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(A Correlational Study at the Seventh Semester Sudents’ of Department of English Education)

By:

Eliyana Safitri

1112014000057

SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

JAKARTA

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iv Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini,

N a m a : Eliyana Safitri

Tempat/Tgl.Lahir : Jepara, 12 Agustus 1994 NIM : 1112014000057

Jurusan / Prodi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

Judul Skripsi : The Relationship between Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and

Students’ Achievement on Extensive Reading

(A Correlational Study at the Seventh Semester Students’ of English Education Department)

Dosen Pembimbing : 1.Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M.Pd.

2. Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M. Hum.

dengan ini menyatakan bahwa skripsi yang saya buat benar-benar hasil karya sendiri dan saya bertanggung jawab secara akademis atas apa yang saya tulis.

Pernyataan ini dibuat sebagai salah satu syarat menempuh Ujian Munaqasyah.

Jakarta, 20 Januari 2017 Mahasiswa Ybs.

Elivana Safitri NIM lll2014000057

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(IQ) and Students’ Achievement on Extensive Reading. (A Correlational Study at the SeventhSemester Sudents’ on Department of English Education).

Skripsi of Department of English Education at the Faculty of Educational Sciences of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University of Jakarta, 2017.

Advisor I : Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M. Pd. Advisor II : Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M. Hum.

This study aimed at finding empirical evidence of the relationship between Intelligence

Quotient (IQ) and students’ achievement on Extensive Reading. The population of this

study was the seventh semester students of Department of English Education. There were 61 students from A, B, and C classes, then 45 students were selected as the sample of this study. This study used a quantitative method with the correlational study as the research design. The data of IQ score gotten from the IQ test was conducted by Psychology Service Centre of UIN Jakarta. Then, the students’ achievement on Extensive Reading course variable was taken from documentation score that the Extensive Reading lecturer has. The data distribution was calculated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation to see whether there was significant relationship between the two variables. Based on the research analysis, the relationship between two variables was found at the 95% level of confidence (p < 0.05) with the score of rxy was

0.030 which was in the very weak level. So, it is considered no relationship between two variables. Moreover, the significance of t contribution revealed that the result was significant with the score of tcount was 0.1968. The score was smaller than the score of

ttable at the level significance 0.05, in which 0.1968 < 2.01669. Hence, the null

hypothesis (Ho) is accepted and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected. In

conclusion, there was no significant relationship between Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

and students’ achievement on Extensive Reading at the seventh semester students of

Department of English Education.

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SeventhSemester Sudents’ of Department of English Education).

Skripsi Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2017.

Advisor I : Ratna Sari Dewi, M. Pd., TESOL Advisor II : Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M. Hum.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bukti empiris mengenai hubungan antara tingkat kecerdasan (IQ) dan pencapaian siswa pada Extensive Reading. Populasi pada penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa semester tujuh jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Sebanyak 45 mahasiswa dari 61 mahasiswa di kelas A, B, dan C terpilih menjadi sampel dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif dengan korelasi sebagai desain penelitian. Data skor IQ diperoleh dari tes IQ yang diadakan oleh Pusat Layanan Psikologi (PLP) UIN Jakarta. Kemudian, data pencapaian (nilai) siswa pada Extensive Reading didapatkan dari dokumentasi data nilai yang dimiliki oleh dosen Extensive Reading. Data yang diperoleh, dihitung menggunakan korelasi

Pearson Product Moment untuk mengetahui apakah ada hubungan yang signifikan antara kedua variable tersebut. Berdasarkan analisa penelitian, hubungan antara kedua variable, ditemukan level signifikansi 95% (p < 0.05) dengan nilai dari rxy adalah 0.030,

yang berada pada level sangat rendah. Sehingga, hubungan antara kedua variable tersebut diabaikan atau tidak ada hubungan antara kedua variabel tersebut. Selain itu, signifikan nilai t mengungkapkan bahwa hasil tersebut signifikan dengan nilai dari thitung adalah 0.1968. Nilai tersebut lebih rendah dari nilai ttabel pada level signifikan

0.05, yaitu 0.1968 < 2.01669. Oleh karena itu, hipotesis nol (Ho) diterima dan hipotesis

alternatif (Ha) ditolak. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan signifikan antara IQ dan pencapaian mahasiswa semester tujuh Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris dalam

Extensive Reading.

Kata Kunci: Penelitian Korelasi, tingkat kecerdasan (IQ), Pencapaian Membaca,

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guidance, and strength upon the writer to finish this skripsi as the final assignment of her study. May peace and salutation always be upon the Prophet Muhammad SAW, the savior of the humankind, who has brought the light onto this world and turned it into a better place.

This skripsi is a scientific paper that is presented as one of the requirements for

the degree “S.Pd.” (S-1) in English Education Department. Completing this skripsi is

long processes and the writer would not have been able to complete the process without help and support of lecturers, institution, family, and friends. Hence, in this occasion, the writer is pleasure to acknowledge the help and contributions by conveying her gratitude to them who have helped her in completing this skripsi.

First, the writer would like to express the deepest gratitude to her great parents; her father Sutarman and her mother Nurkhayati for their love, support, and moral encouragement in motivating her to finish her study. Next, the writer would like to express the greatest honor and deepest gratitude to her advisors, Dr. Ratna Sari Dewi, M. Pd. And Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M. Hum., for the most valuable help, advice, and support during completing this skripsi.

Moreover, the writer would like to express her gratitude and appreciation to: 1. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Thib Raya, M.A., as the Dean of Faculty of Educational

Sciences who always gives all the facilities during her study.

2. Dr. Alek, M.Pd., and Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., as the Head and the Secretary of Department of English Education, for the approval to conduct this study. 3. All lecturers in the Department of English Education who always give

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2016 – 2017 academic year, as the participants of this study.

6. Her family, especially her sister, Dwi Andriani Lestari, in motivating the writer to finish her study.

7. Her senior, Mohammad Syafri, for his advice and suggest given to help her in collecting the data during writing this skripsi.

8. Her best friends; Rizki Wijayanti, Muhammad Nurul Fikri, Tutik Kusriyanti, Fadilla Yedia Rahmi, Amalia, and Anggita Alfiani for the friendship, love, knowledge, support, and time they have provided unconditionally.

