Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Art) in English Language Education

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AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ERRORS

IN USING ENGLISH TENSES

(A Case Study at the Second Grade Students of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah, Ciledug)

By

Lia Ratna Komala 207014000289

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING

SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

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AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ERRORS IN USING

ENGLISH TENSES

(A Case Study at the Second Grade Students of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah, Ciledug)

A “Skripsi”

Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s Training

in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Art) in English Language Education

By:

Lia ratna Komala

207014000289

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING

SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

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ENDORSEMENT SHEET

The Examination Committee of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training certifies the “Skripsi” (Scientific Paper) entitle “AN ANALYSIS OF

STUDENTS’ ERRORS IN USING ENGLISH TENSES”(A Case Study at the

Second Grade Students of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah Ciledug), written by

Lia Ratna Komala, student’s registration number 207014000289 was examined in the examination session of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta on May, 14th 2014. The “skripsi” has been accepted and declared to have fulfilled one of the requirements for the degree of “S.Pd” (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education at the English Education Department.

Jakarta, May, 14th 2014

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KEMENTERIAN AGAMA

FORM (FR)

No. Dokumen : FITK-FR-AKD-064

UIN JAKARTA Tgl. Terbit : 5 Maret 2010

FITK No. Revisi: : 01

Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat 15412 Indonesia Hal : 1/1

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI

Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini,

Nam : Lia Ratna Komala

Tempat, Tgl. Lahir : Tangerang, 02 Oktober 1987

NIM : 207014000289

Jurusan/Prodi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

Judul Skripsi : An Analysis of Students’ Errors in Using English

Tenses (A case study at the second grade

students of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah

Ciledug)

Dosen Pembimbing: Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M.Hum.

Dengan ini menyatakan bahwa skripsi yang saya buat benar-benar hasil karya

sendiri dan saya bertanggung jawab secara akademis atas apa yang saya tulis.

Pernyataan ini dibuat sebagai salah satu syarat wisuda

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i

ABSTRACT

Lia Ratna Komala. “An Analysis of Students’ Errors in Using English Tenses” (A Case Study at the Second Grade Students of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah, Ciledug), Skripsi of English Education Departement, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, 2014.

Advisor : Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M.Hum

Keyword : Error Analysis, Tenses (Simple Present Tense, Simple Present Continuous Tense, Simple Past Tense)

The aim of this research was to describe the students’ errors and its causes in using simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense. In this research, the writer used a qualitative method in a form of descriptive analysis (percentage) that included observation, collecting the students’ test, analyzing, and interpreting the data. For collecting the data the researcher used test as the instrument. This research was conducted to 28 students in class 8.6 of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah Ciledug. The result of the research showed that the highest frequency of errors was simple past tense; there were 73 errors or 37.24 %. The writer classified the types of error into missformation, omission, and addition. Among those three types, the most frequency error was missformation that reached 96 errors or 70.59%. The other finding was the sources of error which are divided into three categories. Those are interlingual errors, intralingual errors, and communicative strategies. Intralingual errors and

communicative strategies are the most common source of error, there were

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ii

ABSTRACT

Lia Ratna Komala. “An Analysis of Students’ Errors in Using English Tenses” (Studi kasus di kelas VIII SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah Ciledug), Skripsi Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2014.

Pembimbing : Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M.Hum.

Kata Kunci : Analisa Kesalahan, Tenses (Simple Present Tense, Simple Present Continuous Tense, Simple Past Tense)

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan beberapa kesalahan yang digunakan siswa dan penyebab-penyebabnya dalam menggunakan simple present tense, simple present continuous tense dan simple past tense. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan metode kualitatif dalam bentuk deskriptif analisis yang meliputi pengamatan, pengumpulan tes siswa, analisis, dan penafsiran data. Untuk mengumpulkan data, penulis menggunakan soal sebagai instrument. Penulis melakukan penelitian pada 28 siswa dikelas 8.6 siswa kelas delapan SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah Ciledug. Hasil penelitian menunjukan terdapat frekuensi kesalahan tense terbanyak adalah simple past tense; terdapat 73 kesalahan atau 37.24%. Penulis mengklasifikasikan macam-macam kesalahan kedalam misrormation, omission, and addition. Diantara macam-macam kesalahan tersebut misformation menjadi klasifikasi error terbanyak mencapai 96 kesalahan atau 70.59%. Penemuan yang lain adalah penyebab-penyebab kesalahan yang terbagi menjadi 3 kategori, yaitu interlingual errors, intralingual

errors, dan communicative strategies. Intralingual error dan communicative

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iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the beneficent and the merciful, all praises be to Allah the lord of the universe, who has been giving mercy and blessing until the writer accomplished her “skripsi” entitled “An Analysis of Students’ Errors in Using English Tenses”. Peace and salutation be upon to the noble prophet of Islam Muhammad SAW, his families, her relatives, and her faithful followers.

In this occasion, the writer would like to express her sincere gratitude to her advisor, Mrs. Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M.Hum who has patiently given her valuable help, guidance, and corrections to finish this skripsi.

The writer would also like to give her sincerest gratitude and great honor to her parents (Mr.Toha and Mrs.Titin Komala Sari) and to her lovely Husband (Sukarjo, S.E), for giving an understanding, a support, an advice, love and moral encouragement to the writer. Without them, the writer cannot finish his study. For whole family who always gives their love, support, motivation, and advice in accomplishing her study.

Further appreciation and gratitude goes to:

1. Dra. Nurlena Rifa’i, MA, Ph.D as the dean of Faculty of Tarbiya. 2. Drs. Syauki M.Pd as the Head of English Departement.

3. All lecturers of English Departement who have taught and educated

the writer during his study.

4. The teachers of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah Ciledug, especially English teachers, and all of the staffs and all of students SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah Ciledug, for their contribution and kindness.

5. All of his friends in the 2007 English Education Departement,

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The words are not enough to say any appreciations. May Allah guide them and give them all happiness in throughout their life.

