talent or capacity.11

This research focuses on writing skill which has many its conventions to

start. Every student has their own level ability, but in this research, the


http://www.thefreedictionary.com/implementation (Accessed on March 10th 2016) 9

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/uplifting (Accessed on July 20th 2016) 10

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/writing (Accessed on March 10th 2016) 11


ability focused on one of four skills in English language, and it is writing




This chapter presents about some previous study and theoretical review. In the

theoretical review, the researcher discusses some theories which are relevant with the


A. The Previous Study

There are some researches that held by some researchers related to

this research. Here are the previous study which being references of this

study and related to extracurricular activities and writing.

The first is a research from Yuli Christiana Yoedo entitled

“Improving Young Learners’ Communication Skills through English

Extracurricular Activities”.1

In her research, she conducted research to

find the improvement of young learners’ speaking skill through English

extracurricular activities. Her research focused on the printed materials to

be used and the activities to be done during the process. She offers

materials, among others, brochures, recipes, folk tales, story books,

comics, letters, posters, song lyric, games, children books, anecdotes and

magazines. She suggested her research is for fifth grade students of


Yuli C. Y, Improving Young Learners’ Communication Skills through English Extracurricular Activities. Petra Christian University


elementary school. And the result of this research is the English

extracurricular activities are not only uplifts the students’ speaking skill

but also their reading.

Her research and this research have similarity in using English

extracurricular activities to uplift such skills. The different between hers

and this research is her research just focused on the communication or

speaking improvement but this research focused on writing skill. And

also the object of her research is for fifth grade of elementary school

while this is for junior high school students.

The second, written by Nasim Googol and Mahnaz Armat on their

research under the title “The Effect of Academic vs Non Academic

Extra-Curricular Activities on Creative Writing: The Study of Iranian EFL


was designed to address the important issue of the effect of

extracurricular activities on intermediate EFL learners’ creative writing in

Iran. The result revealed that dealing with homework writing as an

academic extracurricular activity in addition to application of writing

strategies highly affected creative writing of EFL learners; whilst

participation in sports as an academic extracurricular activity did not have

a plausible effect on creative writing.



The similarity between theirs and this research is in finding the

students’ writing ability through extracurricular activities. But there is

also the differences between them, first is in the method of research

which is focused in finding the effect and this is just focus on the

implementation. And the second is the previous research was comparing

the effect of joining academic and non academic extracurricular activities

in their creative writing.

The third is “Developing Writing and Speaking Skills through

Interactive Workshop”.3 Interactive workshop here can be called as

extracurricular activities which are out of curricular or class activities.

This project involves a weekly series of extra-curricular interactive

workshop primarily for first year undergraduates at an English university.

This research was conducted to find whether the activities in that

workshop can develop the students’ writing and speaking skills or not.

And the result of their study was attending extracurricular skill-based

workshop especially writing and speaking skills can help students’ to

uplift their performance, engagement, and attainment across background

and disciplines.

Their research has similarity with this research which using

extracurricular activities for improving students’ writing skill. But the



difference is they focused on writing and oral skill (WOS) and this

research only focused on writing skill.

The fourthentitled “A Study on English Club as an Extracurricular

Program at SMPN 1 Malang”4, written by Diska Fatima Virgiyanti from

State University of Malang. The subjects of this study were the 7th and 8th

graders who joined English Club and one instructor. This study examined

the non compulsory extracurricular, which every student can choose them

by themselves. The aim of English Club was to help and support the

students in their regular class. However, the result of the observation

showed that the activities of English Club did not support the activities of

regular class.

Her study examined the non compulsory extracurricular named

English Club while my study will examine the compulsory extracurricular

which included in daily schedule. Also her study focused on the

implementation of English Club in students’ speaking whereas my study

will focus in students’ writing.

The fifth written by Naela Khikmiah from Semarang State

University entitled “The Impact of English Club towards Students’

Speaking Skill”.5 This study used casual-comparative study which finding


Diska Fatima Virgiyanti, A Study on English Club as an Extracurricular Program at SMPN 1 Malang (State University of Malang, 2013)



the impact by comparing two groups. The subjects of this study were the

students of eleventh grade of Senior High School in Pekalongan which

divided into group; fifteen of them joined E-Club and fifteen other did not

join were chosen as sample. The result of speaking test conducted to both

groups shows significant difference with t-test 2,3; higher than the critical

value 2,0. Students of E-Club achieved 78% in pronunciation, 65% in

structure, 62% in vocabulary and 78% in comprehension. Meanwhile,

students of non-E-Club achieved 55% in pronunciation, 52% in structure,

45% in vocabulary and 60% in comprehension. It was concluded that

E-Club has many advantages which can improve and develop students’

speaking skill.