9. All of her friends in the Department of English Education, especially for members of B class of 2012 for the help, encouragement, support, and love. 10.All the people who cannot be mentioned one by one for their contribution to

the writer during completing her skripsi. The words are not enough to say and appreciations for their help.

Lastly, the writer realizes that this skripsi is still far from being perfect. Despite the help from the aforementioned people, there are weakness and shortages in this skripsi that remain as the writers’ responsibility. Therefore, she welcomes all kinds of corrections and suggestions for a better writing.

Jakarta, January 16, 2016

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Table 2.2 Classification of IQ………... 19

Table 3.1 The Interpretation of Correlation………...…………... 33

Table 4.1 The Result of IQ Test……… 35

Table 4.2 Classification of IQ………... 37

Table 4.3 The Statistic Score of IQ………... 39

Table 4.4 The Scores of Extensive Reading………...……….. 40

Table 4.5 The Statistic Score of Extensive Reading……….………… 43

Table 4.6 The Linearity Test Result of Data………...……….. 44

Table 4.7 The Data Analysis of IQ and Extensive Reading Achievement………...………… 45

Table 4.8 Person Product Moment Table for the IQ and Achievement on Extensive Reading………... 48

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Appendix 2 The Syllabus of Extensive Reading……….…….….. 64

Appendix 3 Samples of Instrument in Extensive Reading……….………….... 67

Appendix 4 Pearson Product Moment Table in Significance Level 5% and 1%... 74

Appendix 5 List of Degrees of Freedom…….……….……….. 75

Appendix 6 Surat Bimbingan Skripsi………..……76

Appendix 7 Samples of Filled Test……….…... 78

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1

A. Background of the Research

Reading is one of the English language skills, classified as receptive skill. Reading is a thinking process.1 It means a reader requires responding physically,

emotionally, or intellectually with what a reader reads. As a result, reader needs to understand a text accurately and effectively in order to get some needed information in the text.

A reader needs to read a text accurately. Reader’s high accurate word recognition may indicate the accuracy in reading a text. The high reading accuracy may enable reader to understand what the author said in the text as accurate as possible. However, reader who has less accurate word recognition implies poor comprehension.2 Reader also needs to be able to answer the provided questions of a reading text as accurate as possible in order to measure the reading accuracy.

An effective reader is the one who can get full meaning out of what is read. The reader needs to understand what the writer means explicitly and implicitly. The reader also needs to have technique and certain reading speed in reading a text. The reader’s goal is not only getting information in the text, but also integrating the information into his experience. So, the reader draws conclusion of his/her reading to help him/her in making judgment and evaluation.

Most students as the readers are able to read but they may not get information in the text. For instance, based on the writer’s experience who ever taught students of Junior High School, the writer asked the students to read an English text. After that, the writer asked them about their understanding. Then, most of them could not explain what information they have gotten from the text.

1

Miles V. Zintz, Corrective Reading, (New York: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1996), p. 10.

2 Scott G. Paris and Steven A. Stahl., Children's Reading Comprehension and Assessment,

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In this case, they may get some difficulties to understand a text because of the complexity of reading material, difficult grammar, unfamiliar items of vocabulary, too long text, and so on. Each student also has different level of reading ability which may affect the reading comprehension and achievement. So, it also may affect what information they get and how they get information in reading a text.

Furthermore, it is necessary to implement a method to develop students’ reading skill. There are two familiar reading methods, extensive reading and intensive reading. Extensive reading means readers read a lot reading material and enjoy it. When readers enjoy reading, they may read faster and understand what their reading is. Then, intensive reading means readers read a short passage in order to comprehend it as well. It makes readers read slowly because they need to read and understand words by words in the text.

Maria Kredatusov, in her thesis entitled The Benefits of Extensive Reading in EFL states that extensive reading programs have become very popular in many countries over the last decades.3 The Extensive Reading program is believed to be a better method to get successful in learning and developing the English skill especially the reading skill. It may create a fun environmet to learn a language, so the learners may feel freely in learning language even they may feel like in their L1 language learning environment. Its main goal is to develop the learners’ reading habit by do reading a lot. Moreover, the Extensive Reading program give some benefits in developing reading skill, for instance; broaden readers’ knowledge, improve the vocabulary recognition, enhance the reading motivation of readers, develop the rapid reading and impulse the guessing ability in context.

However, it is not easy to implement the Extensive Reading program in learning English skill. For instance, Shanghai Senior High Schools face some challenges in implementing the Extensive Reading program. The challanges are

reluctant readers, the change of teachers’ role, the change of the classroom

culture, and students’ academic pressure from the context.4 This finding can be an

3

Maria Kredatusov, “The Benefits of Extensive Reading”, A Thesis at Pedagogical Faculty, Masaryk University, (Brno, 2007), p.7.

4 HE Mu, and Christopher F. GREEN, Challenges in implementing Extensive Reading in

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evaluation for teachers and institutions that want to adapt the Extensive Reading program.

Then, UIN Jakarta is one of the institutions in Indonesia which implements the Extensive Reading program. The Extensive Reading program becomes last stage of reading course after Reading 1, Reading II, Reading III and Reading IV. It is assigned to the fifth semester students. Based on the syllabus, the students need to read 10 appointed English novels, 8 appointed English textbooks and 10 articles from printed English journals within four months (a semester). It is a new thing for the students; the students were asked to read more than the previous reading course. So, it becomes a change of the classroom culture for students in learning reading skill.

At first, the students felt it is such a burden to finish the Extensive Reading course. They are difficult to adapt the change of the classroom culture to acquire the reading skill. They less motivates to read a lot tasks in a certain amount of time so they do not develop reading habit as well. Jeremy Harmer tells that not all of students get the reading habit in extensive reading. Some do indeed, read more and more, but the others do not.5 In other words, they may called as the reluctant readers which become a handicap to gain the main goal on Extensive Reading program.

Since Extensive Reading is the highest level in reading class, it is not easy to pass this course. As Dewi Sunarni found some factors that cause the Extensive Reading become a difficult subject for students of English Department in Atmajaya University. There are seven factors contributing the successful on Extensive Reading program; students’ attitude toward the subject, students’ skill,

students’ learning habit, the test, the textbook, the lecturer, and the learning

environment.6 So, it is clear that students need to encourage themselves to get best

result on this course.

