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ABSTRACT

Kumoro, Ardhi Cahyanto. (2016). Designing A Vocabulary Size Test for the Sixth Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. English Language

Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

Vocabulary becomes an important aspect in second language learning as well as the skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking (Mehring, 2005). It is important to know the students’ vocabulary size so that the lecturers can design the teaching and learning materials that is suitable with the students’ needs. The fact that ELESP Sanata Dharma University does not have any test to measure the students’ vocabulary size leads the researcher to design a vocabulary size test especially for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University.

There were two questions to be answered, namely (1) how is a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University designed? and (2) What does a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University look like?

The researcher used Research and Development method. Three steps of Morrison et al. (2011) instructional design model is employed in designing the vocabulary size test. They were learners and contexts, development of the instrument, and evaluating the instrument.

The first step: learners and contexts, shows that the sixth semester students were still confused with the low-frequency words and probably they were not familiar and not accustomed yet to use it. There were five steps to designing the test namely sampling the words for the test items, making the stem, writing the choices, and ordering the test items in the test. The third step: evaluating the instrument, shows that all of the evaluators agree with the statements in the questionnaire. Hence, the designed test is good and it is suitable with the students’ needs. The test consists of 100 items. The test items are divided in 10 level of synonym test format in a form of multiple-choice questions. The test items are taken from the General Service List (GSL). The difficulty of the test increases from high-frequency words to low-frequency words. The answer and distractors of each question are taken from the same level and same part of speech.

Keywords: Research and development, vocabulary size test, sixth semester

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ABSTRAK

Kumoro, Ardhi Cahyanto. (2016). Designing A Vocabulary Size Test for the Sixth Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. Program Studi Pendidikan

Bahasa Inggris, Departemen Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Kosakata menjadi salah satu aspek penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa asing yang sama pentingnya dengan kemampuan membaca, menulis, mendengar, dan berbicara (Mehring, 2005). Sangat penting untuk memahami ukuran dari kosakata mahasiswa. Dengan demikian, para dosen dapat mendesain materi pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan mahasiswa

Ada dua pertanyaan yang akan dijawab di dalam penelitian ini, yaitu: (1) bagaimana tes pengukuran kosakata untuk mahasiswa semester 6 program studi PBI Universitas Sanata Dharma dibuat? dan (2) bagaimana bentuk dari tes pengukuran kosakata untuk mahasiswa semester 6 program studi PBI Universitas Sanata Dharma?

Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti menggunakan metode Penelitian dan Pengembangan. 3 tahap desain instruksi yang dikembangkan oleh Morrison dkk. (2011) digunakan oleh peneliti dalam pembuatan tes pengukuran kosakata. 3 tahap tersebut adalah siswa dan konteks, pengembangan instrumen, dan evaluasi instrumen.

Langkah pertama, siswa dan konteks menunjukkan bahwa mahasiswa semester 6 masih belum paham dengan kosakata yang jarang dipakai di Bahasa Inggris. Ada 5 tahapan yang harus dilalui untuk dapat membuat tes pengukuran kosakata yaitu: pemilihan kata untuk butir soal, pembuatan kerangka soal, membuat pilihan, dan penyusunan butir-butir soal ke dalam tes. Langkah ketiga menunjukkan hasil dari evaluasi tes. Semua penilai setuju dengan pernyataan yang diberikan di dalam kuesioner. Dengan demikian tes yang dibuat sudah baik dan memenuhi kebutuhan mahasiswa. Hasil penelitian yang kedua menunjukkan bahwa tes pengukuran kosakata tersebut terdiri dari 100 butir soal yang dibagi ke dalam 10 tingkatan. Tes pengukuran kosakata tersebut berbentuk soal pilihan ganda dan merupakan tes persamaan kata.

Kata kunci: Instructional design, vocabulary size test, sixth semester students of

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DESIGNING A VOCABULARY SIZE TEST FOR THE SIXTH

SEMESTER STUDENTS OF ELESP SANATA DHARMA

UNIVERSITY

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Ardhi Cahyanto Kumoro Student Number: 121214124

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

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iv

I can do all things through Christ who

gives me strength.

Phillipians 4:13

I dedicate this Thesis to:

Jesus Christ,

My Mom and Dad,

Tri Cahyono & Dyah Siamsari Ardhi

My sister and my brother,

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vii

ABSTRACT

Kumoro, Ardhi Cahyanto. (2016). Designing A Vocabulary Size Test for the Sixth Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. English Language

Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

Vocabulary becomes an important aspect in second language learning as well as the skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking (Mehring, 2005). It is

important to know the students’ vocabulary size so that the lecturers can design the

teaching and learning materials that is suitable with the students’ needs. The fact that ELESP Sanata Dharma University does not have any test to measure the

students’ vocabulary size leads the researcher to design a vocabulary size test especially for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University.

There were two questions to be answered, namely (1) how is a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University designed? and (2) What does a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University look like?

The researcher used Research and Development method. Three steps of Morrison et al. (2011) instructional design model is employed in designing the vocabulary size test. They were learners and contexts, development of the instrument, and evaluating the instrument.

The first step: learners and contexts, shows that the sixth semester students were still confused with the low-frequency words and probably they were not familiar and not accustomed yet to use it. There were five steps to designing the test namely sampling the words for the test items, making the stem, writing the choices, and ordering the test items in the test. The third step: evaluating the instrument, shows that all of the evaluators agree with the statements in the questionnaire. Hence, the designed test is good and it is suitable with the students’ needs. The test consists of 100 items. The test items are divided in 10 level of synonym test format in a form of multiple-choice questions. The test items are taken from the General Service List (GSL). The difficulty of the test increases from high-frequency words to low-frequency words. The answer and distractors of each question are taken from the same level and same part of speech.