There is the different between her research and this research; she

focused on improving speaking skill through extracurricular named

E-Club while this research focused on writing skill. And the similarity, she

conducted the research for extracurricular activity named E-Club.

The sixth, written by Nunung Tri Hastuti from Malang University

entitled “The Teaching of Speaking Skills as an Extracurricular Activity

at SMK Negeri 1 Singosari”.6 The findings of her study were revealed the

activities, materials, teaching techniques, media, and also implementation

of extracurricular.



There is the similarity between her study and this; it is in the

implementation of extracurricular for such English language skill. But,

her study was connected extracurricular with teaching speaking whether

this study was connected extracurricular with uplifting writing ability.

B. Theoretical Review

1. Writing

a. The Nature of Writing

There are four basic skills should be mastered in learning

English language, they are listening, speaking, reading and

writing. Writing is the productive skill and also the most difficult

skill among those four skills. It considered a difficult skill

because the writer should fulfill some aspects in writing such as

content, organization, purpose, vocabulary, punctuation, and

spelling in balance way. As Jack C. Richard and Willy A.

Renandya opinion that writing is the most difficult skill for

second language learners to master. The difficulty lies not only

in generating and organizing ideas, but also in translating these

ideas into readable text.7



According to A.S. Hornby8, writing is the activity

occupation of writing for example books, stories or articles.

Writing is speaking to others on paper or on computer screen.9 It

means by writing is the way represent speaking through words

and media. Writing is functional communication; making

learners possible to create imagine worlds of their own design10.

It means that writing is a media for expressing the writers’ ideas,

feeling, thought, experience, message, etc. According to

Harmer11, writing is a form of communication to deliver or to

give some information that reader need.

York: Pearson Education, Inc, 2005), 2


Richard Kern, Literacy and Language Teaching (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 172 11


In making good writing, there are some procedures in

writing activity which can make the writing can be

understandable by readers easily. We must follow those

procedures to make our writing understandable by using

grammatical rules, using good punctuation, choosing appropriate

vocabularies, considering the content, coherent and cohesion.

Some linguists, Celce and Murcia, stated that writing is the

production of the written word that results in a text but the text

must be read and comprehended in order for communication to

take place.12 To achieve communication goal between writer and

reader, the written text should be understandable by reader.

According to Heaton13, there are four important skills that

should be noticed in writing activity. They are:

1) Grammatical Skill

Grammatical skill is the ability to write correctly based on

the good grammatical.

2) Stylistic Skill

Stylistic skill is the ability to use the language effectively,

such as in finding the appropriate vocabulary.


M. Celce - Murcia Elite Olstain, Discourse and Context in Language Teaching (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 142



3) Mechanical Skill

Mechanical skill is the ability to import a conversation or

ideas into written form using the appropriate punctuation

and spelling.

4) Judgment Skill

Judgment skill is the ability to select, organize information

and write them for particular purpose appropriately.

Besides four important skills in writing activity, based on

Jacobs et al14, there are also five components in writing, they are:


Content refers to the substance of text or main idea of the

text. It can be identified by seeing the topic sentence.

Sometimes topic sentence placed in the first sentence which

expressing the main idea and reflect the paragraph.

2) Organization

Organization refers to the organization of content. It related

to the ideas that already translated into sentences and

identified by the ideas that expressed smoothly within




3) Grammar

Grammar refers to the use of good grammatical forms. It

identified by the well-formed sentences.

4) Vocabulary

Vocabulary refers to the vocabulary selection that suitable

for expressing something. It can be identified by seeing the

diction in order to convey ideas to the reader.

5) Mechanic

Mechanic refers to the use of graphic conventional. It is

identified by seeing the spelling, punctuation mark and

capitalization in paragraph.

b. Types of Writing Taught in Junior High School

Based on the standard competencies and basic competencies that

already set by government, there are some writing types that

should be taught in Junior High School, they are: procedure,

descriptive, recount and narrative. Those writing types described

as follow:

1. Procedure15

Procedure is a text that tells the reader or listener how to do

something. It aimed to explain the instruction for to do



something, doing something or going somewhere. The

recipes, instruction manuals and direction are the examples

of procedure text.

2. Descriptive

Descriptive is the text which describe about something like

people, building, cities, place, etc. The purpose of

descriptive text is to convey to the reader what something

look like. It attempts to gain picture with words.16

3. Recount

Recount is the text which retells past events, usually telling

them in order which they happened.17

4. Narrative18

Narrative writing conveys an experience, either real or

imaginary and uses time as its deep structure. The purpose

of narrative writing is to entertain, instruct, inform or

entertain. The genres of narrative writing are the

autobiography, the memoir, and fictional stories.