5 Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (London: Pearson Longman,

2016), p. 320.

6Dewi Sunarni, “Some Factors That Cause the Extensive Reading Become a Difficult Subject

for Students of English Department,” A Skripsi at English Department, Faculty of Education,

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The result on this course is taken from the score in the end of the course. The score may reflect the students’ reading progress especially in making reading as a habit. It also measures students’ reading comprehension. It is taken from three assessments; formative, mid-semester test, and final-semester test.

Yet, based on data scores of students’ Extensive Reading course at the Department of English Education in UIN Jakarta, in the 2012 – 2013 academic year, the writer revealed that most of the students got the decrease of score of the final-semester test. From the observation, the writer found that 91.3% (21 of 23 persons) students who got A (< 80) in the mid-semester test score then 66.7% students got B (< 70), and 19.1% students got C (< 60) in the final-semester test score. In this case, students may be influenced by some factors in the learning process to gain the achievement.

In order to have high reading comprehension and achievement, there are two factors which may affect students. First is internal factor which is divided into two parts; physiological factor included eyes and ears and psychological factor consisting of intelligence, motivation, visual perception ability, vocabulary, attitude to read, and reading interests. Second is an external factor which affect reading ability are teaching methods, available facilities, and environment.7

One of the factors mentioned is intelligence that is fundamentally different from each student. The measurement of students’ intelligence can be known as intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ score is primarily affected by the mental age and chronological age. IQ score can be used for many contexts, for example it can

predict students’ academic achievement.

Students with high IQ indicate high reading skill and low IQ indicate low reading skill. The students with high reading skill tend to comprehend the text well then able to answer the provided questions as accurate as possible. Whereas students with low reading skill tend to be difficult in understanding then could not answer the questions as well as the students with high achievement.

7 Ratna Wulan, Peranan Inteligensi, Penguasaan Kosakata, Sikap, dan Minat terhadap

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Thus, the writer conducted a research on The Relationship between the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Students’ Achievement on Extensive Reading.

B. Identification of the Problems

Based on the background above, the problems in this study can be identified as follow:

1. Most students as the readers get some difficulties to understand a text. 2. The students see the Extensive Reading course as a difficult course.

3. The students have different internal and external factors in learning reading skill especially to gain high reading comprehension and achievement.

4. Most of the fifth semester students in Department of English Education have not been familiar themselves to read a lot of materials in certain amount of time.

5. Most of the fifth semester students in Department of English Education (85.8%) got lower final-test score than mid-test score.

C. Limitation of Problem

The writer limits the problem on number 3 since each student has different internal and external factors in learning reading skill. One of the internal factors is intelligence, in this case described through their Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Therefore, the writer would like to conduct a research on the IQ which may have relationship with the students’ achievement in Extensive Reading course of Department of English Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta.

D. Formulation of Research

Based on the limitation, the writer formulates the question of the research:

“Is there any significant relationship between Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and

students’ achievement on Extensive Reading of the Department of English

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E. Objective of Research

This research is conducted in order to find an empirical evidence of whether or not there is significant relationship between the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and students’ achievement on Extensive Reading of the Department of English Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta.

F. Significance of the Study

The result of this study is expected to give some significances not only theoretically but also practically;

1. For students, this study will realize the importance of intelligence in learning reading so they will encourage themselves to improve and develop their reading comprehension in order to get good or best achievement in Extensive Reading course.

2. For teachers, the result of this study can be useful as a reflection that it is important to know students’ intelligence in order to improve and gain their reading achievement as well.

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A. Reading Achievement on Extensive Reading

1. Definition of Reading Achievement

Reading is a way to get information in a text by understanding the text accurately and effectively. When people do reading, they may get new vocabulary items, broaden their knowledge, and learn certain language – those may be called as an achievement of reading. In learning process, the reading achievement usually measured by a set of certain tests. Students’ reading score reflects their reading achievement.

Caldwell states that reading is a process of constructing meaning. Word identification is the key that opens the door to the exciting world of comprehension.1 Supporting this definition, Fischer states in his book, reading was the simple faculty of extracting visual information from any encoded system and comprehending the respective meaning.2 So, reading is the process to get

information by understanding author’s meaning of a text.

Then, Klinger and her associates also emphasize that during reading, students need to know how to monitor their understanding, use fix-up strategies to assist with comprehension, and consider linkages between what they are reading and previous knowledge and experiences. After reading, they should summarize the key ideas they have read and respond to the material in various ways.3

1 JoAnne Schudt Caldwell, Reading Assessment : A Primer for Teachers and Coaches, (New

York: The Guilford Press, 2008), p. 132.

2 Steven Roger Fischer, A History of Reading, (London: Reaktion Book Ltd, 2003), p.12. 3Janette K. Klingner, Sharon Vaughn, and Alison Boardman, Teaching Reading

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Besides, in general, achievement means all things that people gain successfully what he or she doing is. According to Gronlund, achievement is something that students have learnt.4 It means that students need to learn a certain subject inside or outside classroom, then they may get achievement during the learning itself. In other words, achievement is as a result of evaluation and assessment in learning for a period of time.

Teachers usually give students certain of test to measure what they have learnt and mastered of a subject. Teachers make assumption about what motives or facilitate achievement based on what students do in the classroom-their performance, their behavior, how they respond to the teacher and classroom tasks, and so forth.5 In other words, the student’ achievement is a final result after following learning process which usually determined by doing such a test.

Furthermore, reading achievement is how readers comprehend a reading

material as well. High reading achievement indicates their high readers’

comprehension. As Carver states in his book, anytime that the reading achievement of students can be increased, then these students will be able to comprehend well all of the text they read more efficiently.6 So, students need to comprehend a text as well as possible to get best achievement in reading.

Since reading comprehension usually correlate to reading achievement, it can be said that the result of reading comprehension forms in the reading

achievement itself. Many teachers usually see students’ reading comprehension by

distributed a reading test then get the students’ reading achievement of the reading

itself. This statement is deal with an investigation by Hacettepe University which

administered a reading comprehension test was to measure the participants’

4 Norman E. Gronlund, Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching, (New York: Macmillan

Publishing, 1976), p.331.

5 Carl A. Grant and Christine E. Sleeter, Doing Multicultural Education for Achievement and

Enquity, (New York: Routledge, 2007), p. 36.