Keywords: Research and development, vocabulary size test, sixth semester

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viii

ABSTRAK

Kumoro, Ardhi Cahyanto. (2016). Designing A Vocabulary Size Test for the Sixth Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. Program Studi Pendidikan

Bahasa Inggris, Departemen Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Kosakata menjadi salah satu aspek penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa asing yang sama pentingnya dengan kemampuan membaca, menulis, mendengar, dan berbicara (Mehring, 2005). Sangat penting untuk memahami ukuran dari kosakata mahasiswa. Dengan demikian, para dosen dapat mendesain materi pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan mahasiswa

Ada dua pertanyaan yang akan dijawab di dalam penelitian ini, yaitu: (1) bagaimana tes pengukuran kosakata untuk mahasiswa semester 6 program studi PBI Universitas Sanata Dharma dibuat? dan (2) bagaimana bentuk dari tes pengukuran kosakata untuk mahasiswa semester 6 program studi PBI Universitas Sanata Dharma?

Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti menggunakan metode Penelitian dan Pengembangan. 3 tahap desain instruksi yang dikembangkan oleh Morrison dkk. (2011) digunakan oleh peneliti dalam pembuatan tes pengukuran kosakata. 3 tahap tersebut adalah siswa dan konteks, pengembangan instrumen, dan evaluasi instrumen.

Langkah pertama, siswa dan konteks menunjukkan bahwa mahasiswa semester 6 masih belum paham dengan kosakata yang jarang dipakai di Bahasa Inggris. Ada 5 tahapan yang harus dilalui untuk dapat membuat tes pengukuran kosakata yaitu: pemilihan kata untuk butir soal, pembuatan kerangka soal, membuat pilihan, dan penyusunan butir-butir soal ke dalam tes. Langkah ketiga menunjukkan hasil dari evaluasi tes. Semua penilai setuju dengan pernyataan yang diberikan di dalam kuesioner. Dengan demikian tes yang dibuat sudah baik dan memenuhi kebutuhan mahasiswa. Hasil penelitian yang kedua menunjukkan bahwa tes pengukuran kosakata tersebut terdiri dari 100 butir soal yang dibagi ke dalam 10 tingkatan. Tes pengukuran kosakata tersebut berbentuk soal pilihan ganda dan merupakan tes persamaan kata.

Kata kunci: Instructional design, vocabulary size test, sixth semester students of

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ix

ACKNOWLEDMENTS

First of all, I would like to send my deepest gratitude to my Shepherd, Jesus

Christ, for His relentless blessing, guidance, and boundless love that it has been

possible for me to finish this research and complete my study triumphantly.

Then, I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Pak Agustinus Hardi

Prasteyo, S.Pd., M.A. for helping and guiding me to write this undergraduate

thesis. His help encouraged me to finish this undergraduate thesis. I would also thank my academic advisor, Miss Laurentia Sumarni, S.Pd., M.Trans.St., for her suggestion and support during my study in this university. I would also send my appreciation to all PBI lecturers for their lectures and guidance.

Next, I would love to give my biggest gratitude to my beloved father, Tri

Cahyono for always giving me advice and support to finish my study. I would love

to thank my beloved mother, Dyah Siamsari Ardhi for always praying for me and supporting me in life. I also thank my sister, Belinda Putri Ervitasari and my brother, Christian Nathanael Tristano for giving me cheerfulness throughout my life.

I also love to give my deepest gratitude to my beloved partner in life, Apfia

Tamariska. I thank her for her love, patience, and support given to me. I also thank

her for always being by my side in my ups and downs. Next, I would express my gratitude to all of my friends in Genggong Group and Tengkyuu Broo! Group, for always sharing their happiness with me. I would also thank the members of

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photography with me. My gratitude also goes to the members of PBI 2012 Class E for becoming my family in this university. Then, I would thank my partner during this collaborative study, Kadek Wardana and Riyo Irfan Subrata for sharing their knowledge and ideas about this study.

The last, I would express my gratitude to those whose name cannot be mentioned one by one for the support given to me. May Jesus bless them all.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TITLE PAGE ... i

APPROVAL PAGES ... ii

DEDICATION PAGE ... iii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... iv

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ... v

ABSTRACT ... vii

ABSTRAK ... viii

ACKNOWLEDMENTS ... ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... xi

LIST OF TABLES ... xiii

LIST OF FIGURES ... xiv

LIST OF APPENDICES ... xv

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Problem Formulation ... 3

C. Problem Limitation ... 4

D. Objectives of the Study ... 4

E. Research Benefits ... 4

F. Definition of Terms ... 6

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Theoretical Review ... 8

B. Theoretical Framework ... 18

CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METODHOLOGY A. Methodology ... 19

B. Research Setting ... 24

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xii

D. Research Instruments and Data Gathering Technique ... 25

E. Data Analysis Technique ... 27

F. Research Procedures ... 28

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. The Steps in Designing a Vocabulary Size Test for the Sixth Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University ... 29

B. The presentation of the Designed Test ... 35

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. Conclusions ... 37

B. Recommendations ... 39

REFERENCES ... 42

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xiii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Vocabulary size to get 98% coverage in various kinds

of written texts ... 11

Table 3.3 Nation vocabulary test’s (2007) word target ... 26

Table 4.1 The findings of the preliminary test ... 30

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xiv

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.2 Example Test Item of Receptive Vocabulary Size Test ... 12 Figure 2.3 Example Test Item of Vocabulary Size Test ... 12 Figure 3.1 The Basic Components of Instructional Design

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xv

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A. Instrument for Preliminary Test ... 45

Appendix B. The Result of the Preliminary Test ... 54

Appendix C. The Findings of the Evaluation ... 56

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1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The first chapter is divided into six parts. The first part is the background of the study which covers the rationale of the research. The second is the problem formulation part which shows the problem that will be discussed by the researcher. Third, the problem limitation part explains the limitation of the research. Fourth, the research objectives part reveals the purposes of the research. Fifth, the benefits of the research show the benefits from conducting the research. The last, definition of terms part presents some definitions used in the research to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation.