Elizabet Cowan, Writing Brief Editing, (Texas: Scott, foresman and company), 148 17

Mark Anderson - Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 3, ……….., 48 18


c. Process of Writing

According to Meyers, writing is an action, a process of

discovering and organizing our ideas, putting them on paper,

reshaping and revising them.19 It means that we have to think

about what we are going to say then translate them into written

text. After finish writing, re-read what we have written and make

changes and corrections.

Writing process can be defined as the writers’ process in

expressing their ideas by writing on paper or other area.

According to Wohl20, there are 3 writing processes; finding the

topic sentence, developing paragraph from topic sentence and

editing the product.

1) Finding the Topic Sentence

First step that the writer should do is finding the topic. The

topic sentence usually taken from such things around us

such as: an experience, daily life or other.


Alan Meyers, Gateways to Academic Writing: Effective Sentences, Paragraph, and Essays, (New York: Pearson Education, Inc, 2005), 2



2) Developing Paragraph from Topic Sentence

After finding the topic sentence, next is developing

paragraph. To make writers easy in developing paragraph,

here are the steps based on Wohl21:

a) Choose a general topic which you interested in

Choosing the interested topic helps writer find many

ideas to describe and translate them into writing

b) Narrow down the topic

After choosing topic, the students will find specific

thing which refers to the topic they chose before

c) Write down the few facts

By finding the specific thing, there are many ideas or

facts which related to the topic. And writer should write

down what they find in a sentence

d) Take a second look at your tentative topic sentence

After writing down facts and ideas, looking again at

those ideas and facts and try to elaborate them into

some sentence

e) Reread what you have written

Reread what you have written and edit them if you find

any difficult ideas to be understand



3) Editing the Product

This is the final step in writing process. Editing is the

checking of one’s written work for various faults in making

last-minutes changes and correction22. The grammatical

errors should be noticed in this stage, because grammatical

errors will be affected to the meaning and the ideas will not

be delivered.

d. Student’s Difficulties in Writing

For Indonesian students, learning English language is not

easy, moreover writing skill. They face some difficulties in

writing, such as finding ideas to start writing, translating ideas

into sentences, generating ideas, organizing ideas, etc.

According to Nurgiantoro23, there are some problems

which are faced by students in writing. They are:

1) Organizing ideas

This is the basic problem that many students faced in

writing. They should find the interest topic to make them

easy to find ideas and organize them


M. Wohl, Techniques for writing: Composition. 2nd ed ……….., 14 23


2) Lack of Vocabulary

grammatical will be influence the meaning of writing text.

Based on Dana Adas and Ayda Bakir,24 there are causes of

2) English language learners have limited vocabulary.


clarified that students could not give voice to

their thoughts because of the lack vocabulary.

3) English language learners do not use invented spelling and

their written texts are restricted to words which they know.


Dana Anas - Ayda Bakir, “Writing Difficulties and New Solutions: Blended Learning as an Approach to Improve Writing Abilities”. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. vol. 3 no. 9, 2013


F. Al-Khasawneh, “Writing for Academic Purposes: Problem faced by Arab postgraduate students of the college of business”. UUM ESL World, Issue 2 (28) vol.9, 2010

26G. Rabab’ah, “


4) The present tense is the only tense used in their writing.

5) The students’ writing is difficult to understand because of

the ill-structured sentences in composition.

6) Students are unwilling to share their work with other

students and they do not get the suitable feedback.

7) When the learners read their writing aloud, they could not

distinguish whether what they read or write is right or


e. The Way to Improve Students’ Writing Skill

Based on Bloomsbury International27, an English language

school in Central London, explained 10 ways to improve English

writing skills, they are:

1) Write in English everyday

This is the most important way to improve writing skills in

English. The writer should start by thinking of a theme. The

writer may be start writing a diary related to something

happens to them.



2) Ask someone to check your writing

Sometimes, the writers do not realize the mistakes they

made. So in this point, the writer recommended to ask

someone to check the writing. It is better to check the

writing to the person who has better English ability than

writer, such a tutor or teacher.

3) Improve your vocabulary

The way to improve the vocabulary is by reading as much as

possible. Reading may give the new words and common

English idioms. Improving vocabulary can make the writer

easy to express their idea through writing.

4) Use a dictionary

Besides reading, using dictionary while writing is the great

way to improve vocabulary. But sometimes translating

words through dictionary will affect its meaning, so

checking the writing to the teacher also important.