The words are not enough to say any appreciations for their help and contributions on this skripsi. May Allah SWT protect and give them happiness throughout their life. Finally, the writer realizes that the skripsi is far from being perfect. It is a pleasure for her to receive constructive critiques and suggestions from the readers.

Jakarta, 14 Mei 2014

The Writer

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v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT……… i

AKNOWLEDGEMENT……… iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS …... v

LIST OF TABLES ………... vii

LIST OF APPENDICES ………... viii

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION ……… 1

A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Identification of the Problem ……….. 3

C. Research Focus ………...……... 4

D. Research Question ………...………….. 4

E. The Objectives of the Study ……… 4

F. Significance of the Study ………...….. 5

CHAPTER II : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ……… 6

A. Error Analysis ……….... 6

1. Definition of Error Analysis ...……… 6

2. Definition of Error ……… 7

3. Differences Between Error and Mistake ……….. 8

4. The Causes and Sources of Error ..…... 9

5. Types of Error …….………..…... 10

6. The Procedures of Error Analysis ... 14

B. The Nature of Grammar ………... 15

1. Definition of Grammar ...……… . 15

C. Tense ………...………... 16

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vi

2. Kinds of Tense ... 17

3. Simple Present Tense ……...……….…………. 18

4. Simple Present Continuous Tense .…..……….. 19

5. Simple Past Tense ……….. 21

D. Relevant Studies ... 22

CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... . 24

A. Place and Time of Research ……….. 24

B. Method of Research ... 24

C. Research Subject …………... 25

D. Research Instrument ……... 25

E. Checking of the Instrument Validity …... 26

F. Technique of Data Analysis ... 27

CHAPTER IV : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION 28 A. Research Finding ……….... 28

1. Data Description ………... 28

2. Data Analysis ………..……….………. 31

B. Data Interpretation …..……….…….……….. 43

C. Causes of Students’ Errors ……….. 47

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ……….….. 49

A. Conclusion ……….…….. 49

B. Suggestion ………... 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY ……….. 51

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vii

LISTS OF TABLES

Table 3.1 : The Table of Tested Area ... 25

Table 4.1 : Percentage of Errors in the Form of Simple Present Tense ... 28

Table 4.2 : Percentage of Errors in the Form of Simple Present Continuous Tense… ... 29

Table 4.3 : Percentage of Errors in the Form of Simple Past Tense ... .... 30

Table 4.4 : Data Recapitulation of Students’ Errors in Simple Present Tense … 31

Table 4.5 : Data Recapitulation of Students’ Errors in Simple Present Continuous Tense …………... 34

Table 4.6 : Data Recapitulation of Students’ Errors in Simple Past Tense ….. ... 37

Table 4.7 : Table of the Sequence of Tenses ... 41

Table 4.8 : Table of Types of Errors ... 42

Table 4.9 : Table of Total of the Students’ Errors ... 42

Diagram 4.1 : Total of Error Frequency and Its Percentage ... 47

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LISTS OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 : The Reconstructions of Students’ Original Writing …… 74 Appendix 2 : Instrument Students’ Writing English Tenses …………. 86 Surat Pengajuan Judul Skripsi

Surat Bimbingan Skripsi

Surat Permohonan Izin Penelitian

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1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents and discusses background of the study, identification of the problem, research focus, research question, the objective and significances of the study.

A.

Background of the Study

In this era globalization, Indonesia as developing country, it is necessary for Indonesian students to master an English language as an international language which is use by almost countries in this world in order to be able to interact which other nations for developing science, technology and culture.

Nowadays in Indonesia, English becomes essential language subject of education issues. The government realizes how important English today for global development. Therefore, English has been an important part of the school curriculum, which is learnt as the main subject by the Indonesian students to develop technology, science and culture. To achieve it, the Indonesian students must be able to master the four skills in English; they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and also English components such as grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation etc. and now learning English is necessary for Indonesian students, therefore it is taught from elementary school to university level.

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learner who knows grammar is one who has mastered and can apply the rules to express him or herself in what would be considered acceptable language forms.”1

Harmer defines that “grammar as the description of the ways in which words can change their forms and can be combined into sentence in that language.”2 Michael swan stated that “grammar is the rules that say how words are combined, arranged, and changed to show different meaning.”3

To be able to communicate in English, the students should have to master grammar. Grammar is a great rule in students’ acquisition in English. It seems the heart of language. One of its aspects discussed in grammar is tense. Tense is something to express activity that need time relation. Based on curriculum, there are six tenses which are taught in the Junior High School include simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense.

There are some differences between Indonesian and English, especially about tense, as follows: in Indonesian “saya pergi ke pasar setiap hari minggu. It shows habitually. Then, “saya sedang pergi ke pasar sekarang, it shows in the progress events. And then “saya pergi ke pasar kemarin, it shows pass events. Based on three sentences, it can be concluded that Indonesian does not need to change the verb, although the sentences have different time indicators. Meanwhile, in English, “I go to the market every Sunday. It shows habitually. Then, “I am going to the market now, it shows in the progress events. And then “I went to the market yesterday, it shows pass events. Based on three sentences, it can be concluded that English needs tenses to change the verb based on time indicators. From those conclusions, it shows students cannot understand tenses in English by using Indonesian paradigm.

Therefore, tenses is considered as one of difficult materials when students learn grammar. It is proved by some researchers who studied about tenses. As mentioned in some studies on “an analysis on students’ difficulties in using

1

Penny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities: A Partical Guide for Teacher, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980), p. 4.

2

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman Group, 1983), p. 12.

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simple present tense” by M. Solahudin.4And other studies on “an analysis on students’ difficulties in learning simple past tense” by Evi Setiawati.5

There are many errors and mistakes in learning English tenses but making errors and mistakes is normal and unavoidable. This problem is as John Norrish notes “it’s natural for the students as human being to make error, even many native speakers produce many mistakes in speaking and they would be unaware of the way they speak unless they heard recording of themselves.”6

Based on the problem descriptions above, the writer actuated to research this study with to analyzing students’ errors in using simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense. This idea is also supported by the writer experience in teaching such topic in her PPKT (Praktek Profesi Keguruan terpadu) in one of the Junior High School in Ciputat. The writer taught English tenses especially in simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense to the second grade students.