6 Ronald P. Carver, The Causes of High and Low Reading Achievement, (New York: Lawrence

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reading achievement.7 Also, a test designed to determine a students’ mastery of a given academic area as old as formal education itself.8

To get high reading comprehension and achievement, readers need some of conditions to make a maximum progress in learning to read. These conditions include:

a. Physical health

Students may have problems with their physical health in school learning. Physical discomfort, languor, a low energy level, and similar symptoms of health problems may often interfere with normal progress in reading. Nervous tension and even ordinary physical fatigue can reduce enjoyment and interest in reading, with consequent decline in efficiency.

b. Mental health

Among the basic developmental needs of children that affect growth in reading is a feeling of security, of being accepted and loved, and of being adequate to the tasks they are expected to carry out. Everyone performs better in any activity if he/she has self-confidence, a feeling of successful performance, and a strong desire to achieve. One cannot learn well, in reading or anything else, if he is distracted by anxieties, frustrations, and the sense of failure.

c. Sight and hearing

It has been estimated that about one fourth to one half of elementary school children are in need of visual correction. Quite probably nearly, all readers

– slow, normal, and superior – who have visual defects would improve in reading ability if their defects were corrected.

Then, a child who suffers from hearing loss is at a distinct advantage.

He/she will, for example, have difficulty in benefiting from the teacher’s oral

7 Hacettepe University, An Investigation into the Relationship Between L2 Reading Motivation

and Reading Achievement, Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences, 2015, p. 600.

8 Julian C. Stanley, Measurement in Today’s School, (New Jersey: Practice Hall Inc., 1964) p.

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explanations. Especially, if the child is taught by predominantly oral-phonetic methods, auditory acuity is important in the process of learning to read.

d. Intelligence

It is known that a fairly close relationship exist between intelligence and the ability to read. This relationship may be ascribed, in part, to the fact that the correlation between performance in intelligence tests and reading tests usually tends to be very high may mean merely that a large part of intelligence test calls for abilities closely related to the ability to read. Then, too, our general notion of intelligence places a high value on reading ability. It has been demonstrated that in our culture, and under present conditions in American schools, a child has better chance of success in reading if he has average or above average intelligence.

e. Background of experience

If it is true that success in reading depends on what the reader brings to the printed page, much significance must be attached to the body of direct and indirect experiences which he has accumulated advance of the reading. The

child’s prior stock of impressions will determine in large measure how much

meaning he will derive from the visual symbols before him. Through the synthesis of the direct impressions which can be brought about in the process of reading, the reader develops new images and concepts which enable him to extend the range of his vision of reality. Through reading, we may range in imagination over the globe, over the known universe, and over the centuries, and each new reading experience provides the background for further understanding in reading.

f. Knowledge of language

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communication. The wide experience with all kinds of language, including extensive contacts with words and sentences in meaningful situations, contributes effectively to the improvement of reading.

g. Desire and purposes for reading

The desire to read is the motivating force that leads to reading. It may simply be the desire to do what others around us are doing. It may be the desire to have needed information or to spend a pleasant leisure hour. In any case, the desire to read arises from a sense of need for reading.

Desire eventuates in purpose, which clarifies the direction effort shall take. Thus the emphasis in reading guidance should be placed not upon arbitrary teacher-direction, but upon the awakening of pupil desire, the release of pupil energy, and the development of pupil self-direction. Then, the number and types of purposes for which individuals read are almost unlimited.

h. Interest in reading

Closely related to purpose in reading is interest. Children are most likely to read with comprehension those materials which deal with topics of interest of them. In fact, it has been found that some pupils are able to read stories at a level of reading difficulty far beyond their normal abilities if the subject is one in which they are vitally interested. Thus a boy follows professional baseball closely may successfully read a sports story in newspaper even though it is several years beyond him in reading difficulty.9

In short, reading achievement is the result of students’ effort to get, understand, and acquire knowledge and skill of reading through systematic process and practices with certain strategies in period of time. It is usually measured by score of assignment and examination in reading of English subject. Furthermore, the students’ achievement may be affected by some factors, one of

the factor is students’ intelligence.

9 John J. Deboer and Martha Dallmann, The Teaching of Reading, (New York: Holt, Rinehart

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2. Definition of Extensive Reading

Based on the explanations above, it is necessary to implement a method to

develop students’ reading skill. There are two familiar reading method, extensive

reading and intensive reading. Extensive reading is the way to read a lot reading materials and enjoy it. When readers enjoy reading, they may read faster and understand what their reading is. Then, intensive reading means readers read a short text in order to comprehend it. It makes readers read slowly because they need to read and understand words by words in the text.

Brown explains about extensive reading and intensive reading in his book. Intensive reading calls students' attention to grammatical forms, discourse markers, and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implications, rhetorical relationships, and the like. Whereas extensive reading is carried out to achieve a general understanding of a usually somewhat longer text (book, long article, or essays, etc.). Most extensive reading is performed outside of class time. Pleasure reading is often extensive.10

Also, Day and Bamford explain, there are two types of reading, extensive reading and intensive reading. Extensive reading is reading a lot and widely which the main goal is to enjoy the reading itself, while intensive reading is reading a short passage in order to comprehend it as well. To differentiate the characteristics is explained as below; 11

Pedagogy, (San Fransisco: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2000), pp. 312 – 313.

11 J. Bamford and R.Day, Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language, (Cambridge:

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4. Material

So, it is clear that extensive reading and intensive reading are different in some ways, such as the purpose, the focus, the quantity of material, the speed and the method in reading.

Then, Lems and her associates define that extensive reading is reading large amounts of text for general comprehension.12 Willis also defines that extensive reading gives students multiple exposures to words and allows them to see vocabulary in rich contexts. When students choose their books they are more likely to want to take the time to discover the meaning of unfamiliar words.13 These definitions mean that extensive reading is one of ways to read many texts in order to understand the main point of the text and enrich the readers with new vocabulary items.

In extensive reading, students need to read as much as possible. It can be done in the classroom or out of the classroom. Reading outside of the classroom is more possible that inside of classroom because longer time is needed to do extensive reading. So, it needs to be in schedule then it would be habit later. The schedule will also help them to discipline in reading routinely. Besides, students can get pleasure, information and understanding in extensive reading because they can select what they want to read.