5) Check your writing carefully

After have written something in English, the writer should

read them again to make sure that the spelling, grammar and


6) Write about different topics

Writing the same thing every day could become very bored

for the writer. It could be better to find the different

interesting topics. It will help to widen the writer’s


7) Do your homework

English teacher probably gives writing homework to check

the students’ understanding and ability. It is really important

to do them and the teacher could give some advice toward

students’ writing.

8) Write to your friends

In this globalization era, most of people use social media as

media to communicate with the people around the world.

This is the great opportunity to practice writing by chatting,

sending emails, writing text messages, etc.

9) Write a blog

Blog is the media to express or sharing something through

online social media. It does not matter if no one reads it. It is


10)Don’t be afraid to make mistakes!

Last but not least, it is genuine to have some mistakes in

writing. However, the more the writers write and get their

writing corrected, the fewer mistakes they will make.

2. Descriptive writing

a. Definition of Descriptive Text

Descriptive text is a part of factual genres. Its social function is

to describe a particular person, place or thing.28 Descriptive

writing is the clear description of people, place, objects, or

events using appropriate details. The purpose of descriptive

writing is to convey the reader what something looks like. The

writer of descriptive text invites us to imagine people, place or

object we might not know much about.

According to Oshima and Hogue, descriptive writing appeals to

the senses, so it tells how something looks, feels, smells, tastes,

and/or sounds.29 It means the writer let the readers imagine the

object, place or person in the writer’s mind.

As Barbara Fine Clouse said, “Description adds an important

dimension to our lives because it moves our emotion and


Artono Wardiman, et. al. English in Focus: for grade VII Junior High School (SMP/MTs), (Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan, DEPDIKNAS, 2008), 122



expands our experience”.30

It means that writing descriptive

involves our emotions and expands our experience by imagining

them and expresses them through writing.

b. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text

Students should be mastered the generic structure before they

 It may consist of one paragraph. This

part is used to give sufficient



description about the object as

mentioned in identification part.

 The description of object can be done

according to size, length, strength,

condition, qualities, shape, etc.

While the grammatical features of descriptive text are:

 Using attributive and identifying process

 Using adjectives and classifiers in nominal group

 Using simple present tense

3. Teaching Writing

One of the important objectives in teaching English language is

to improve students’ ability to communicate in oral and written

language.31 Therefore, writing always included in English language

teaching syllabus. Harmer said that writing has always been used as a

means of reinforcing language that has been taught.32 It means that

writing is the complement in English language learning.

Like other skills, writing needs work and practice to be

improved. It is a skill that anyone can learn, but mastering in this


Badan Peneliti, Standar Kompetensi Bahasa Inggris SMP/MTs, (Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2004), 7



skill would take time and patience. In the other hand, it requires to be

mastered in grammar, punctuation, word choice and organization.

According to Charles and Jill Hardfield, writing is indeed

difficult for several reasons; firstly the writer has to decide what

information reader needs and how to express it. Secondly, there is

linguistics difficulty, because writing requires good grammar and

word choice. Thirdly, there is cognitive difficulty; students have to

organize thought on paper for unknown reader.33

Based on reasons above, some students faced difficulties and

give up in writing. Very few students can use English language

skillfully. So it is very necessary for teacher to give guidance on

students’ writing and also important for students to practice writing


There are some ways to improve students’ writing ability in the

class or outside the class. By making fun activities related to writing

skill will help students’ enjoying learning activity, especially in

writing skill.

There are some aspects that important to support teaching

writing activity in the class, such as media, assessment technique, and

class management.



a. Media

Media play many roles in transferring materials to the students

and support to create an effective learning process. According to

Christine, media is called the educational medium when the

medium transfers message for the purpose of teaching.34

There are three kinds of media that can be used in teaching

writing, such as visual which included pictures and photo, audio

which included tape recorder, radio, etc, and audiovisual which

included movie and video.

b. Assessment technique

Based on Hughes, there are three parts to state the testing

problem, in general form for writing:

 We have to set writing task that are properly representative

of the population of task that we expect students’ to be able

to perform

 The task should elicit valid samples of writing

 It is essential that the samples of writing can and will be

scored validly and reliably



c. Class management

Based on Jim, classroom management is the way that you

manage students’ learning by organizing and controlling what

happens in your classroom.35 There are many important points in

class management such as the classroom layouts or seating

White and Arndt37 argued that writing process is an interrelated

set of stages which include drafting, structuring, reviewing,

focusing, generating ideas and evaluation.