Because of the above case, the writer interested to analyzing the students’ errors in using simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense. She appoints her study by the title: “An Analysis of Students’ Error in Using English Tenses” (A case of study at the second grade of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah, Ciledug Academic year 2013/2014).

B.

Identification of the Problem

Seeing the learners’ problems above, the writer identifies the problem that the learners still get difficulties how to differentiate simple present tense from simple present continuous tense and simple past tense.

4

Muhamad Solahudin Al Muharom, An Analysis on the Students’ Difficulties in Using simple Present Tense. Skripsi, (Jakarta: FITK UIN, 2011)

5

Evi Setiawati, An Analysis on Students’ Difficulties in Learning Simple Past Tense. skripsi, (Jakarta: FITK UIN, 2010)

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C.

Research Focus

To limit the problems discussed in this “skripsi”, the writer focuses her study on analyzing the students’ grammatical errors on the simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and the simple past tense.

D.

Research Question

Based on the background of the study above, the writer would like to formulate the problem:

1. What were the types errors made by the students in using simple present

tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense?

2. What causes the students made errors in using of simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense?

E.

The Objectives of the Study

Based on the research question above, the objectives of this study were to describe errors made by the students in using simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense. This study mainly intends:

1. To describe the types errors of simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense made by the students.

2. To describe the causes errors of simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense.

F.

The Significance of the Study

The results of this research were expected to give significance not only theoretically but also practically.

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For students, it can be an input to improve their knowledge of English, and it can be used to encourage students to be more cautious in using simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense.

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter discusses error analyses which are divided into definition of error analysis, differences between error and mistake, sources of error, types of error and the procedures of error. In addition, it discusses about grammar, tense which are divided into definition of tense and kinds of tenses. Finally, it discusses the relevan study related to this study.

A.

Error Analysis

1. Definition of Error Analysis

Using second language is a proses that involves the making of mistake even error. In the new system of language, learner will directly connect with such a new vocabulary, a new grammatical pattern and a foreign pronunciation which are different from the learner’s native language.

Error analysis is a process of analyzing of one’s error. In this case, it is student’s error. The analyzing process relates to the effective teaching learning process. There are some experts that purpose different concept of error anaysis. As S.K sharma stated, “error anaysis is a process based on anaysis of learner’s error with one clear objective: involving a suitable and effective teaching learning strategy and remedial measure necessary in certain clearly marked out areas of the foreign.”1

Error analysis is a valuable source of information to teachers. It provides information on learner’s error which helps teachers to correct it and also improves the effectiveness of their teaching. In other words, errors give signs to teachers and researchers wheater the using process is successful or not. 2

Furthermore, Ellis explains about an error analysis “Error analysis consists of a set of procedures for identifying, describing and explaining learner errors.

1

S.K Sharma, Error Analysis: Why and How,(English Teaching Forum, April 1982) Vol. XXX

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Technically errors can occur in both comprehension errors are difficult to detect as it is often impossible to locate the precise linguistic source of an error.”3

It can be concluded that error analysis is an evaluation methodology in language learning to analyze, identify, describe, and explain the learners’ error by giving an indication to us in process of learning.

2. Definition of Error

Error is natural part of language learning, learning the second language is a process unlike learning the first language. In this new system of language, learners will directly connect with such a new vocabulary, a new grammatical pattern and a foreign pronunciation which differ from their first language. It will always occur although the best effort has been done, when they try to speak or write the target language, it is inevitable to them to produce many errors.

Dulay stated error as “the flawed side of learner speech of writing. They are those parts of conversation or composition that deviate from some selected norm of mature language performance.”4 It means that the area of learners’ errors can be found in the spoken such as in their conversation and writing such as in their composotion. H.D Brown defines an error as “noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the inter-language competence of learner.”5

Errors may also be viewed as global or local errors Burt and Kiparsky cited in Brown “global errors are preventing the hearer from comprehending some aspect of the massage. The sentence in global error is difficult to understand. In contrast, the sentence in local error is able to understand.”6 It means that when the sentence is difficult to understand is global errors, in contrast, in local errors, the sentence easy to understand.

3

Rod Ellis, The Study of Second Language Acquisition, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 50.

4

Heidi Dulay et al, Language Two, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 138.

5

H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, fourth edition (New jersey: prenntice Hall Inc, 1994), p. 217.

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From some experts’ definition about errors, it can be concluded that error is something which the students made in their learning process. It was caused by incorrect rule of language as a partial knowledge and competence that is achieved in the process of language learning. The error is more serious than mistake because error cannot be corrected by own self, but mistake can be corrected by own self.

3. Differences between Error and Mistake

In learning foreign language not only the students make error but also mistake. In the study of error analyis, linguists distinguish error from mistake. Error and mistake are different. Error is wrong response because the students do not have knowledge about what the right answer is. While mistake is wrong response that if the students thought about it, they would realize what the right answer is. It means that the students if given a second chance, they have the potential to correct a mistake, wheares the students do not have potential to correct an error until they learnt what the correct is.

The differences between them can be defined as H.D Brown stated “errors are a result of partial knowledge because teaching-learning process extends over time. A mistake is a performance of error that is either the random guess or slip, in that it is a failur to utilize a know system correctly.”7 The statement above means that errors occurred because of the extended process in teaching-learning caused by biased knowledge, but mistake occurred because of slips of the tongue.

In addition, Edge in Harmer suggested that we can divide mistake into two broad categories: ‘slips’ and ‘attempts’. Slips are mistakes which students can correct themselves and which therefore need explanation, while attempts are mistakes committed when students try to say something but do not yet know the correct way of saying it.8

The statement above means that both of ‘slips’ and ‘attempts’ are mistakes, the different is ‘slips’ can be corrected by the students, but ‘attempts’

7

Ibid., p. 257.