A. Background of the Study

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importance of vocabulary. He says, “If language structures make up the skeleton of language, then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh” (p. 153).

There is a relationship between vocabulary knowledge and language use. Nation (2001) describes that vocabulary knowledge enables language use, then language use enables the increase of vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of the world enables the increase of vocabulary knowledge and language use. Accordingly, Nation (2008) argues that learners may not be able to express their ideas because they may not have enough vocabulary. On the other hand learners may know the vocabulary, but they may not be able to use the vocabulary correctly. Hence, learning and understanding the vocabulary knowledge will lead to the increase of vocabulary knowledge and language use.

The background knowledge of the importance of vocabulary in English as a Second Language (ESL) leads the researcher to conduct a research on the vocabulary size of the students in English Language Education Study Program (ELESP) or in Bahasa Indonesia, it is called as Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (PBI) Sanata Dharma University. It is a study program in Sanata Dharma University in which English becomes the language of instruction. The students’ vocabulary size

information will be very important for the improvement of the learning process in this study program. However, ELESP does not have a kind of a test to measure the students’ vocabulary size. Accordingly, the researcher decided to design a set of

vocabulary size test to measure ELESP students’ vocabulary size.

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choosing these students as the subject of the research. The sixth semester is one of the most challenging semesters in ELESP Sanata Dharma University. There is a course where the students will practice their knowledge about teaching and learning English in the class namely Micro Teaching. In this class, every student is going to be a teacher in front of their friends. Students’ vocabulary knowledge is tested here since they need to practice their vocabulary knowledge orally. The sixth semester is also the preparation time for the students to face the Thesis Proposal in the next semester. It is a course in which the students start to write their thesis or final paper. Therefore, the ability to use vocabulary in context is important.

Accordingly, the researcher is going to design a vocabulary size test which suitable with the sixth semester students’ characteristics. Hence, conducting a preliminary test is needed in order to find the background information or the characteristics of the students. Then, the form of the test items is adjusted to the objective of the test. The test will be in a form of multiple-choice format. There will be some levels of words containing the high-frequency words and low-frequency words.

B. Problem Formulation

The general problem of the research, which is vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University, is broken down into more specific problems below.

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2) What does a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University look like?

C. Problem Limitation

The researcher limited the research only into designing a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. Hence, the researcher only designed a vocabulary size test to test the receptive vocabulary skills. Therefore, the test was adjusted to the characteristics of the students.

D. Objectives of the Study

Based on the problem formulation above, there are two main objectives in this research. They are:

1) This research is aimed to show how a set of vocabulary size for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University is designed.

2) This research is aimed to present a set of vocabulary size for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University.

E. Research Benefits

The researcher believes that this research is beneficial and useful for:

1. ELESP Students

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them to get further understanding in the study of vocabulary, especially about the vocabulary level test.

2. Lecturers in ELESP Sanata Dharma University

This research provides the design of the vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. Therefore, by conducting this test, the lecturers in ELESP Sanata Dharma University will be able to understand the vocabulary size of their students. Hence, the lecturers can design the best materials that fit the students’ vocabulary size.

3. English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma

University

This research is to show the vocabulary test design for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. Later on, the result of the vocabulary test can be used as a foundation to evaluate the teaching and learning process in ELESP of Sanata Dharma University regarding to the vocabulary size of their students.

4. Future Researchers

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F. Definition of Terms

This research is concerned with designing a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. In order to avoid misunderstanding or misinterpretation of some words and the concepts that are used in this research, the researcher presents the sufficient information about some terms used in the research. The terms to be described are vocabulary size, Nation’s vocabulary size test, sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University, and instructional design.

1. Vocabulary Size

Vocabulary size covers the number of vocabulary knowledge the learners have. According to Nation (2011), vocabulary size is important for planning, diagnosis, and research. In this study, the researcher is trying to find out the vocabulary size of the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University through the preliminary test which is taken from Nation’s Vocabulary Size Test.

Later on, the result from the preliminary test will be useful for the researcher to decide which test design is suitable with the students need.

2. The Sixth Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University

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3. Instructional Design

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8

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The second chapter of this thesis discuses theories that is used in this research. There are two parts presented by the researcher in this chapter. The first part is the theoretical review. It consists of brief discussions of some theories used as the foundation of the research. The second part is the theoretical framework which is the frame theories for conducting this research.

A. Theoretical Review

1. Vocabulary

In language learning, vocabulary takes place in building the language proficiency. Accordingly, it is important for the students to master the vocabulary in language learning. According to Nation (2001), there are four kinds of vocabulary in the text. They are high-frequency words, academic words, technical words, and low-frequency words. The following are the explanation of each kind of vocabulary.

a. High-frequency Words

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conversation, and et cetera. The example of high-frequency words are ran, after,

need, and head.

b. Academic Words

Academic words are words which can be found in an academic textbook. It contains many words which are common in different kinds of academic texts, like,

policy, phase, adjusted, and sustained. This group of words usually make up about

9% of the running words in the text. An academic word list is made by deciding on the high-frequency words of English. Then, a range of academic texts is going to be examined in order to find out what words that do not belong to the high-frequency words, but had wide range and reasonable high-frequency of occurrence.

c. Technical Words

The example of technical words can be found at technical dictionaries, like dictionaries of economics, geography, or electronics. These words include

indigenous, regeneration, podocarp, beech, and rimu (a New Zealand tree).

Usually, if there are any technical words in the text, it will be marked in italics like the low-frequency words. Technical words like these usually cover about 5% of the running words in a text.

d. Low-frequency Words

Low-frequency words include words like zoned, pioneering, perpetuity,

aired, and pastoral. This kind of words includes all the words that do not include

neither high-frequency words, academic words, nor technical words. Nation (2008) in his book explain low-frequency words as:

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(2) technical words from other areas (one person’s technical vocabulary is another person’s low-frequency vocabulary, and (3) words that just occur rarely.” (p. 11)

Low-frequency words are usually marked in italics. In friendly conversation, about 5% of the running words are low-frequency words, in newspaper they are about 10%, meanwhile in academic texts about 10%.