But getting students to concentrate on the process of writing is

takes time and cannot be done in fifteen minutes. By various

stages like discussion, research, language study and a


Jim Scrivener, Classroom Management Technique (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 1 36

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching (Pearson Education Limited, 2001), 257



considerable of interaction between students-teacher and

between students will be more optimal.

b. Writing and genre

A genre approach is especially appropriate for students of

English for Specific Purposes. Students who writing in certain

genre need to consider some factors. They need to have

knowledge of the topic, the conventions and the style of genre,

and the context.

c. Creative writing

The term „creative writing’ suggest imaginative task such as

writing poetry, stories, and plays. Creative writing is a journey of

self discovery, and self-discovery promotes effective

learning.38We need to build up students’ creative writing step by

step, starting with phrases and sentences.

d. Writing as a cooperative activity

Cooperative writing works well with both process and

genre-based approaches. In genre-genre-based writing, it could be better two

peoples analyze genre-specific text than one people.

e. Using computer

Most of school has computers as school facilitation. There are

many good reasons for using them for writing for instance:



 Word-processing package removes the problem of poor

handwriting that some students had.

 Word-processing package allows the users to edit their

material at great speed and great facility.

 Spellcheckers can ease the task of achieving spelling


 Computer screen might be more visible to the group

working than piece of paper.

f. The roles of the teacher

There are some important teacher’s role in teaching writing, they


 As motivator

The principal role of teacher will be to motivate the students,

creating the right conditions for generating ideas, persuading

them of the usefulness activity, and encourage them to make

as much effort as possible

 As resource

We should be ready to supply some information and

language where necessary. Writing activity take longer than

conversation, for instance discussing with individual


 As feedback provider

Giving feedback on writing tasks demands special care.

Teachers should respond positively and encouragingly to the

content that students have written.

4. Language Improvement Program

It has proved that extracurricular activities are necessary as

regular classes for development of skills.39 Furthermore,

extracurricular activities may help students to achieve their curricular

goals, because regular class has their time limit for teaching and

learning process, so extracurricular activities are the way for

balancing the students’ skills.

MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo also has extracurricular

activities for students’ development. There are 2 kinds of English

language Extracurricular; compulsory and non-compulsory. The

compulsory one named Language Improvement or L.I. which has 5

hours meeting in a week and the non-compulsory held on Saturday

which every student can choose the subject they interested in.

Language Improvement program or we can shorten it as L.I is

a language program in MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo to uplift

students’ language, not only in English language but also in Arabic



language since that school using those two language in their teaching.

But in this research, the researcher focused on the compulsory

extracurricular, Language Improvement program.

In Language Improvement program, there are the different

method between seventh grade, eighth grade and ninth grade. For

seventh grade, language improvement program focused on English

language whereas eighth and ninth grade focused on English and

Arabic language.

There are many activities in this program that can uplift

students’ language skill, such as conversation, drama, speech and

daily writing, the description of activities is explained below:

1) Speech

Speech is the important activity to improve speaking skill. In this

program, speech held in the morning after pray dhuha. And the

speaker take turns in order based on grade. They were delivering

interested topic in English and in seven minutes.

2) Drama

Drama is the common activity in language extracurricular to

improve students’ speaking ability. In this activity, students


3) Discussion

Discussion is the activity to improve speaking ability. In this

activity, teacher gives an interesting topic or hot topic and asks

students to discuss it in group. After discussing and finding some

ideas or solutions they were asked to present the result of

discussion in front of the class.

4) Make a conversation

This activity also focuses on improving speaking skill. Students

asked to do this activity in pair and make short conversation

based on assigned topic. And they were asked to practice with

their partner.

5) Daily writing

This activity asked students to write descriptive text based on

topic as they can. They were required to bring and use

dictionary, dictionary book or e-dictionary (alfa-link). For

checking their writing, some of students asked to read their

writing in front of the class and other checking it.

This program involves one grade in big scale which provokes

them to have some communication such as discussion, presentation,

etc. Commonly, language extracurricular aimed to improve students’


In this research, the researcher wants to know the

implementation and also the students’ writing improvement from this




This chapter presents information about how this research was conducted. It

includes the explanations about research design, subject of study, source of data, data

collection technique, instruments of the study, and data analysis technique.

A. Research Design

This study used qualitative as the method of research. Sugiyono1,

explained that qualitative method is the research method based on

positive ideology, used to research on natural object, where the researcher

is the prime instrument, the data collection technique done purposively,

collection technique by triangulation, inductive or qualitative data

analysis, and the result of qualitative research more generalize.

Sukmadinata2 said that qualitative research is a research that used to

describe and analyze phenomenon, event, social activity, attitude, belief,

perception, and people individually or group.