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the students do not yet know how to say something when they want to say.

4. The Causes and Sources of Error

In the learning process,it possible the students do errors. It is caused of many factor. Norrish classifies causes of error in to three types, there are carelessness, first language interference, and translation.

a. Carelessness

It is often closely related to lack of motivation. Many teachers will admit that is not always the student’s fault if he loses interest, perhaps the materials and/or style of presentation do not suit him.

b. First language

Norrish states that learning a language (a mother tongue or foreign language) is matter of hobit formation. When someone tries to learn new habits the old ones will interference the new ones. This cause of error is called first language interference.

c. Translation

It is one of cause of error. This happens because a students translates his first language senteance or idiomatic expression into the target language word by word. This probably the most common cause of error.9

Another expert who discusses the sources of error is Brown. He claims that four major sources of error. He labels interlingual transfer, intralingual transfer, context learning and communication strategies.

Interlingual transfer is the negative influence of the mother tongue of learner. This is a significant source of error for all learners. In the start of learning a second language are especially vulnerable to interlanguage transfer from the native language, or interference.

Intralingual transfer is the negative influence of the target language. Carl James in his book mentions that intralingual errors is apart from recourse to L1 transfer, the learners in ignorance of a TL form an any level and of any class can

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do either of two things: either they can set about learning the needed itemizing, engaging their learning strategies or they can try to fill the gap by resorting to communication strategies.

Context of learning is a third major source of error. Context refers to the classroom with its teacher and its materials in the case of school learning or the social situation in the case of untutored second language learning. In a classroom context the teacher or the textbook can lead the learner to make faulty hypotheses about the language.

Communication strategies were defined and related to learning styles. Learners obviously use production strategies in order to enhance getting their messages across. However, at times these techniques can themselves become a source of error.10

The writer dicided to use the causes of error according to Brown to find the student’s errors in using english tenses (simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense).

5. Types of Error

The writer explained types of error based on some experts’ ideas. Error can be classified into several types. Dulay noted that the descriptive classification of errors covered four main types of errors. They are linguistic category, surface strategy, comparative analysis, and communicative effect.11

a. Error types based on linguistic category

This type of error classify the errors by combining the language components include phonology (pronunciation), syntax, and morphology (grammar), semantics and lexicon (meaning and vocabulary), and discourse (style) with the particular linguistic constituent the error affects include the elements that comprise each language component.

For example of error based on linguistic category; “me forget it

10

Brown, op.cit.,pp. 172-174.

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The learner attempted to use of me as subject. It is included in syntax error in use of pronoun.

b. Error types based on surface strategy taxonomy

In this type, learners may omit necessary items or add unnecessary one; they may misform items or misorder them.

There are four subtypes error based on surface strategy taxonomy:

1. Omission, this error are categorized by the omitting an item should be appeared in a well-formed utterance. Although any morpheme or word in a sentence is a potential candidate for omission, some types of morphemes are omitted more than others.

Here the example of Error type based on surface strategy taxonomy; I saw two bird on the tree

The learners omit the –s to describe a noun in plural.

2. Addition, this error is the opposite of omissions. These errors are categorized by the presence of an item which must not appear in a well-formed utterance. It is divided into three types of addition errors;

a) Double marking, this addition error is described as the failure to delete certain items which are required in some linguistic constructions, but not in others. The learners who have acquired the tensed form for both auxiliary and verb For example: we didn’t went there

It’s because two items rather than one are marked for the same feature (tense in the example above).

b) Regularization, a rule typically added to a linguistic item is erroneously added to exceptional items of the given class that do not take a marker.

c) Simple addition, if an addition error is not a double marking or regularization,

it is called simple addition. No particular features characterize simple addition other than those that characterize all addition errors. For example, the fishes doesn’t live in the water

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3. Misformation, these errors are characterized by the use of the wrong form of the morpheme or structure. In misformation errors the learner supplies something, although it is incorrect. For example, the dog eated the chicken

The learner supplies a past tense marker, but it was not the right one. a). Regularization Errors, the misformation category are those in which a regular marker is used in place of an irregular one, as in runned for ran or gooses for geese.

b). Archi-forms, the selection of one a class of forms to represent others in the class is a common characteristic of all stages of second language acquisition. c) Alternating Forms, as a learner’s vocabulary and grammar grow, the use of archi-forms often gives way to the apparently fairly free alternation of various members of a class with each other.

4. Misordering, as the label suggests, misordering errors are characterized by the

incorrect placement of a morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterence. For example:

- He is all the time late - What daddy is doing?

The correct sentence are: - He is late all the time

c. Error types based on comparative taxonomy

Comparative taxonomy classifies errors based on comparison between the structure of language learner errors and certain other types of construction. This classification is divided into four parts:

1) Developmental errors, these errors is like the errors made by the students learning the target language as their first language. For example, dog eat it 2) Interlingual errors, this error is like in structure to a semantically equivalent

phrase or sentence in the learner’s native language. For example, I visit temple Prambanan

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3) Ambiguous errors, this error reflect the learner’s native language structure, and at the same time, they are of the type found in the speech of children acquiring a first language. This error equally well as developmental or interlingual. For example, I no have a car

4) Other errors, this error is beside of the other types above such as developmental errors, interlingual errors, and ambiguous errors. For example, she do hungry

d. Errors types based on communicative effect taxonomy12

The communicative effect deals with errors from the perspective of their effect on the listener or the reader. It focuses on distinguishing between errors that seem to cause miscommunication and those that don’t. These errors divided into two parts;

1) Global error

These errors that effect overall sentence organization significantly hinder communication. It is because of the wide syntactic scope of such errors. The most systematic global errors include:

a) Wrong order of major constituents, For example, English language use many people

b) Missing, wrong, or misplaced sentence connectors, for example, (if) not take this bus, we late for school

c) Missing cues to signal obligatory exceptions to pervasive syntactic rules, for example, the student’s proposal (was) looked into (by) the principal

d) Regularization of pervasive syntactic rules to exceptions, for example, we

amused that movie very much it should be that movie amused us very much

2) Local errors

Local errors include errors in noun and verb inflections, articles, auxiliaries, and the formation of quantifiers. Local errors are not similar to global errors, the sentence in local errors do not usually hinder communication significantly. For example, why we like each other?