12 Kristin Lems, Leah D. Miller, and Tenena M. Soro, Teaching Reading to English

Language Learners, (New York: The Guilford Press, 2010), p. 221.

13 Judy Willis, M.D., Teaching the Brain to Read, (Alexandria: Association for Supervision

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Furthermore, Mickulecky and Jeffries state that there are some hints for success in extensive reading. The first is set a goal. The readers should decide how many books that he or she would like to read during the semester. Second, making reading a part of a daily routine is the next hint. The reader needs to set a time and place for reading. Reader needs to read at least thirty minutes at a time so that he or she can become involved in his or her book. The last is keep a journal, by writing about reaction to the book or any thoughts that are stimulated by reading can make a reader gain success in extensive reading.14

One of the bases of extensive reading is self-selection of reading material. Its meaning is students may choose what they want to read. Therefore, it is important to pay attention some hints for choosing a book;

a. Choose a book that interesting. It will make students to be motivated in reading.

b. Choose a full-length book, not a collection of articles or stories.

c. Avoid a book whose story that already familiar with because knowing what will happen may make it less interesting.

d. Evaluate the book. It is necessary to find out about the author and the genre, the style and the subject of book.

e. Check the level of difficulty. To find out how difficult the book is counting the number of unknown key words on a typical page. The book is difficult which have five unknown key words on one page and the book is easy which have no unknown keywords.15

In short, extensive reading is one of method to teach English skill, especially to acquire reading skill. It is believed that it will achieve more success

to develop students’ reading skill, compare with other method. Teacher need to do

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3. Extensive Reading Course in UIN

Extensive reading is one of the courses which has to be taken by students who have passed Reading I, Reading II, Reading III, and Reading IV course at the English Education Department. This course is one of many methods to language teaching which ask the learners to read a lot of materials in English for general,

overall meaning. It is expected to develop and improve students’ reading skill.

Students will be able to develop good reading habits, broaden their knowledge, and improve their vocabulary, and to increase the number of their reading materials in certain amount of time.

This course aims to help students to be able to read and to comprehend reading materials from articles, novels, and textbooks. Students are required to read ten appointed English novels, eight appointed English textbooks, and ten articles from printed English journals. Then, students have to write the review of the novels, the summary of the textbooks, the critical thinking essays of the articles, present one of the novel’s reviews and/or one of the textbook’s summaries, and discuss the essays.

Technically, the students need to read those reading materials outside classroom. They have certain target in a week, for instance they need to read one novel and make the novel review. The novel review is collected a day before the Extensive Reading class. Then they have a presentation to tell about the novel review in front of the class. Besides, they also have a discussion in the form of questions-answers session after a student finishes his/her presentation. However,

the lecturer calls the students to present their readings’ review randomly so they

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4. Achievement on Extensive Reading Course

From those definitions before about Extensive Reading and achievement, it can be concluded that students’ achievement on Extensive Reading course is the

result of students’ effort to get and understand knowledge and skill of reading

through systematic process, practices, and experiences in period of time.

Based on the contract of Extensive Reading course, the Extensive Reading score consists of formative score mid-test score and final-test score. First is

formative score which consists of students’ presence and students’ participation in

class discussion. Next, individual written works (ten novel reviews, eight textbook summaries and ten essays of article) is determined the mid test score. These works must be collected periodically based on the appointed time. The last is final-test

score which taken from students’ presentation in front of class. Finally, these three

scores will determine the final score of students’ achievement in Extensive

Reading course.

B. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

1. Definition of Intelligence

Intelligence relates to the human brain. It describes the process of brain to learn and understand many things in life. People’s intelligence is fundamentally different from each other, in general, in doing many activities of life. In education

area, students’ intelligence may be shown in their score of a subject. The cognitive processes or are there multiple, discreet cognitive skills such as verbal ability, numerical ability, and spatial ability.16 It means that intelligence is

person’s general ability in some mental activities, such as thinking, learning,

understanding and remembering which may be reflected his/her behavior.

16 Joseph C. Kush, Intelligence Quotient: Testing, Role of Genetics and The Environment and

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Furthermore, intelligence may consist of some areas, such as the ability to speak, the way to express things in numbers, and the process to illustrate or visualize things in some ways.

Second, Gleitman and his associates broadly put, intelligencerefers to the capacity that allows people to acquire new knowledge and use it to draw conclusions, solve problems, and adapt to new circumstances.17 Similarly, Smith

also states, intelligence is brightness, “sharpness”, ability to solve problem, speed in figuring things out, and capacity to learn from experience.18 In other words,

intelligence relates to how people think and act carefully, such as in finishing a work, facing a problem, dealing with novel situation, and so on.

However, Sdorow and Rickabaugh explain that recognizing the intelligent behavior, though, is easier than defining itself. Intelligence reflects how well we function.19 It shows that intelligence is the reflection of people performance in their daily life. In addition, intelligence relates to how people communicate to others, learn many things and achieve something as a form their best result of life. Shortly, intelligence is the human individual ability to acquire knowledge then apply it in some ways of daily life such as to behave in surroundings, do some works, solve problems, and get success. Besides, it also mostly involves the organization of the human thinking. Then, for students, intelligence may show their learning style in class and their achievement of a subject.

2. Definition of Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

The word of IQ stands for Intelligence Quotient. Generally, the IQ

becomes a measurement for people to know someone’s intelligence. The IQ may

reflect people performance in their life such as the behavior in daily life, the attitude in many things, the way of communications to others, the success of life

17 Henry Gleitman, James Gross, and Daniel Reisberg, Psychology, (New York: W.W. Norton

& Company, Inc., 2004). p. 545

18 B. Othanel Smith, Educational Psychology, (New York: Rand McNally College Publishing

Company, 1975), p. 19.

19

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and so on. Then, the IQ represent in form of IQ score which gotten by passing a set of test in certain institution.