Sukmadinata3 said that descriptive research aimed defining some

situation or phenomenon naturally. Descriptive research aimed to


Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan Kuantitatif, kualitatif,dan R&D (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2010), 15


Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, (Bandung: Rosdakarya, 2009), 53-60 3

Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, ………, 18


measure toward certain social phenomenon, such as divorce, nutrient

condition, prevention toward current politics, etc4.

Based on the explanation above, we can conclude that this study used

qualitative research. And considering the goal of this study which find the

implementation of program, this study included into descriptive since that

statement guide writer to explore or observe a situation comprehensively5.

To know the implementation and the improvement joining this

program, the researcher examined the activities in this program which is

focused on writing activity for seventh grade students. The researcher

wants to prove that extracurricular also can improve writing ability.

B. Subject of Study

This study took place in MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo. The subject

focused on seventh grade students, the fresh students which has their own

level in English ability. The seventh grade is the only one grade which

attended the language improvement program that focused on English

language while the eighth and ninth grade added Arabic language to their

teaching and learning.

The seventh grade students were divided into three classes 7.1, 7.2,

and 7.3. The writer chose the students of 7.2 as recommendation from


Singarimbun, Masri - Sofian Effendi, Metode Penelitian Survai (Jakarta: PT Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia, 1989), 4



homeroom teacher. The researcher examined them without knowing their

English ability. There were 31 students in 7.2. This class consisted of 13

male students and 18 female students.

C. Source of Data

The sources of data are important because they take a role in a

research. The sources of data in this study are described as follow:

a. Teacher

Teacher took a role in this research, because to know the

implementation of this program, the researcher observed the teaching

activity in this program which involves teacher and students. The

researcher also interviewed teacher to strengthen the data.

b. Seventh grade students

As the subject of study, seventh grade students were the source of

data to know whether this program improve writing ability or not by

using their daily writing. The researcher also interviewed some

students to know the students’ respond toward this program also to

strengthen the data.


The documentation contained of the students’ mark from their first

writing before and after joining Language Improvement program

which already assessed by teacher using writing rubric. From those

marks, we can know the students’ improvement in writing.

D. Data Collection Technique

In this research, the writer got the data from students’ writing mark,

observation and interview.

1. Observation

Nawawi and Martini6 said that observation is monitoring and

recording data which appears in research object systematically.

Marshall and Rossman defined observation as "the systematic

description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting

chosen for study".7

In this technique, the researcher used non-participant observation

because, the researcher just observe the activities in program without

participating in learning activity.

2. Students’ writing mark


Nawawi Hadari - Martini Hadari, Instrumen Penelitian Bidang Sosial. (Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1992), 74



The researcher asked the documentation contained of students’

writing mark before and after joining the program in a month. The

result of students’ writing assessed using writing rubric.

3. Interview

Interview is the process of obtaining information for research

purposes by asking questions then getting the answer and the

procedure by making face to face conversation.8

In this research, interview used to strengthen the data. And the

researcher interviewed some students and teachers.

E. Instruments of the Study

In this research, the researcher used some instruments to gain the data.

The instruments were the writing rubric assessment and interview guide.

1. Observation Checklist

Observation checklist contains a list of subjects’ name and aspects

that are observed. Checklist is used to systematize the transcript of


In this study, the researcher observed the teaching and learning

activity related to writing in this program.

2. Writing Rubric Assessment


Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, (Bandung: Rosdakarya, 2009), 194 9


This writing rubric assessment used to assess students’ writing. The

researcher adapted writing rubric from Brown10 which assessed five

aspects in writing such as content, organization, grammar,

vocabulary and mechanic.

3. Interview Guide

In this stage, the researcher interviewed some teachers and students

based on interview guide. Interview guide contained of the questions

related to this program, such as teaching technique, students’ mark,

students’ responds toward this program, etc.

F. Data Analysis Technique

This research used qualitative to gain the data from the source. And the

data were taken from the document contained students’ grade, the result

of observation and also the result of interview from some teachers and


And in this section, the researcher did some step in analyzing data:

Firstly, the researcher observed the activities of language

improvement program which focused on seventh grade and also the

writing activity. And the observation based on observation checklist.



Secondly, the researcher asked the documentation of students’ writing

mark which assessed using writing rubric; writing mark before and after

joining the program around a month.

Thirdly, the researcher made a list between their first and the last

writing mark. Then, the researcher analyzed them by comparing them to

know whether this program improve their writing ability or not.

Finally, the researcher interviewed some teachers and students to




This chapter presents the research finding based on the result of data analysis.