Then, Haycraft, as quoted by Hatch and Brown (1995), divides vocabulary into two distinctions namely receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary. Receptive vocabulary is words which learners can recognize and understand when they are used in context. It is vocabulary that learners recognize when they see it in context but do not use it in speaking and writing (Webb, 2009). Meanwhile, productive vocabulary is words which learners understand and can pronounce correctly and use grammatically correct in both speaking and writing. Productive vocabulary involves what learners needed for receptive vocabulary added with the ability to speak or write at the appropriate time (Webb, 2009).

2. Vocabulary Size

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Table 2.1 Vocabulary Size to Get 98% Coverage in Various Kinds of Written Texts

1) Measuring Vocabulary Size

It is not easy to plan an appropriate vocabulary development program without knowing the students’ vocabulary size. Accordingly, Nation (2012) states that vocabulary size measurement is important for planning, diagnosis, and research. The result of the vocabulary measurement can be used as the guideline to plan an appropriate vocabulary development program.

a) Receptive Vocabulary Size Test (RVST)

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Figure 2.2 Example Test Item of Receptive Vocabulary Size Test

b) Vocabulary Size Test (VST)

Vocabulary Size Test and Receptive Vocabulary Size Test are quite different. The goal from the Vocabulary Size Test itself is to measure the second language learner’s receptive vocabulary in English. However, Nation (2012) defines that VST is designed both for the first and second language learner’s written receptive vocabulary in English. The VST contains 140 multiple-choice items with 10 items from each 1,000 family level with the form of a short non-defining context. Later on, the students’ total score needs to be multiplied by 100 in order to get the

total score of receptive vocabulary size (Nation, 2012). The example of the test items is shown in Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3 Example Test Item of Vocabulary Size Test

SEE: They saw it. a. cut

b. waited for c. looked at

d. started

2) Sources of Word Lists

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high-frequency words. These 2,000 vocabulary words are then known as the General Service List (GSL). The GSL contains 80% coverage of all words in written texts and 90% of words in spoken English. The list is then updated on the 60th anniversary of West’s first publication of GSL. Nation and his colleagues were the man behind the creation of the New General Service List (NGSL). The list now has approximately 2,800 high-frequency words.

3) How to Make A Good Vocabulary Test

According to Nation (2001), there are three criteria to make a good vocabulary size test namely reliability, validity, and practicality. First, reliability is the degree in which the test presents stable and consistent result. It should not make any difference whether the learners take the test on a day or the next day.

Secondly, validity refers to how well a test measures what it is purposed to measure. It is valid if the test is suited to the level of the learners, then the vocabulary knowledge being measured is as close as possible to the knowledge and skills learners’ have. Thus, it would be more valid if the learners take the test seriously and independently.

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After knowing the criteria to make a good vocabulary test, the researcher adapted Nation’s (2012) procedure to design the test item. There are five steps the researcher follows in making the test, which are:

a. Sampling the Words

The test items need to represent various frequency levels without making any biases in particular frequency levels. The researcher took the test items from various frequency levels of words families which occurred in the British National Corpus according to Bauer and Nations (1993 as cited in Nation 2012). The researcher selected 10 words from each vocabulary level.

b. Making the Stems

The test items use a 4-choice multiple-choice format. The item stem consists of the word followed by a very simple non-defining sentence containing the word. The roles of the non-defining sentence are (1) indicating the part of speech of the word, (2) limiting the meaning of the word where words may have a homograph or very different senses, and (3) slightly cueing the meaning by presenting the example of use.

c. Writing the Choices

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d. The Order of the Items in the Test

The test items usually are arranged in sequential order. The high-frequency words are usually arranged in the first half of the test. Meanwhile the low-frequency words are arranged in the other half of the test. Hence, the researcher mixed the test items in order to avoid the learners giving up during the later levels.

e. Piloting

Piloting the stems can be done by (1) getting applied linguists or expert of English to individually read and criticize the test, (2) replacing the target word with any words and getting the applied linguists or expert of English to try to choose the correct answer, and (3) running the tests through the Range program to check the frequency levels of words used in the contents and choices.

After following the Nation’s specification in making the test, the researcher created the formats for assessing receptive vocabulary. There are two common formats for assessing receptive vocabulary, namely multiple-choice and matching.

a. Multiple-Choice Question (MCQ) Format

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There are some advantages of using this format. The first one is reliable, because the test give the same result for the same person. The second one is practical: the test is easy to use and easy to mark. Then, students from most parts of the world are familiar with this kind of format.

According to Heaton (1975), there are six principles for constructing a MCQ. The first one is each multiple-choice item should have only one answer. This answer must be absolutely correct unless the instruction specifies choosing the best option. The second one, only one feature at a time should be tested: it is usually less confusing for the test-takers and it helps to reinforce a particular teaching point. The third, each option should be grammatically correct when placed in the stem, except of course in the case of specific grammar test items. For example, stems ending with the determiner a, followed by options in the form of nouns or noun phrases, sometimes trap the unwary test constructor. The fourth, all multiple-choice items should be at a level appropriate to the proficiency level of the test-takers. The context, itself, should be at a lower level than the actual problem which the item is testing: a vocabulary item should not contain more difficult semantic features in the stem than the area being tested. The fifth, multiple-choice items should be as brief and as clear as possible. The last, the items should be in rough order of increasing difficulty.

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1) Synonym recognition

Synonym recognition test is a kind of test in which the test-takers should choose the synonym word from the tested word. There will be a bolded word which becomes the tested word. The following is the example of the synonym recognition test:

The teacher was furious when she heard the students talking during the test. a. Angry

b. Calm c. Happy d. Delighted

2) Definition recognition

In this test, the test-takers should define the definition or the meaning of the bolded word. The following is the example of the synonym recognition test:

She is someone I absolutely adore. a. Give a round of applause to b. Feel attraction for

c. Am revolted by d. Disapprove of

3) Meaning in context

In this test, the test-takers should fill the blank space with the correct answer. The blank space should be filled with the word which fits with the context. The following is the example of the meaning in context test.