Historically, the concept of Intelligence Quotient was introduced by German psychologist, William Stern who claimed that IQ represented the ratio of

a child’s mental age to his or her chronological age. For any chronological age,

the average IQ was arbitrarily set at 100. Obviously, if a child’s mental age was

greater than the chronological age, the child’s IQ would be above 100. If the mental age were lower than the chronological age, the child’s IQ would be below

100. The formula for calculating IQ is:20

IQ = Mental Age x 100 Chronological age

In 1905, the Minister of Public Education in Paris, France asked Alfred Binet to study the mental obstacles of children who had less developed intelligence or to identify who includes into slow learners.21 Because of that, the term intelligence is beginning to be known. In the book of Sprinthall, et al, Binet discovered the essential of intelligence to judge well, to comprehend well, and to reason well, he admits that a person can be either succeed or fail because of intelligence. Moreover, Binet believed that intelligence was a general attribute that manifested itself in many different spheres of cognitive functioning. This belief led him to construct a test that included many subtasks. He also states that IQ is an estimate of how developed the child was intellectually. 22 It means that IQ may reflect someone progress, from a child until adult, especially in developing his/her intelligence.

Briefly, someone’s intelligence can be known as Intelligence Quotient

(IQ). The IQ is the result of dividing the mental age by chronological age then

20 John M. Darley, Sam Glucksberg, and Ronald A. Kinchla, Psychology, (New York:

Prentice-Hall, 1986)¸ p. 322.

21 Lester M. Sdorow and Cheryl A. Rickabaugh, op. cit., 2002, p.305.

22 Norman A. Sprinthall and Richard C. Sprinthall, Educational Psychology, (New York:

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multiplying by number of 100. Then, people need to have a set of test in certain institution in order to get their IQ score.

3. Classification of IQ

As the explanation before, the result of the IQ test may show someone’s capability or intelligence which cannot be equal each other. The table below describes the descriptive classifications of Intelligence Quotient: 23

Table 2.2

Classification of IQ

Classification IQ

Near genius or genius 140 and above Very superior 130 – 139

Based on the implementation side, the IQ test divided into two types, they are individual test and group test. Then, there are some familiar individual tests, as explained below.

a) The Standford – Binet

The Standford – Binet Intelligence Test includes several basic categories of test items. Naturally, the items themselves vary – at age six the child may be asked to add 2 and 3, whereas at age ten he may be asked to add 37, 95, and 18.

23 Lester D. Crow and Alice Crow, Educational Psychology, (New York: American Book

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For younger, preschool children, the scale involves nonverbal items, such as placing simple blocks properly in a three-hole form board, but the tests for older children emphasize verbal skills. In general, test items fall into these categories:

Word definitions An easy word may be curtain; difficult one, ubiquiotous.

Verbal analogy problems “What is the similarity between hail and

snow?”

Adaptive problems “What would you do if the lawn mower you

were using to mow the grass broke down?” Arithmetic problems “How many 5¢ candy bars can be bought for

30¢?”

Memory “Repeat this series of numbers: 1, 3, 8, 5, 2.”

General information “Who wrote Robinson Crusoe?”

Absurdity detection “What is silly about this sentence?: A boy

says to his brother, ‘If I get home first, I’ll

write my name on the door but, if you get

there first, you erase it.’ ”

Missing-parts pictures A child is shown a picture in which a part is left out (a number on a clock, the ear of a donkey) and asked what is missing.

Spatial problems A child is asked to draw a path through a maze.

Comprehension “What should you say in a strange city when

someone asks you how to find a certain

address?”24

b) The Wechsler Scale

24 Jerome Kagan and Cynthia Lang, Psychology and Education, (New York: Harcourt Brace

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The measurement of adult IQ was greatly advanced by the development of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Then, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) designed for children aged 6 – 16. The various Wechsler Scales, although designated for different age groups, are very much alike in their basic form and types of content. They are all substantially correlated with the Stanford-Binet, with which they have much in common, but from which they differ in some important ways. The Wechsler Scales differ from the Standford-Binet by breaking down the total IQ into two separate components – a verbal IQ and a performance IQ. The Stanford-Binet contains many different

kinds of testing material mixed together, and provides a single “global” IQ score.

The WAIS, however, separates its material into eleven different subscales, which are:

1. Verbal scale

Information What is steam made of? What is pepper?

Comprehension Why do some people save sales receipts?

Arithmetic It takes 3 people 9 days to paint a house. How many would it take to do it in 3 days?

Digit repetition Repeat the following numbers in order: 1, 3, 7. 2, 5, 4

Similarities In what way are a circle and a triangle alike?

Vocabulary What is a hippopotamus?

2. Performance scale

Picture arrangement A story is told in 3 or more cartoon panels placed in incorrect order: put them together to tell the story.

Picture completion Point out what’s missing from each picture

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Object assembly Given pieces with part of a picture on each, put them together to form such objects as a hand or a face.

Digit symbol Learn a different symbol for each number and then fill in the blank under the number with the correct symbol.

The first six scales together are combined to give a verbal IQ, while the last five scales give a performance IQ. The total IQ is basically the average of the two. The verbal and performance IQs are substantially correlated with each other, and each is correlated with the Standford-Binet IQ – the verbal IQ somewhat more so. There are individual cases, however, in which the verbal and performance IQs are very different. This can often be informative and might indicate language difficulty or reading or perceptual disabilities. 25

Moreover, group tests of intelligence sacrifice the detail and the kinds of intimate personal knowledge available from an individual testing session, but they are obviously necessary if very large groups of people are to be examined. The first impetus for group tests came at the time of World War I, when the United States Army decided to test draftees. Two group tests – the Alpha and the Beta were quickly developed. Typically, the group tests are administered simultaneously to large numbers of people, with paper, pencil, and multiple choice answer blanks.26

c) The Spearman’s theory

For Spearman, intelligence consists of two kinds of factors. The first is

general factor, termed “g” for general intelligence. The higher the value of “g”,

the more intelligent a person is. The second factor is specific to particular domain of knowledge, such as verbal ability, spatial ability, or quantitative ability. These two factors are consistent with what ordinarily expect of people. Generally,

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someone who scores high on one test of intelligence, such as vocabulary, will also score high on another, such as analogical reasoning.27

He had been able to gather moderate support for Galton’s notions by correlating teachers’ ratings and grades with measures of sensory acuity, but soon

realized that the tasks assembled in the Binet-Simon scale provided a far more useful and reliable way of assessing intelligence than the tools he had been using. Even though Spearman and Binet differed widely in their views about the nature of intelligence, their combined contributions are unsurpassed in propelling the development of psychological testing in the 20th century.28

d) Raymond Cattel and John Horn

Similar with the Spearman, Cattel and Horn proposed a new model of

intelligence which broke down Spearman’s general intelligence into two distinct

but related subtypes of “g”. Crystallized intelligence (gc) is the ability to apply

previously acquired knowledge to current problems. Then, Cattel and Horn defined fluid intelligence (gf) as the ability to deal with novel problem-solving

situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution. In involves inductive reasoning and creative problem-solving skills. People high in fluid intelligence can perceive relations among stimulus patterns and draw inferences from relationship.