In other words, it presents the discussion based on related theories to clarify the


A. Research Findings

The purpose of this research is to know the implementation of Language

Improvement program to uplift students’ writing ability and to know whether this

program uplift students writing ability or not. In this research, the researcher

focused on the writing activity for seventh grade students of MTs Bilingual

Pucang Sidoarjo in academic year 2014/2015.

This research was conducted in MTs Bilingual Pucang Sidoarjo on April 28th

2016 up to May 26th 2016. The researcher observed this program and also

interviewed teacher and students to know their responds and comments toward

this program.

1. The Implementation of Language Improvement Program

The first research question in this study is “how is the implementation

of language improvement program to uplift students’ writing ability?” The

data were gained from the observation checklist. There are seven aspects that


media, students’ activity, assessment and class management of Language

Improvement program.

Here is the result of observation based on observation checklist:

Table 4.1.1. The result of observation

No. Aspects Yes No Note

A. Material

1. Accuracy

a. Materials are up-to-date and


b. The content is complete without

any missing important information

2. Effective as a teaching tool

c. Learners will be able to achieve the program goals effectively

c. Material engages the learners

3. Supporting students in writing

a. Organization

 Teach students to

discriminate good leads from not-so-good leads

 Teach students how to group


way to be accepted by students

b. Delivering well-designed


2. Using variety teaching method in

delivering materials


1. Using the effective media

Using the variety media Just whiteboard

and marker

D. Students’ Responds

1. Concerning towards teacher’s


2. Asking question to the teacher

3. Responding teacher’s question

4. Able to follow the instruction without

any hesitant

1. Students’ task achieve the high score

2. Assessment items reflects


3. Using variety of method in

assessment technique

F. Class Management

1. Able to manage the class well

a. Variety in Seating Arrangement

b. Organizing Physical Space The class is in


c. Controlling students’ activity

2. Able to manage the time well

a. Opening and closing the session

on time

b. Each session achieves the

meeting’s goal

3. Able to give instructions well

a. The instruction’s language is


Based on the result of observation above, we can classify them into

some aspects:

a. Materials

Based on the result of observation, the materials in this program were

designed based on program’s goal, accurate and able to support

students’ writing in grammar and mechanic aspects. Unfortunately the

materials were not support students’ writing in organization aspect, the

teacher did not teach students how to make a good leads and also how to

group ideas, teacher just let students write paragraph as they want.

But, the materials were not accommodating multiple learning styles. It

means that the materials were not suitable for all learning styles, such as

audio, visual and kinesthetic. Sometimes kinesthetic students were not

able to follow the audio and visual learning style and vice versa. The

researcher found that some kinesthetic students were busy with their

own business rather than focus on teaching activity.

b. Teaching method

The teaching method in this program presents the simple method which

can be understood by studentseasily. Usually, the materials connected

with the interested topic, so the students are able to understand the

materials easily.1 In this program, teacher also drilled some vocabularies



to enrich students’ vocabulary and students are able to memorize

vocabularies easily.2

c. Media

For media, the teacher does not use variety media in delivering

materials. The teacher only uses the simple media like whiteboard and

marker. Sometimes, LCD projector and laptop used for delivering the


d. Students’ responds

Students’ responds toward teaching activity in this program were good

although only some students who active in the class. They ask some

question and also respond the teacher’s question. They were able to

finish their task but some of slow students were not able to finish it on


e. Assessment

Teacher used various assessment techniques in this program such as

asking student to present their writing in front of class to assess

students’ reading and speaking ability. Sometimes teacher uses peer

assessment by asking students to assess their partners’ writing, speaking

and reading ability.3


Based on interview with students on May 23th 2016 3


f. Class Management

In this program, the students from three classes are joining in one class,

so it is large class which consists of 95 students. It must be difficult to

pay attention on all students.

Sometimes, the teacher came late to the class, it caused by the previous

class which took more time than allocated time. The students who were

not able to finish their task on time affected the closing time of this

program. In this program, the teacher has a variety in seating

arrangement based on teaching on that day.But sometimes, the teacher

was not able to control the class, it caused by the students who cannot

focus on teaching activity.4

2. Language Improvement Program Uplifts Students’ Writing Ability

The second research question in this study is “does language

improvement program uplift students’ writing ability?” The data were gained

from the result of student’s descriptive writing as pre-test and post-test which

already assessed by using rubric. And the researcher got the data in document

contained of students’ writing mark.

Pre-test and post-test done by asking students to write some

paragraphs based on assigned topic in descriptive text. They were permitted

to use dictionary; dictionary book or e-dictionary (alfa-link). They were given



around 15 to 20 minutes to write some paragraphs based on topic in

descriptive text.


Pre-test was conducted to gain the information about students’ writing

ability before joining Language Improvement program.


