2 Ch 3 Section B Operating Systems

21 

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Teks penuh

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Chapter 3

Computer Software

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An

operating system

(OS) is the

master controller for all of the activities

that take place within a computer.

Microsoft Windows XP, Mac OS, Linux,

UNIX

The operating system also interacts

with application software, device

drivers and hardware to manage a

computer’s resources

Operating System Overview:

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Why does an operating system

need to manage memory?

• When you want to run more than one program at a time, the OS has to divide up memory and set aside RAM for each program

• The OS must ensure that

instructions and data from one area of memory don’t “leak” into an area allocated to another

program

If it fails, data can get corrupted,

programs can “crash” and your computer will display error

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The OS acts as a filing clerk that stores

and retrieves files from your disks and

CDs

It remembers the names and locations of

all your files

It keeps track of empty spaces where new

files can be stored

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To ensure that they function correctly

OS communicates with the device

driver software so that the data can

travel smoothly between the computer

and the peripheral device

OS controls peripherals to ensure input

and output proceeds in an orderly

fashion

Why does the operating system

get involved with peripheral

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A

user interface

can be defined as the

combination of hardware and software

that helps people and computers

communicate with each other

Two types of user interfaces

Graphical user interface

(GUI) provides

a way to point and click a mouse to select

menu options and manipulate graphical

objects that are displayed on the screen

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Command-line user interface

requires

users to type various memorized

commands to run programs and

accomplish tasks

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• Stored on the hard disk on most computers

• The OS’s small bootstrap program resides on the Master Boot Record (MBR) and provides the

instructions to load the core parts into memory when system boots

– These core components are called the kernel, and

provides the most essential OS services, such as memory management and file access

• The kernel stays in memory all the time your computer is on

• Other parts of the OS, such as customization

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Yes, typically through helpful tools

called

utilities

, which are used to

Launch programs

Manage files

Get help

Customize the user interface

Configures equipment

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Microsoft Windows

– Installed on over 80% of the world’s PCs

– Since its introduction in 1985, it has evolved

through several versions, such as Windows 3.1, NT, 95, 98, Me, 2000 and XP

Mac OS

– Used with Macintosh computers, manufactured by Apple Computer. Inc.

– PC and Mac platforms are not compatible

Platform refers to the combination of a computer’s

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UNIX

– Developed in 1969

– Command-line interface

– Many versions became available for mainframes and microcomputers

Linux

– Developed in 1991 by Linus Torvald as a school project, based on UNIX

Linux is free

– Popular OS for e-mail and Web servers

– Most Linux versions have a GUI interface

• Red Hat Linux, Caldera OpenLinux, Debian, SuSE

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Developed several years before

windows, it still has a GUI interface

Both have windows, icons, menus and

pointers

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First operating system that most people

have used

DOS

(Disk Operating System) was

developed by Microsoft

Is part of the operating system kernel of

Windows 3.1, 95, 98 and ME

DOS is well hidden behind the Windows GUI

– Found in the MS-DOS Prompt in the Start menu

Why do I keep hearing about

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“DOS Command-Line Interface”

Classic Course Labs

Found in your

Computer Concepts BookOnCD

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What are the options for PDA

operating systems?

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1. To run more than one program at a time, the OS must allocate specific areas of _______ for each program.

2. A _______ is the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers

communicate.

3. The core part of an OS is called its _______.

4. List 3 popular operating systems: _______, _______, _______

5. Windows uses a _______ interface.

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1. To run more than one program at a time, the OS must allocate specific areas of RAM for each program.

2. A user interface is the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate.

3. The core part of an OS is called its kernel .

4. List 3 popular operating systems: Windows ,

Mac OS , Linux

5. Windows uses a graphical user interface.

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“Using the Windows Interface”

New Perspectives Labs

Found in your

Computer Concepts BookOnCD

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