The townspeople were ______ by the typhoon that hit their coastline. Everyone had to move to a new area.

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4) Odd one out

Odd one out test requires the test-takers to choose the correct answer which is different with the other three choices. The following is the example of the meaning in context test.

One of four words or idioms is different from the other three. Circle the letter of your choice.

a. Construction b. Electrician c. Decorator d. Surveyor

b. Matching Format

Matching questions usually present the test-takers with two columns of information. Their task is to find the matches between the two columns. The test items in the left-hand column are called premises and the test items in the right-hand column are called options. Coombe (2011) argues that the tester must include more options than the premises. The options are also shorter than the premises. Both options and premises are in the one theme.

______ ______ ______ ______

1. When you are introduced to someone new. 2. To apologize to someone.

3. You don’t know the answer to a question. 4. When you are joking with someone.

a. I’m sorry b. Stop it

c. Nice to meet you d. I’ve got it

e. I’m just kidding f. I give up

B. Theoretical Framework

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students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University look like?, the researcher used the theory of how to design a good vocabulary size test. According to Nation (2001) there are three criteria to design a good vocabulary size test namely validity, reliability, and practicality. Then, the researcher employed Nation (2012) specifications for making the vocabulary size test. Accordingly, the researcher was able to select the appropriate format, decide the number of test items, the word targets, distractors, and set time allocation of the test.

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20

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The third chapter of this thesis is the research methodology that is used by the researcher during the research. The first part of this chapter presents the discussions about the method used in this research. The second part presents the discussion of the participants under research. The third part presents the research instrument used by the researcher. The fourth part presents about the data gathering procedure and the fifth part presents the discussions of the data analysis procedure.

A. Methodology

In order to answer the research problems mentioned in the first chapter, the researcher employed Research and Development method. In this case, the researcher employed Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp’s (2011) instructional design model to design the test. This instructional design is built based on the four elements below:

1. For whom is the program developed? 2. What is the objectives of the program?

3. How do the learners learn the subject content or skill?

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The four basic components form the framework for systematic instructional planning which is depicted in the following figure:

Figure 3.1 The basic components of Instructional Design (Morrison et al., 2011)

Based on the four basic components mentioned above, Morrison et al. (2011) divide the complete instructional design into nine steps. The following is the nine steps of the instructional design.

1. Instructional Problems

The first step in designing an instructional design is instructional problems. It is the process to identify the students’ need and performance problem which need to be solved. In another word, in this step the designer needs to specify the goals for designing an instructional design program.

2. Learners and Contexts

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knowledge, or working experience. This information depends on the problem and who is the target audience is. It is important that the designer should understand the learners’ characteristics so that he can design an appropriate design that will give

impact on the instructional outcomes.

3. Task Analysis

The third step is one of the most important elements of the instructional design. In the task analysis step, the designer identifies the subject content and analyzes the task component related to stated goals and purpose. From this activity, the designer can determine what knowledge and procedure needed to help the learners master the objectives.

4. Instructional Objectives

In instructional objectives, the designer states the instructional objectives for the learner. After that, the designer can solve the performance problem with the appropriate strategies and assessments. In this step, the designer can also start to design the test.

5. Content Sequencing

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6. Instructional Strategies

In this step, the designer needs to create an innovation and be more creative in presenting the test. The goal is that each learner can integrate the new information with the ideas they have already understood.

7. Designing the Message

Designing the message is the seventh step in designing the instructional design. Designing the message means the designer needs to form a meaningful pattern of words and pictures to create communication with our learners. Selecting appropriate graphics, text and typographical design can further improve the readability and the learners’ understanding of the instruction.

8. Development of the Message

The eighth step is the process of developing evaluation instruments to assess the instructional objectives. These instruments can be a form of video recording, web page, printable material, or audiotape. This step can be done once the designer completed the analysis of the learners and designing the instructional strategies into one part.

9. Evaluation Instruments

The last step is evaluating instruments. This is the process of developing the evaluation instruments in order to assess learners’ mastery of the objectives. This

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Those nine steps above give the complete steps in designing instructional design. They overlap and are presented in an oval shape as seen in the Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 Instructional Design Model (Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp, 2011)

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B. Research Setting

The research was conducted in the English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University. The preliminary test was distributed to the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University on Mrican Micro

Teaching Laboratory on April 4, 2016. The preliminary test involved the sixth

semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University who took Micro Teaching course. The research was conducted for three months starting from May until June 2016.

C. Research Participants

There were two groups of participants in this research. They were the participants of data collection and the participants of material validation. The researcher discussed the two groups of participant as follows:

1. Participants of Data Collection

The researcher needed to determine the population and the sample of the research. Accordingly, the target population of this research was the Micro

Teaching students C of the ELESP Sanata Dharma University batch 2015/2016

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2. Participants of Test Validation

The researcher needed to develop a suitable test. Hence, the researcher needed experts to evaluate the designed test. There were three lecturers of ELESP Sanata Dharma University to evaluate the designed test. They were all teach vocabulary in ELESP Sanata Dharma University. They were given a questionnaire to assess and to give feedback about the designed test whether or not it was appropriate.

D. Research Instrument and Data Gathering Technique

There were two kinds of test used in this research. The researcher conducted the two test in order to get the sufficient data and information related to the research.

a. Preliminary Test

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Table 3.3 Nation Vocabulary Test’s (2007) Word Target

Level Word Target

1st 1,000 see, time, period, figure, poor, drive, jump, shoe, standard, basis.

2nd 1,000 maintain, stone, upset, drawer, patience, nil, pub, circle,

microphone, pro.

3rd 1,000 soldier, restore, jug, scrub, dinosaur, strap, pave, dash, rove,

lonesome.