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Although the student made error in this type, the reader can get the meaning or understand what the sentence means.

The writer dicided to use the types of error according to Dulay to find the student’s error in using English tenses (simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense.

6. The Procedures of Error Analysis

The writer dicided to use the procedure of errors according to Rod Ellis, the procedures involved in each of the steps are:13

a. Collecting of a Sample of Learner Language

The type of data collected can have a marked effect on the result of an error analysis, as a result of the different production processes which they typically involve. For example, Logoco found differences in the number and type of errors in samples of learner language collected by means of free composition, translation, and picture composition.

b. Identifications of Errors

The definition of ‘error’ is problematic, as James admits. The difficulty centers around a number of issues. The first is whether grammatically (i.e.well-formedness) or acceptability should serve as criterion. An utterance may be grammatically correct but pragmatically unacceptable. For example, ‘I want to read your newspaper’ addressed to complete stanger is grammatical but pragmatically unacceptable.

c. Description of Errors

The description of errors involves a comparison of the learner’s idiosyncratic utterances with a reconstruction of those utterances in the target language or, more recently, with a baseline corpus of native speaker language. d. Explanation of Errors

Explanation is concerned with establishing the source of errors, i.e. accounting for why it was made. This stage is the most important for SLA

13

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research as it involves an attempt to establish the process responsible for L2 acquisition.

e. Evaluation of Errors

Error evaluating involves a consideration of the effect that errors have on the person (s) addressed. This effect can be gauged either in terms of the addresse’s effective response to the errors. Error evaluation studies proliferated in the late 1970s and in the 1980s, motivated quite esplicitly by a desire to improve language pedagogy.

B.

The Nature of Grammar

The knowledge of grammar is very important to express what someone wants to say and interprets correctly. According to Penny Ur, “a learner who knows grammar is one who has mastered and can apply the rules to express him or herself in what would be considered acceptable language forms.”14

1. Definition of Grammar

Actually grammar is used to mean the structure of language. It is an essential part of the use of language process, both in spoken and written language. Grammar is the set of rules which determine the way in which units such as words and phrases can be combined in a language. According to Penny Ur “Grammar may be roughly definedas the way a language manipulates and combines words (or bits of word) in order to form longer units of meaning.”15 Swan defines grammar as “the rules that say how words are combined, arranged and chaged to show different meaning.”16

Grammar is a system of language and it’s a science that teaches a learner to speak, to read and to write correctly. It can help the students to learn language more quickly and more effeciently. When the learners understandthe grammar (or system) of a language, they can understand many things themselves.

English grammar discusses a lot of aspects, such as tense, word order,

14Penny Ur, Grammar Practice Activities: A practicil Guide for Teacher, (New York:

Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 4.

15

Penny Ur, op.cit., p. 5.

16

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conditional sentence, modal auxiliary, etc. One of the english grammar in which Indonesian students tend to make error id “tense”. Here the writer will discuss about tense.

C.

Tense

1. Definition of Tense

The word ‘tense’ is derived ultimately from the Latin word ‘tempus’ meaning ‘time’.17 Tense is a form of verb used to indicate the time. In discussing tense and time A.S Hornby states that “the words ‘time’ and ‘tense’ must not be confused. The word time stands for a concept with which all mankind is familiar, divided into past, present and future. The word tense stands for a verb form or series of verb forms used to express a time relation. Tenses may indicate wheater an action, activity, or state.”18

Tense commonly refers to the time of the situation which relates to the situation of utterance or at the moment at the speaking. For example, the commenest tenses found in languages are present, past and future: a situation described in the present tense is related as simultaneous with the moment of speaking (Jhon is singing); the situation described in the past as related prior to the moment of the speaking (Jhon was singing); while the situation described in the future as relates subsequent to the moment of speaking (Jhon will singing).

Since tense refers to the time of the situation which relates to the situation of the utterances, it can be described as ‘deictic’.19 In other words, deictic refers to an interval or period of the time which contains the moment of utterance. It can be expressed by some words: yesterday, now and tomorrow. English verbs have only two simple tenses, the tenses called the simple present (e.g he writes) and the simple past (e.g he wrote).

The English tense that would be discussed are simple present, present

17

Jhon Lyons, Linguistic Semantic an Introduction, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995), p. 312.

18

A.S. Hornby, Guide to Patterns and Usage in English, (London: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 78.

19

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continuous and simple past.

2. Kinds of Tense

There are simple and compound tenses in English verbs. The oxford dictionary of English grammar states some linguist define tense narrowly by form which gives English only two tenses: the present tense, which is lexical verb is the same as the last (except for the –s ending in the third person singular); and the past tense, which in regular lexical verbs has the –ed inflection.20 It means there are two tenses based on the form. There are the present tense and the past tense.

English has also many compound tenses. According to Hornby, the compound tenses are made by combining two or more verb forms and these combinations may be concerned with time.21 It can be seen that there are many compound tenses other two tenses (the present tense and the past tense). Frank says that there are three past tenses and two future tenses, and then the past perfect is tied in time to the past tense, the present perfect to the present tense, and the future perfect tense to the future tense.22 It shows there are many kinds of tenses based on the time.

The writer concludes if simple and compound tense are mixed together, there are twelve kinds of tenses. They are simple present, simple past, simple future, present progressive, past progressive, future progressive, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, present perfect progressive, past perfect progressive, and future perfect progressive.

3. Simple Present Tense

1) Definition

The present tense is the simplest tense in English. The simple present tense is used to show action that happens all the time, for it looked at the finite verbal group without auxiliaries.

The present tense is also the only tense that still uses form of distinction

20

Sylvia Chalker and Edmund Weiner, The Oxford of English Grammar, (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 395.

21

A.S. Hornby, op,cit., p. 79. 22

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for person and number. The distinction is that the third person singular has ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the form used in other person and number.