Therefore, Cattel and Horn concluded that over people life span, people progress from using fluid intelligence to depending more on crystallized intelligence. Early in life, people encounter many problems for the first time, so people need fluid intelligence to figure out solutions. As experience makes people more knowledgeable, people need to approach each situation as a new problem.29

In this case, one of example of the IQ test which constructed by Cattel and Horn is Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT). CFIT is such a test which would utilize only elements common to all cultures. In actual practice, the test use paper

27 Ibid, 1986, p. 318.

28 Susana Urbina, Essentials of Psychological Testing, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

2004), p.14.

29 Michael W. Passer, and Ronald E. Smith, Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior,

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and pencil or the presentation of abstract tasks which have no immediate practical significance will favor some cultural groups and handicap others.30

In the CFIT items, for the culture embedded, one can usually get to words, but not always to a single verbal symbol for the relation. There was no word in

chemistry for a “valency” for some years after the relation was dimly

apprehended. The attempt to handle intelligent discrimination in terms of semantics of verbal equivalents for relations therefore breaks down, not only for the reasons just given - mainly that words do not exist for many relations - but also because psychologists have long been aware that problem solving often occurs in any case though visual, kinesthetic, and other nameless forms of representation by imagery.31

The Culture Fair tests consist of three scales with non-verbal visual puzzles. Scale I includes eight subtests of mazes, copying symbols, identifying similar drawings and other non-verbal tasks. Both Scales II and III consists of four subtests that include completing a sequence of drawings, a classification subtest where respondents pick a drawing that is different from other drawings, a matrix subtests that involves completing a matrix of patterns and conditions subtests which involve which out of several geometric designs fulfill a specific given condition.32

5. Uses of IQ

Seeing the importance of IQ in people’s life, there are also some uses of

IQ itself as below:

a. Predict someone’s successful in his/her life.

b. Help people to determine an appropriate option of life based on their ability and interest. For instance, people who want to decide what suitable position they take in their job.

30 Anne Anastasi, Differential psychology, (New York: MacMillan Company, 1958), pp. 561

562.

31 Raymond B. Cattel, Intelligence: Its Structure, Growth, and Action, (Netherland: Elsevier

Science Publisher B.V., 1987), p. 299.

32 George Domino and Marla L. Domino, Psychological Testing: An Introduction, (New York:

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c. Help institutions such as school, to classify their students and place them as well.

d. Help teachers to make a teaching plan for students in order to gain the

learning’s goals as well.

e. Help students to gain achievement as well as possible which is appropriate to their abilities.

C. Previous Study

There are several studies concerning the influence of intelligence on

students’ reading achievement, especially on comprehension. Sharon Souther

Worth examined the relationship between reading comprehension and intelligence factors for students with reading comprehension disabilities as measured by Wechsler instruments. The study revealed that there is a relationship between reading comprehension (as assessed by the Reading Comprehension Subtest of the WIAT-III) and intelligence (a assessed by the intelligence indices of the WISC-IV). There is significant correlation between reading comprehension and intelligence greater than or equal to 0.52. Verbal comprehension (as measured by the Verbal Comprehension Index of WISC-IV) is the area of intelligence most highly correlated with reading comprehension.33

Second, Alspaugh and Burge conducted a study to analyze of basic assumptions underlying the Mental Grade and Years in School methods for determining reading expectancy. One of the findings in this study is the constant slope did not hold in actual practice. They did analysis of IQ and reading achievement for various grade levels. These findings supported by other investigation which stated there is a highly significant positive correlation between IQ and reading achievement. It is have already mentioned, Fransella and Gerver found that the relationship between IQ and reading achievement varied with the chronological age of the child and considered this sufficient basis to

33Sharon Souther Worth, “The Relationship between Reading Comprehension and Intelligence

Factors for Students With Reading Comprehension Disabilities as Measured by Wechsler

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conclude that one reading expectancy formula was not sufficient for all chronological age groups.34

Next is McMahon who observed 288 students in 4th grades. She reported that one might expect that linguistic intelligence would be related to reading comprehension given that the linguistic factor is most closely associated with reading. Linguistic intelligence can be described as the capacity to use words, which may include oral expressions, reading, and writing. Linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences were statistically significantly correlated, so it may be that linguistic preferences were in directly associated with reading comprehension. Students with higher scores on logical-mathematical intelligence were more likely to demonstrate at or above grade-level reading comprehension scores compared with students who scored lower on logical-mathematical intelligence. 35

Then, Hage and Stroud did a investigation which aimed to determine, for a particular set of conditions, some relationships among reading proficiency, verbal, and non-verbal intelligence scores. The tests used in the analyses were the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Tests, the Pressey Reading Rate, and Comprehension tests, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). These tests were administered to 800 ninth grade pupils, comprising the entire ninth grade enrollment, in 10 public schools in Northeastern Iowa. As a result, both reading rate and reading comprehension are positively correlated with verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Verbal intelligence is correlated more highly than non-verbal intelligence with all the reading and ITBS scores. Further, all levels of reading proficiency verbal intelligence scores give a somewhat better prediction of academic achievement than do nonverbal scores, although in the case of arithmetic the difference is so slight as to have no practical significance.36

34 John Alspaugh and Paul Burge, Determining of Reading Expectancy, The Journal of

Experimental Education, No.40, No.4, Summer 1972, pp. 1—5.

35 Susan D. McMahon, Dale S. Rose and Michaela Parks, Multiple Intelligences and Reading

Achievement: An Examination of the Teele Inventory of Multiple Intelligences,The Journal of

Experimental Education, Vol. 73, No. 1 (Fall, 2004), pp. 41—52.