24. Student 24 2 1 1 2 1 35

The table above showed the students’ writing mark in pre-test based on

aspects in writing rubric. It showed that 65 is the highest score in pre-test

which achieved by 1 student and the lowest score is 25 which achieved by

6 students.

ability after joining Language Improvement program.

Here is the students’ mark in post-test:


4. Student 4 2 2 1 1 1 35

To know whether the Language Improvement program uplift students’ ability


and after joining the program. The writer analyzed and compared them until


From the table above, we can see that most of students’ increased their score in

post-test. And three students of them have stagnant score for their pre-test and

post-test. To find which aspect has the highest difference between pre-test and

post-test, the writer make a table based on five aspects in rubric assessment.

Table 4.2.4. Pre-test and Post-test Score Based on Aspects

No. Aspect

Pre-From the table above, we can see that the content aspect increases from 41% up

to 60%; it increased about 19% and also has the highest difference between

pre-test and post-pre-test. And the next is organization aspect increases about 18%, from

34% up to 52%. The following is vocabulary aspect; it has increased about 13%

which has 37% in pre-test and 50% for post-test. The grammar aspect increases

for about 7%, from 30% up to 37%. And the lowest is mechanic which increases

about 5%, from 30% up to 35%.

From the description above, it can be concluded that by joining Language

Improvement program, students are able to improve their writing ability even


Table 2.2.1. Generic Structure Table
Table 4.1.1. The result of observation
Table 4.2.1. Pre-test score table
Table 4.2.2. Post-test score table


Dokumen terkait

Setelah game Sejarah Terbentuknya Kota Samarinda dibangun, maka dilakukanlah pengujian untuk mengetahui apakah game berjalan dengan baik sehingga game ini dapat dijadikan

Samsul bakri, penerapan pembelajaran pohon matematika pada materi luas bangun datar untuk meningkatkan kreatifitas belajar siswa kelas v MI AL- HIKMAH karangrejo,

Pada parameter skalabilitas hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa VMware ESXi memiliki skalabilitas yang sangat baik yang ditunjukkan dengan tren penurunan throughput paling sedikit

Untuk mencapai tujuan kebutuhan tersebut, diperlukan perencanaan yang ada dalam ilmu ekonomi berfungsi sebagai cara atau metode untuk menyusun daftar kebutuhan terhdap sejumlah


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk pengenalan pola buah apel menggunakan analisis tekstur pada citra grayscale dan ekstraksi fitur warna pada citra warna..

Modul utama aplikasi tersebut meliputi penerimaan, penyerahan, peminjaman, pengembalian, histori kerusakan dan perbaikan, histori perpindahan, dan pelaporan. Uji coba ini

Pada penulisan ini dimaksudkan untuk menjelaskan mengenai pembuatan objek yang kemudian dibuat animasi hingga terbentuk menjadi sebuah animasi bahaya listrik. Untuk dapat

Kuil Yasukuni sendiri khusus didedikasikan bagi Kami para tentara atau mereka yang tewas dalam peperangan untuk membela Kekaisaran Jepang dalam perang Boshin

Dengan didasari aqidah yang kuat dan akhlak yang baik sejak dini, pengawasan orang tua, guru, dan masyarakat akan dapat meminimalisasi kenakalan-kenakalan yang di lakukan

4 Begitu juga dengan hasil penelitian Kittipong dkk tahun 2009 yang melaporkan bahwa distribusi penyakit kompromis medis paling tinggi adalah alergi yaitu sebesar 52,15%,


Salah satu kudapan khas kota Bandung adalah kerupuk seblak yang kini telah berkembang menjadi usaha home indsutri dengan prospek ekonomi yang cukup baik sehingga



metode pembelajaran Think Pair Share (TPS) belum banyak diterapkan di sekolah, (2) sangat memerlukan kemampuan dan keterampilan guru, waktu pembelajaran berlangsung guru

Nilai Pretest dan Postest Kelompok Kontrol ... Uji Analisis Kovarian

Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa data fisiologis darah untuk jumlah butir darah merah, kadar hemoglobin dan nilai hematokrit secara statistik mengalami perubahan yang

Given an initial approximation for the camera position and orientation, or camera pose, ViSP automatically establishes and continuously tracks corresponding features between an

The principle of management of amyloidosis should be directed at controlling gastrointestinal symptoms using symptomatic therapy, stopping the formation and deposit of

Menurut McClelland (dalam Sukadji, 2005) Ciri-ciri individu dengan motif berprestasi yang tinggi antara lain adalah:.. 1) Selalu berusaha, tidak mudah menyerah dalam