To form the negative sentence it has auxiliary verb ‘does not’ for the third person singular subject (He, She, It), and ‘do not’ for the subject (I, You, We, They). For the verb to be, do not use an auxiliary verb, even for questions and negatives.23 For example ‘She is not a student’.

2) The sentence pattern of simple present tense a) Affirmative:

Subject + Verb 1 (s/es)

E.g. Their clases begin at seven

She sends the latter to her mother every month. Subject + Verb be (are, am, is) + Complement

E.g You are a teacher.

b) Negative:

Subject + Auxiliary verb (do/does) + Not + Verb 1

E.g Their classes don’t begin at seven.

She doesn’t send the letter to her mother every month. Subject + Verb be (are, am, is) + Not + Complement

E.g You are not a teacher.

c) Interrogative:

Auxiliary verb (do/does) + Subject + Verb 1

E.g Do their classes begin at seven?

Does she send the letter to her mother every month? Verb be (are, am, is) + Subject + Complement

E.g Are you a teacher?

23

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3) The usage of simple present tense.24

The simple present tense performs the following functions or usages: a) To express the general truth.

e.g. The sun rises in the east.

b) To express the customs and habitual action. e.g. She studies English everyday.

c) To show the future time.

e.g. I start my new job tomorrw.

4. Simple Present Continuous Tense

1) Definition

Present contiuous tense is also know as present progressive tense. Present progressive is verb phrases composed of forms of the auxiliary be + the present participle (ing-form) of the principle verb.

According to A.S Hornby “ the present progressive is the tense most often used for this purpose. It is the tense more closely associated with the present time. There may be an adveribal on present time (e.g. now, today), but this is not essential.”25

The continuous forms represent actions or events, viewed at some point between their bigining and end. They imply that an action or series of actions has already begun but is not yet completed. At the same time, they indicate that the duration of the action or series of actions is limited.26

2) The sentence pattern of simple progressive tense

According to A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet the present continuous tense is formed with auxiliary verb be + the present participle:27 The present continuous tense censist of three forms, they are:

24

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, (New Jersey: Prentic Hall, Inc 1989), p. 11.

25

A.S. Hornby, Guide to Patterns and Usage in English Second Edition, (London: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 82.

26

B.D. Graver, Advanced English Practice Second Edition, (Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 56.

27

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a) Affirmative:

Subject + To be (are, am, is) + Present Participle (Ing-form)

E.g. She is reading an English book. They are sitting on the chair b) Negative:

Subject + To be (are, am, is) + Not + Present Participle

(Ing-form)

E.g. She is not reading an English book. They are not sitting on the chair c) Introgative:

To be (are, am, is) + Subject + Present Participle (Ing-form)

E.g. Is she reading an English book. Are they sitting on the chair?

3) The usage of present contiuous tense.28

a) To express an action that is happening right now. E.g. I’m typing the final task righ now.

b) To express the beginning, progression or end of the action.

E.g. It is beginning to rain.

c) To express about something that is happening at the time of speaking.29 E.g. Please don’t make some so much noise. I’m studying.

d) To talk about something which happening at or around the time of speaking.

E.g. Wheres is Tom? He is playing Tennis

e) For a definite arrangement in the near future (and is the most usual way of expressing one’s immediate plans).

E.g. What are you doing tomorrow evening?

28

Betty Scharampfer Azar, op.cit., p. 11.

29

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5. Simple Past Tense

1) Definition

The simple past tense is formed with the past form of the verb which may be either regular, by adding –ed to infinitive form (incidentally, most verb are regular) or irregular which must be learned and memorized in each case.30

Marcella Frank said”. . . simple past tense represent definite time, it refers to event that were completed before the statement is made. It is often accompained by such expression or definite past as yesterday, last year, two years ago, etc.31

2) The sentence pattern of simple past tense a) Affirmative :

Subject + verb 2

E.g. Andrew found his pen two days ago. Subject + Was/were + Complement

E.g. They were in the class at 7 o’clock a.m. b) Negative :

Subject + Auxiliary Verb (did) + Not + V 1

E.g. Andrew did not find his pen two days ago. Subject + Was/were + Not + Complement

E.g They were not in the class at 7 o’clock a.m. c) Introgative :

Auxiliary Verb (did) + Subject + Verb 1

E.g. Did Andrew find his pen two days ago? Was/were + Subject + Complement

E.g. Were they in the class at 7 o’clock a.m.?

30

Nasrun Mahmud, English for Muslim University Students, (Jakarta, Pusat Bahasa dan Budaya IAIN, 2000), p. 20.

31

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3) The usage of simple past tense.32

a) The simple past tense is used to talk about activities or situation that began and ended in the past.

E.g. The students did their homework yesterday.

b) To express the duration of an event completed in the past. E.g. I was in Jakarta for four years (I’m in Surabaya now). c) To express habitual action in the past.

E.g. When I was child, I caried loudly.

D.

Relevant Studies

There are two relevant studies that the writer takes about tenses. They are: An analysis on grammatical errors in simple present tense on students’

descriptive writing and an analysis on students’ difficulties in learning simple past tense.

The first relevant study is about an analysis on grammatical errors in simple present tense on students’ descriptive writing a case study focusing on analyzing the grammatical errors in simple present tense and the dominant influence that made by students in their descriptive writing. The objective of the study is to fine the grammatical errors in simple present tense and to investigate the influence of errors that commonly caused in writing descriptive. The methods used by the researcher is documentation method that explained the subject about the language fanction, explained about the rules in writing a descriptive text, held and field research by preparing questions sheet and answer sheets and analyzed the students’ work by making a list of the students’ errors in descriptive text.33

The second study is about an analysis on students’ difficulties in learning simple past tense a case study focusing to analyze the students’ difficulties in the form and in the usage of the simple past. The purpose of this research are to find out the difficulties and to analyze the reason why the students face difficulties in learning simple past tense. This research is used two kinds of ways; the library

32

Betty Schrampfer Azar, op.cit., p. 24. 33

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study and field research. The library study, she reads some books, papers, internet and other references concerning to the topic and the field study she takes the observation, gives the test and does the interviews.34

Different from these researchs, the write focuses her study on analyzing the students’ grammatical errors on the simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and the simple past tense.