4th 1,000 compound, latter, candid, tummy, quiz, input, crab, vocabulary, remedy, allege.

5th 1,000 deficit, weep, nun, haunt, compost, cube, miniature, peel, fracture, bacterium

6th 1,000 devious, premier, butler, accessory, threshold, thesis, strangle, cavalier, malign, veer.

7th 1,000 olive, quilt, stealth, shudder, bristle, bloc, demography, gimmick, azalea, yoghurt.

8th 1,000 erratic, palette, null, kindergarten, eclipse, marrow, locust, authentic, cabaret, mumble.

9th 1,000 hallmark, puritan, monologue, weir, whim, perturb, regent, octopus, fen, lintel.

10th 1,000 awe, peasantry, egalitarian, mystique, upbeat, cranny, pigtail, crowbar, ruck, lectern.

11th 1,000 excrete, mussel, yoga, counterclaim, puma, pallor, aperitif, hutch, emir, hessian.

12th 1,000 haze, spleen, soliloquy, reptile, alum, refectory, caffeine, impale, coven, trill.

13th 1,000 ubiquitous, talon, rouble, jovial, communique, plankton, skylark, beagle, atoll, didactic.

14th 1,000 canonical, atop, marsupial, augur, bawdy, gauche, thesaurus, erythrocyte, cordillera, limpid.

b. Questionnaire

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in a form of Likert Scale and open-ended questions. A Likert Scale was used in the close-ended questions. The expert validation instrument contained 12 close-ended questions and 2 open ended questions. The 2 open ended questions were provided in order to get deeper evaluation from the expert.

E. Data Analysis Technique

There were two ways of analyzing the data. For the Vocabulary Size Test, the researcher summed up the correct answers from the test and multiplied them by 100 as stated in Nation (2012). The result of the test pictured the current vocabulary size of the sixth semester students. Then, the researcher calculated the score of the vocabulary size test by using a computer program namely Range for texts v.3 which is found in Compleat Lexical Tutor website (www.lextutor.ca). The researcher put the students’ answer in this program. Then, this program will automatically give the total of the correct answer of each levels. To measure the vocabulary size of the sixth semester students, the researcher multiplied the total correct answer by 100 as stated in Nation (2012). The researcher then tried to find out the mean of the preliminary test result in order to find out the data distribution of the test by using the Microsoft Excel. The researcher compiles the vocabulary size of the sixth semester students and find the mean by applying the mean formula.

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F. Research Procedures

The last part of the research showed the procedures of designing the test material. There are only 3 steps from Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp’s (2011) model used by the researcher in designing the test material since there are no specific steps to follow. Therefore, the researcher is very flexible in deciding the steps. Each step is explained as follows:

1. Learners and Contexts

In this step, the researcher decided the learners’ characteristics which were

going to be discussed. The preliminary test was used by the researcher to determine the vocabulary size of the sixth semester students. Then, the researcher was able to design the test after gathering the result of the preliminary test.

2. Development of the Instrument

There were 4 steps in developing the insturment. First, the designer took samples of the test items from the word lists. The test items were chosen by interval sampling from the word lists. Secondly, the researcher made the stem. It was in the form of target words that the test-takers have to answer and the format of the test. Third, the researcher made the distractors. As suggested by Nation (2012), they were taken from the same level of words. Lastly, the order/level of test items had to take into account by the researcher.

3. Evaluating the Instrument

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31

CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the findings and the discussion of the research. The research questions, namely how is a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma designed? and what does a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma look like? are answered in this chapter. It includes the findings of the preliminary test and the expert validation test. The discussion in this chapter also includes the data presentation and the possible interpretation of the findings.

A. The Steps in Designing a Set of Vocabulary Size Test for the Sixth

Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University

The researcher employed three out of nine steps from Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp’s (2011) instructional design model in answering the research questions. The following are the steps in answering the research questions.

1. Learners and Context

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a. The Findings of the Sixth Semester Students of ELESP Sanata Dharma

University Preliminary Test

The researcher conducted the preliminary test to the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma on April 4, 2016. The test was conducted in Kampus I Sanata Dharma on Mrican Micro Teaching Laboratory. There were 14 Micro

Teaching students involved in the test. The result of the preliminary test is presented

as follows:

Table 4.1 The Findings of the Preliminary Test

Section of Test

Students’ Total

Scores

Rank

1st 1,000 117 1

2nd 1,000 100 2

3rd 1,000 90 4

4th 1,000 85 5

5th 1,000 99 3

6th 1,000 58 7

7th 1,000 51 8

8th 1,000 78 6

9th 1,000 33 9

10th 1,000 31 10

11th 1,000 18 12

12th 1,000 20 11

13th 1,000 8 13

14th 1,000 7 14

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The findings of the preliminary test shows that it was easier to do the 1st up to the 5th 1,000 words since the students have already been familiar with the words. The students can easily find the high-frequency words in the academic books, daily conversation, and et cetera.

Yet, it can be concluded that the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University were still confused with the low-frequency words and probably they were not familiar and not accustomed yet to use the low-frequency words. Accordingly, the researcher was able to formulate the instrument objective which is explained in the next step.

2. Development of the Instrument

After getting the findings of the preliminary test, the researcher later on decided to design a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University. There were four activities in making the design. The activities were explained as follows:

a. Sampling the Words for the Test Items

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Table 4.2 The Word Targets for the Test Items

Level Word Target

1st Level Out, time, first, long, nation, man, interest, set, place,

question

2nd level Study, expensive, foot, company, type, grow, tax, organize,

write, ago

3rd level Rule, demand, decide, suggest, trouble, east, operate,

serious, especially, growth

4th level Help, relate, progress, pool, prevent, recommended, choice,

agency, discuss, destroy

5th level Newspaper, dinner, beat, narrow, flower, stretch, fashion,

neck, chairman, knee

6th level Ancient, intend, tomorrow, defend, cup, afraid, wet, sink,

noise, scientist

7th level Photograph, visitor, clerk, strict, crop, sacred, storm, actor,

shell, ceremony

8th level Bold, funeral, dig, behave, boil, leather, kingdom, blade,

confess, shower

9th level Omit, airplane, bake, collar, pet, roast, razor, knot, trunk,

cage

10th level Comb, receipt, artwork, flour, weed, tidy, barber, notebook,

motherhood, beak

b. Making the Stem

The test uses a stem and four options multiple-choice questions format. This kind of format is used by the researcher since it is easy to use and easy to assess. The MCQ format used to assess the vocabulary knowledge in this test is the synonym recognition test. The following is the example of the stem.