36 Dean S. Hage and James B. Stroud, Reading Proficiency and Intelligence Scores, Verbal

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The other study was conducted by Ratna Wulan who observed the role of intelligence, vocabulary knowledge, attitudes toward reading, and interest in reading on reading comprehension among fourth graders, 9-10 years in age without any visual or auditory disturbances and mental retardation. The survey involved 377 fourth graders from 16 public elementary schools in the city of Yogyakarta. The results showed that those four predictors influenced reading comprehension (R = 0.592, F = 50.154, p < 0.05), effect size was 35% (vocabulary knowledge 29%, intelligence 5.4%, attitudes toward reading 0.6%, and interest in reading 0%).37

There has been some studies investigated which showed that intelligence related to reading comprehension or achievement. However, not many studies have investigated the intelligence, in this case is Intelligence Quotient (IQ), and correlates to reading achievement. Moreover, since there has been investigations that revealed the intelligence relates to reading achievement, so this study will examine the relationship between IQ and reading achievement on Extensive Reading course.

D. Thinking Framework

Based on the Binet’s theory which have been explained above, it can be

inferred that Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is the measurement of person’s intelligence. The IQ tells how a person develop intellectually. Then, it needs to

know the IQ because it is one factor that influences students’ learning process. It

also can predict students’ success in learning a subject. Besides, knowing the

students’ IQ may help teachers to make a plan in the learning activity. So, it facilitates both teachers and students to reach the learning’s objective.

Reading achievement is the result of what students have learned in a class.

It can describe how well the students’ comprehend a reading material in class. It

usually formed in the score at the end of reading class. Moreover, there are several factors which may affect students to have high reading comprehension and

37 Ratna Wulan, Peranan Inteligensi, Penguasaan Kosakata, Sikap, dan Minat terhadap

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achievement such as students’ reading interests, experience, background knowledge, motivation, and intelligence.

Students with high IQ indicate high reading skill and low IQ indicate low reading skill. The students with high reading skill tend to comprehend the text well then able to answer the provided questions as accurate as possible. Whereas students with low reading skill tend to be difficult in understanding then could not answer the questions as well as the students with high achievement. As De Boer states in his book, it is known that a fairly close relationship exists between intelligence and the ability to read.38

Furthermore, to know the IQ, people need to have a set of test in an institution. There are some IQ test types in this world that has been explained before. One of them is the Cattel and Horn test, which is usually called Culture Fair Intelligence Test. In this case, the CFIT is used to know the IQ of samples in this research. The CFIT consists of three scales which is arranged in form A and form B, in parallel. This test constructed by Raymond B. Cattel dan A. Karen S. Cattel, also some research’s staff of Institute of Personality and Ability Testing

(IPAT) in Illionis University, Champaign, New York, in 1949.

The CFIT means to measure the general ability, in which to measure

someone’s fluid ability. The fluid ability is someone’s cognitive ability

hereditarily. Then the fluid ability in individual growth usually called crystallized ability which is cognitive ability in the individual interaction to surrounding environment. Shortly, the IQ test is assumed as the appropriate test to conduct in

education area because it usually used to measure IQ’s people who will encounter

the higher education level.

In summary, based on explanations above, it shows that the IQ may affect the learning process especially in gaining achievement of subject—in this case is in Extensive Reading course.

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E. Theoretical Hypothesis

Based on the literature review and the previous study above, it can be proposed theoretical hypothesis that there is relationship between the intelligence

which described through Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and students’ achievement on

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30

A.Place and Time of the Research

The writer conducted the research for two months, from November to December 2016. The place of the study was at Department of English Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. It was located at Jalan Ir. Juanda No.95, Ciputat, Tangerang Selatan.

B.Method of the Research

The method of this study was quantitative method. Meanwhile the research design of this study was correlational study with analysis of Product Moment according to Karl Pearson. It is usually used to correlate one variable to another variable based on its correlation coefficient value. It is useful to find out and describe the significance of the correlation between two variables, variable X and variable Y.1

In this study, the variable X was “Intelligence Quotient (IQ)” which was known as independent variable. Then, the Y variable was “reading achievement of Extensive Reading” which was known as dependent variable.

C.Population and Sample

The population in this research is the seventh semester students of Department of English Education at Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta in the 2013 – 2014 academic year. There were 3 classes; 7A, 7B, and 7C which each class consisted of 22, 21, 18 students. The total numbers of 3 classes were 61 students. Then, to choose the sample, the writer used purposive sampling technique. One of the consideration to choose the sample was the students who have already passed or learned the Extensive Reading course. Therefore, the study was considered to take large sample for collecting data consisted of 45 students.

1 Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT Grafindo Persada, 2000), pp. 177

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D.Technique of Data Collection

To get the data for the variable Y, the writer cooperated with an institution that is Psychology Service Centre of UIN Jakarta— usually called Pusat Layanan

Psikologi (PLP) to hold an IQ test program.

The Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) is used to measure the IQ score which would utilize only elements common to all cultures. The Culture Fair tests consist of three scales with non-verbal visual puzzles. Scale I includes eight subtests of mazes, copying symbols, identifying similar drawings and other non-verbal tasks. Both Scales II and III consists of four subtests that include completing a sequence of drawings, a classification subtest where respondents pick a drawing that is different from other drawings, a matrix subtests that involves completing a matrix of patterns and conditions subtests which involve which out of several geometric designs fulfill a specific given condition.2

The CFIT test is a test which measure cognitive ability and devoid of sociocultural and environmental influences. Since the cognitive ability may affect a learning process, it considers to conduct such a kind of test. Besides, the CFIT test is usually used to measure IQ of people who will enroll the higher education level. Besides, the students’ achievement of Extensive Reading course variable is taken from documentation score that the reading lecturer has.

E.Technique of Data Analysis

After getting those data, the writer has to analyze the data and correlate

between the students’ IQ score and the score of Extensive Reading course. The

writer did description analysis to describe the data statistically.

Then, the study used formula of Pearson Product Moment Correlation:3

2 George Domino and Marla L. Domino, Psychological Testing: An Introduction, (New York:

Cambridge University Press, 2006), p.282.

3 Riduwan and Akdon, Rumus dan Data dalam Analisis Statistika, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2013),

Gambar

Table 2.1 Description of Extensive and Intensive Reading…………………….. 12
Figure 4.2 The Histogram Data of Extensive Reading Achievement………...… 42
Table 2.1 Description of Extensive and Intensive Reading
Table 2.2 Classification of IQ
+7

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