34

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24

This chapter presents the description of the research method used in this study, including place and time of the research, method of research, research subject, research instrument, checking of instrument validity and the technique of data analysis.

A.

Place and Time of Research

This research was held at Yayasan Pendidikan An-Nurmaniyah SMP YAPERA or SMP An-Nurmaniyah which is located at Jl. Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo (Jln. H. Mencong) No. 62 Paninggilan Utara-Ciledug. The writer makes the proposal on 22 may 2013 and began an observation until 27 March 2014.

Before doing the research, fristly the writer observed the location and population where the research carried out. Then, she observed the English teaching learning activity and she watched the method that used by the English teacher about tenses expecially in learning simple present tense, simple continous tense and simple past tense. Finally, the writer gave short answer question test in order to get the data and to analyze the most common students’ error in using tenses (simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense).

B.

Method of Research

This method of research used the descriptive qualitative as the method to analyze the students’ error in the use of tenses which are commonly made.

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of the use tenses into some categories (omission, addition, misformation, and misorder). The next step is the explanation of the errors which the errors of tenses are going to be evaluated and found out its sources. The last is the evaluation after description of the errors and explain why the errors happened.

C. Research Subject

There are eight classes of the second grade students of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah which consists of 28-30 students in every class.

The writer used a Random Sampling technique to get the representative data. By the Purposive Sampling technique, the writer only took one of among the classes. She took VIII-6 class which the students are 28 people. She gave the test which the focus is using tenses, particularly the tenses are simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense.

D. Research Instrument

The procedure of collecting data used in this reserach were: 1. Test

The type of the test was short answer question. It was focused on simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense. She made 20 short answer question tests, the test contains of 20 numbers which divided into 6 numbers of simple present tense, 7 number of simple present continuous tense and 7 numbers of simple past tense.

Table 3.1

The Table of Tested Area

No Tenses Item

Number

Total

1. Simple Present Tense

Using verb in the positive sentence 1, 6, 10,17 6 Using verb in the interrogative

sentence

13, 15

(38)

2

Present Continuos Tense

Using verb in the negative sentence 4, 12, 18 7 Using verb in the interrogative

sentence

16

3

Simple Past Tense

Using reguler or irregular verb in the positive sentence

3, 14,19

7 Using verb in the interrogative

sentence

5, 7

Using verb in the negative sentence 9, 20

Total 20

2. Interview

In the interview section, its containing 10 questions that English teacher has to answer, while 6 questions for students to answer.

E.

Checking of Instrument Validity

The instrument of this research was the short answer question tests, containing 20 items. Before the test was used to collect data from the sample of the study, it had been tried out to the second grade students of SMP An-Nurmaniyah Tangerang. Then, by using ANATES program, the writer found the instrument valid (see appendix).

F.

Technique of Data Analysis

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descriptive paragraph. And it’s also used the formula that purposed by Anas Sudijono. In the following formula: 1

P

=

x 100%

P= Percentage

F= Frequency of error occurred

N= Number of cases (total frequent / total individual)

And to know the average of error percentage, the formula used:

P

=

x 100%

P= Percentage

F= Frequency of error occurred

N= Number of cases (total frequent / total individual) n= Number of item test

1

(40)

28

This chapter presents method of analysis such as; research findings and interpretation.

A. Research Finding

1. Data Description

The short answer question tests were given to the students that consist of 20 quetions focusing on simple present tense. Simple present contiuous tense and simple past tense discussed the errors made by the second year students of SMP YAPERA An-Nurmaniyah Ciledug on Wednesday, March 26, 2014.

These are the table of errors frequency and error percentage of simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense.

Table 4.1

Percentage of Errors in the Form of Simple Present Tense

No Simple Present Tense Item

Number

Error

Frequency

Error

Percentage

1 Using verb in the positive sentence

1 10 26.32%

6 10 26.32%

10 9 23.68%

17 8 21.05%

2 Using verb in the interogative sentence

13 0 0.00%

15 1 2.63%

Total 6 38 100%

Average 22.62%

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attain 135.71% with the average is 22.62%.

P =

x

100%

P =

x

100%

P =

x

100%

P = 22.62%

Table 4.2

Percentage of Errors in the Form of Simple Present Continuous Tense

No Simple Present

Continuous Tense

Item

Number

Error

Frequency

Error

Percentage

1

Using verb in the positive sentence

2 1 4.00%

8 7 28.00%

11 1 4.00%

2

Using verb in the negative sentence

4 2 8.00%

12 10 40.00%

18 4 16.00%

3

Using verb in the

positive sentence 16 0 0.00%

Total 7 25 100%

Average 12.76%

The Table 4.2 shows the data of error frequency and error percentage as a result item in using simple present continuous tense. From 7 item numbers, the writer 25 errors occured. So, the total of error percentage obtained from the 7 item numbers attain 89.29% with the average is 12.76%.

P =

x

100%

P =

(42)

P =

x

100%

P = 12.76%

Table 4.3

Percentage of Errors in the Form of Simple Past Tense

No Simple Past Tense Item

Number

Error

Frequency

Error

Percentage

1

Using reguler or irreguler verb in the positive sentence

3 5 6.85%

14 14 19.18%

19 5 6.85%

2 Using verb in the interrogative sentence

5 12 16.44%

7 3 4.11%

3

Using verb in the negative sentence

9 18 24.66%

20 16 21.92%

Total 7 73 100%

Average 37.24%

The Table 4.3 shows the data of error frequency and error percentage as a result item in using simple present continuous tense. From 7 item numbers, the writer 73 errors occured. So, the total of error percentage obtained from the 7 item numbers attain 260.71% with the average is 37.24%.