1. We keep our story in photograph. A. Inn

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c. Writing the Choices

The third step is writing the choices. The researcher provided distractors in each question taken from the same 1,000 word frequency level. Each test items contains four choices which are one word target and three distractors. The researcher needed to make sure that the choices were written in easier language than the tested word.

d. The Order of the Items in the Test

The test items were arranged based on frequency order. It was arranged from the high-frequency words to the low-frequency words. The difficulty is increasing from the first level to the last level.

3. Evaluating the Instrument

Evaluating or assessing the instrument is needed to create a good test. The researcher asked three evaluators who are experts in vocabulary. They are all the lecturers in ELESP Sanata Dharma University teaching vocabulary. The researcher distributed a questionnaire in the form of close-ended and open-ended questions to the evaluators. There were 12 close-ended questions in form of Likert Scale and 2 more open-ended questions to give comment and suggestion related to the test. The close-ended questionnaire presents the degree of evaluators’ agreement in number ranging from 1 to 4. The degree of the agreement can be shown as follow:

(1) Strongly disagree (2) Disagree

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(4) Strongly disagree

Open-ended questionnaire present two questions. The questions were about the comment and the suggestion for the designed test. The findings of the evaluation is presented in the Appendix C.

Overall, the findings of the evaluation shows that the evaluators agree with the statements in the questionnaire. Hence, the designed test is suitable with the students’ needs. The instruction of the designed test was easy to understand. Then, all of the evaluators agree that the test format was appropriate for the students. The evaluators also agree that the test items were stated in clear and simple language. Each multiple-question in the test has appropriate answer and distractors. Also, the test suited with the level of the students.

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In conclusion, the overall designed test is good. However there were some comments and suggestions given by the evaluators. It was suggested that the researcher should give clearer instruction. Then, the test should be more varied to avoid boredom. The test must measure not only the students’ memory but also the

students’ understanding on vocabulary. Next, the students need to know the purpose of the test. There are also some grammatical issues that need to be fixed. Lastly, it was suggested that the optional letter should be written in caps (A-B-C-D).

Feedback, comments, and suggestions from the evaluators were very useful for the researcher to improve the designed test. Thus, the researcher revised the designed test based on the evaluators’ feedback, comments, and suggestions. The researcher corrected the grammatical issues in the designed test. Then, the researcher modified the instruction of the test so it will avoid the students’ misunderstanding and misinterpretation. The researcher also enriches the instruction and the general purpose of the test. Finally, the researcher changed the optional letter. At first, the researcher wrote the optional letter as a-b-c-d and it changed to A-B-C-D.

B. The Presentation of the Designed Test

This part is aimed to answer the second problem formulation, namely “what

does a vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University look like?” The designed test consists of 10 level of synonym test format

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39

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the conclusion and the recommendation of the research. The first part is the conclusion which summarizes the answer to research problems. The second part is the recommendation for the English learners, ELESP Sanata Dharma lecturers, ELESP Sanata Dharma University, and the future researcher who are interested to conducting a research in the same topic.

A. Conclusions

This research focuses on the problems formulated, namely “how is a

vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University is designed?” and “what does a vocabulary size test based on Nation’s

vocabulary size test for the sixth semester students of ELESP Sanata Dharma University look like?” In order to answer the two problems stated before, the

researcher employed the Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp’s (2011) instructional design model. Morrison et al. (2011) divide the steps of instructional design into nine steps. However, the researcher only used three steps in designing the test material.

1. The Steps in Designing the Test

The process in designing the test material was also based on the Nation’s

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students’ of ELESP Sanata Dharma University vocabulary size is needed before the researcher can design the test material. The researcher conducted a preliminary test to measure the vocabulary size of the sixth semester students. After knowing the students’ vocabulary size, the researcher designed the test material with four

activities namely sampling the word for the test items, making the stems, writing the choices, and the order of the test items.

In the process of piloting or test evaluation, the researcher asked the three ELESP Sanata Dharma lecturers who teach vocabulary as the evaluators of the test designed. The evaluation of the designed test was proposed to find feedback and recommendation from the evaluators. Then, the findings of the feedback and the recommendation were used to revise and improve the test material. Generally, the evaluation of the designed test shows that the designed test was good, appropriate for the students, has clear and simple language, and suitable with the students’ need.

2. The Form of the Test

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to low-frequency words. The answer and distractors of each question are taken from the same level and same part of speech.

B. Recommendations

In this section, the researcher is to presents some recommendations that hopefully give benefits for the better teaching and learning process in the English Language Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University. The first recommendation is addressed to the ELESP Sanata Dharma University to get the further understanding in the study of vocabulary. The second recommendation is intended for the lecturers who facilitate the learning process in ELESP Sanata Dharma. The third recommendation is for the English Language Education Study Program Sanata Dharma University so that this study program can develop the teaching and learning process system. The last recommendation for the future researchers who are interested in conducting further research.

1. For ELESP Students

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dictionary, guessing words in context, using innovative techniques such as mnemonic techniques to remember word meanings, and many more.