P =

x

100%

P =

x

100%

P =

x

100%

(43)

Every student is given 20 item numbers of test, it means there are 560 total sentences collected from 28 students. From the total sentences acquired by giving students a test focused on the use of simple present tense, simple present continuous tense and simple past tense, the writer collects 136 errors.

Based on the error occurrences, the writer classifies the errors that occur into some categories as well:

1. Misformation, errors are where the characterized by the use of the wrong form of the morpheme or structure.

2. Omission, errors are where the absence of an item that must appear. 3. Addition, errors are where the presence of an item which must not appear.

By using these categories, the writer classifies the errors, the causes and explains the problem in the data recapitulation.

Table 4.4

Data Recapitulation of Students’ Errors in Simple Present Tense

Item

Number

Students Sentences Types of

Error

Omission Interalingual Adi always gets up early in the

Misformation Communicative strategies

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Student 9

English twice a week.

The students studied English twice a week.

Misformation

Communicative strategies

twice a week.

The sentence used

the verb of plural

and the subject has

not added by “s”.

So the verb should

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Student 4 Student 9 Student 28

sister goes to the market everyweek.

used the verb of plural and the subject has not added by “s”. So the verb should be “go”. 15 Student 10 Mia: do she

always cleans the room every

morning? Febi: Yes, she does

Misformation Communicative strategies

Mia: does she always cleans the room every morning?

Febi: Yes, she does

The sentence shows an habitual action, in interrogetive sentence uses “does” for singular subject of third person.

From the Table 4.4, it can be seen that the most errors occure in number 6. In that number, there are 10 students who make errors. The students made errors because they might get difficulties in differing between singular and plural subject and deciding the change of the verb related to the tenses in the sentence.

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Data Recapitulation of Students’ Errors in Simple Present Continuous Tense

Item

Number

Students Sentences Types of

Error

Misformation Intralingual Diyas is drinking tea right now.

The sentence shows an action in the progress. The subject is singular so baby is sleeping now.

The sentence shows an activity in the progress at the moment of

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singing my favorite song.

favorite song.

The sentence shows an activity in the progress at the moment. The subject is plural, so auxiliary verb should be “are”.

Ali is not sending a letter to his friend this morning.

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Student 23

In negative form of simple present continuous tense, the verb should be present Bambang are not watching movie this week.

The sentence shows an action in the progress. In negative form of simple present continuous tense, the verb should be present participle (ing-form).

Based on the Table 4.5, the most errors occure in number 12. In that number, there are 10 students who make errors. The students made errors because they might get difficulties in changing the verb on negative sentence of simple present continuous tense.

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Data Recapitulation of Students’ Error in Simple Past Tense

Item

number

Students Sentences Types of

Error

She passes the English test shows a situation in the past. So the verb should be V2 “passed”. shows a situation began and ended at a particular time in the past. So the verb should be V2 “spoke”.

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Student 2 Student 8 Student 10

Student 3 Student 25

the party three days ago.

He come to the party three days ago.

Misformation Interlingual

party three days ago.

The sentence shows a situation in the past. So the verb should be V2 “came”. visiting your sister two shows an action in the past. In negative form of simple past tense, the verb should be bare invinitive “visit”. play badminton yesterday? Aya: Yes, they did

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Bubu and Rio auxiliary verb is “did” whether it is singular or plular subject. shows a situation in the past. In negative form of simple past tense, the verb should be bare invinitive celebrated her birthday last year.

Misformation Intralingual Sinta did not celebrate her birthday last year.

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Student 18 celebrates her birthday last year.

shows a situation in the past. In

From the Table 4.6, it can be seen that the most errors occure in number 9. In that number, there are 18 students who make errors. The students made errors because they might get difficulties in changing the regular and irregular verb on negative sentence of simple past tense.

Table 4.7

Table of the Sequence of Tenses

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Total 136 100%

Average 24.29%

The Table 4.7 has revealed the total of frequency of error that reaches 136 errors that the students did in using of tenses. It can also be seen that the average of percentage of error of error reaches 24.29%.

The Table 4.7 also shows that the highest error frequency is simple past tense with 73 errors occurrences that reaches 53.68%. It shows that the most students have problems in transforming regular adn irregular verb in the sentence. The second position is simple present tense with 38 errors and contributes 27.94%. The last position is simple present continuous tense which reaches 25 errors occurrences 18.38%.

The following table shows the types of error found in using tenses.

Table 4.8

Table of Types of Errors

No Types of errors Frequency Percentage (%)

1 Misformation 96 70.59%

2 Addition 25 18.38%

3 Omission 15 11.03%

Total 136 100%

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B. Interpretation

1.Data of Students’ Errors in Using Tenses with Simple Present Tense, Simple Present Tense and Simple Past Tense.

Table 4.9

Table of Total of the Students’ Errors

Errors Clasification

Students Tenses Misformation Addition Omission Total

of errors

Student 1 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

1 Student 2 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

0 Student 3 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

2 Student 4 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

1 Student 5 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

1 Student 6 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

0 Student 7 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

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Student 8 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

0 Student 9 Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

2

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

1

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

1

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

0

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

0

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

1

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

0

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

0

Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Continuous Tense Simple Past Tense

Figur

Table 3.1  : The Table of Tested Area  ..............................................................

Table 3.1 :

The Table of Tested Area .............................................................. p.11
Table 3.1

Table 3.1

p.37
Table 4.1

Table 4.1

p.40
Table 4.2

Table 4.2

p.41
Table 4.3

Table 4.3

p.42
Table 4.4 Data Recapitulation of Students’ Errors in Simple Present Tense

Table 4.4

Data Recapitulation of Students’ Errors in Simple Present Tense p.43
Table 4.5

Table 4.5

p.45
Table 4.6

Table 4.6

p.48
Table of the Sequence of Tenses

Table of

the Sequence of Tenses p.52
Table 4.7

Table 4.7

p.52
Table 4.8 Table of Types of Errors

Table 4.8

Table of Types of Errors p.53
Table of Total of the Students’ Errors

Table of

Total of the Students’ Errors p.54
Table of the Causes of Error

Table of

the Causes of Error p.59

Referensi

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