2. For the Lecturers

Lecturers take an important role in the successful teaching and learning process. Hence, the lecturers need to understand the vocabulary size of their students so that the teaching and learning process can run smoothly. Accordingly, the lecturers need to adjust the teaching strategies and the teaching material by referring the students’ vocabulary size. The lecturers should use an appropriate approach to increase the students’ vocabulary size. Reading comprehension

(Reading I-IV and Extensive Reading) is believed as one of the most effective, efficient, and enjoyable activities to follow. Thus, reading is normally the major vehicle to continue the vocabulary acquisition (Paribakht and Wesche in Coady and Huckin, 1997).

3. For the English Language Education Study Program

The result of the preliminary test can be considered as one of the important information for the development of teaching and learning process in this study program. The fact that the sixth semester students have low score on the low-frequency words level should be considered as urgent need to be followed up. It is suggested that this study program designs proper material and curriculum based on the students’ vocabulary size. The researcher also suggests that the study program

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4. For the Future Researchers

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44

REFERENCES

Coady, J., & Huckin, T. (1997). Second language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cobb, T. Range for texts v.3 [computer program]. Accessed 15 Sept 2015 at http://www.lextutor.ca/cgi-bin/range/texts/index.pl

Coombe, C. A., Folse, K. S., & Hubley, N. J. (2007). A practical guide to assessing

English language learners. Ann Arbor, Mich: University of Michigan.

Coombe, C. (2011). Assessing vocabulary in the language. In D. Anderson & R. Sheehan (Eds.), Focus on vocabulary: Emerging Theory and Practice for

Adult Arab Learners (pp. 111-124). Dubai: HCT Press.

Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harmer, J. (1991). The practice of English language teaching. Singapore: Longman Singapore Publishers Ptc. Ltd.

Hatch, E. & Brown, C. (1995). Vocabulary, semantics, and language education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heaton, J. B. (1975). Writing English language tests: A Practical Guide for Teachers of English as A Second or Foreign Language. New York: Longman Publishing Group.

Mehring, J. G. (2005). Developing vocabulary in second language acquisition:

From Theories to the Classroom. Retrieved from http://www.hpu.edu/

CHSS/LangLing/TESOL/ProfessionalDevelopment/200680TWPfall06/03 Mehrig.pdf

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., & Kemp, J. E. (2011). Designing

effective instruction (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, I. S. P. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening?

Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(1), 59-82.

Nation, I.S.P. & Beglar, D. (2007). A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher,

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Nation, I.S.P. (2008). Teaching Vocabulary: Strategies and Techniques. Boston: Heinle Cengage Learning.

Nation, I.S.P. (2012). The Vocabulary Size Test: Information and specifications. Retrieved from http://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/about/ staff/publications/ paul-nation/Vocabulary-Size-Test-information-and-spesifications.pdf Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D., & Clapham, C. (2001). Developing and exploring the

behavior of two new versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test. Language

Testing, 18(1), 55-88.

Webb, S. (2009). The Effects of Receptive and Productive Learning of Word Pairs on Vocabulary Knowledge. RELC Journal, 40(3), 360-376.

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46

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47

APPENDIX A

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a. cut

c. are very interested d. do not like to work hard b. get off the ground suddenly c. stop the car at the edge of the road d. move very fast

8. SHOE: Where is your shoe? a. the person who looks after you b. the thing you keep your money in c. the thing you use for writing d. the thing you wear on your foot

9. STANDARD: Her standards are very high.

a. the bits at the back under her shoes b. the marks she gets in school c. the money she asks for

d. the levels she reaches in everything

10. BASIS: This was used as the basis.

b. place where cars are kept c. cupboard to keep things cold d. animal house

5. PATIENCE: He has no patience. a. will not wait happily b. has no free time

a. place where people drink and talk b. place that looks after money c. large building with many shops d. building for swimming

8. CIRCLE: Make a circle. a. rough picture

b. space with nothing in it c. round shape

d. large hole

9. MICROPONE: Please use the microphone. a. machine for making food hot

b. machine that makes sounds louder c. machine that makes things look bigger d. small telephone that can be carried

c. someone who writes for a newspaper d. someone who is paid for

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d. person in the army

2. RESTORE: It has been restored. a. said again

b. given to a different person c. given a lower price d. made like new again

3. JUG: He was holding a jug. a. A container for pouring liquids b. an informal discussion c. A soft cap

d. A weapon that explodes

4. SCRUB: He is scrubbing it. a. cutting shallow lines into it b. repairing it

c. rubbing it hard to clean it d. drawing simple pictures of it

5. DINOSAUR: The children were pretending to be dinosaurs.

a. robbers who work at sea

b. very small creatures with human form but with wings

c. large creatures with wings that breathe fire

d. animals that lived a long time ago

6. STRAP: He broke the strap. a. promise

b. top cover

c. shallow dish for food

d. strip of material for holding things together

7. PAVE: It was paved.

a. prevented from going through b. divided

c. given gold edges

d. covered with a hard surface

8. DASH: They dashed over it.

10. LONESOME: He felt lonesome. a. ungrateful

b. very tired c. lonely d. full of energy

c. group of people forming a business d. guess based on past experience

2. LATTER: I agree with the latter.

c. show fairness to both sides d. say what you really think

4. TUMMY: Look at my tummy. a. cloth to cover the head b. stomach

c. small furry animal d. thumb

5. QUIZ: We made a quiz. a. thing to hold arrows b. serious mistake c. set of questions

d. box for birds to make nests in

6. INPUT: We need more input. a. information, power, etc. put

into something b. workers

c. artificial filling for a hole in wood d. money

7. CRAB: Do you like crabs?

a. sea creatures that walk sideways b. very thin small cakes

c. tight, hard collars

d. large black insects that sing at d. rule about numbers

10. ALLEGE: They alleged it. a. claimed it without proof

b. stole the ideas for it from someone else

c. provided facts to prove it d. argued against the facts

Gambar

Table 3.3 Nation vocabulary test’s (2007) word target .....................................
Figure 3.1 The Basic Components of Instructional Design
Table 2.1 Vocabulary Size to Get 98% Coverage in Various Kinds of Written Texts
Figure 2.3 Example Test Item of Vocabulary Size Test
+6

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