An analysis on word formation used in Pepsi and Coca-cola advertisements published in United Stated from 1950 until 2012.

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AN ANALYSIS ON WORD FORMATION USED IN PEPSI AND

COCA-COLA ADVERTISEMENTS PUBLISHED IN UNITED

STATES FROM 1950 UNTIL 2012

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Felicita Devi Adyaningtyas Student Number: 091214097

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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“W hen you w ant something, al the

universe conspires in helping you to

achieve it.”

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vii ABSTRACT

Adyaningtyas, Felicita Devi. (2013). An Analysis on Word Formation Used in Pepsi and Coca-cola Advertisements Published in United States from 1950 until 2012.

Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education. Sanata Dharma University.

The influence of advertisements in the language system exists as found in the expression “uncola”, the expression issued by Coca-cola company when they launched and promoted the new type of soft drink, 7UP. Based on this phenomenon, the researcher claims that it is interesting to study the relation between the words and the expressions used in the advertisements and the influence in word-formation since the expressions are unique, creative and able to attract the consumers’ attention.

There were two research problems addressed in the research, first, to classify and analyze the word formation used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements and second, to discover the most frequently word formation used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements.

The research was qualitative research and it used the document analysis method. The data were taken from Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements that were published in the United States from 1950 until 2012 by using the stratified sampling method, meaning that the researcher merely took one sample of each advertisement for each year. To solve the first research problem, the researcher employed the theories of word formation from Aronoff and Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004), Katamba (1993) and O’Grady and de Guzman (2011) to classify and to analyze the data. There were eleven word types proposed to classify and analyze the data, namely borrowing, cliticization, coinage, acronym, initialism, blending, clipping, back-formation, conversion, derivation and inflection. To solve the second research problem, the researcher counted the data that had been classified based on the theories from Aronoff and Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004), Katamba (1993) and O’Grady and de Guzman (2011).

The results of the research were that out of eleven word formation types proposed, there were eight word formation types used in the data, namely borrowing, cliticization, initialism, blending, clipping, conversion, derivation and inflection. Inflection turned out to be the most frequently word formation used with 49.6%. It is followed by derivation (24.6), cliticization (19.22%), borrowing (1.5%), clipping (1.5%), conversion (1.5%), blending (1.2%) and initialism (0.5%).

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viii ABSTRAK

Adyaningtyas, Felicita Devi. (2013). An Analysis on Word Formation Used in Pepsi and Coca-cola Advertisements Published in United States from 1950 until 2012.

Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan. Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Pengaruh iklan di sistem tata bahasa dapat dilihat dalam kata uncola yang dibuat oleh Coca-cola ketika mereka mempromosikan produk minuman ringan 7UP. Fenomena ini tentunya menarik untuk dikaji lebih dalam, terutama hubungan kata-kata dan ekspresi yang digunakan dalam iklan dan pengaruhnya di pembentukan kata-kata.

Permasalahan kedua adalah menemukan pembentukan kata yang paling banyak digunakan di iklan Coca-cola dan Pepsi. Penelitian ini bersifat kualitatif dan menggunakan metode dokumen analisis. Permasalahan pertama dalam penelitian ini adalah mengklasifikasikan dan menganalisis pembentukan kata di iklan Coca-cola dan Pepsi. Data yang digunakan bersumber dari iklan Coca-cola dan Pepsi yang diterbitkan di Amerika Serikat dari tahun 1950 hingga tahun 2012. Metode pengambilan data menggunakan stratified sampling, sehingga data yang diambil hanya satu untuk setiap merek produk dan untuk setiap tahunnya. Untuk menjawab permasalahan pertama, peneliti menggunakan teori pembentukan kata dari Aronoff dan Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004), Katamba (1993) dan O’Grady dan de Guzman (2011) untuk mengklasifikasi dan menganalisis data. Sebelas tipe pembentukan kata digunakan untuk menglasifikasi dan menganalisis data, seperti adaptasi, klitik, coinage, akronim, initialism, blending, haplologi, back-formation, konversi, derivasi dan infleksi. Untuk menjawab permasalahan kedua, peneliti menghitung frekuensi kemunculan data setelah dilakukan klasifikasi.

Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah hanya ada delapan pembentukan kata yang digunakan, seperti adaptasi, klitik, initialism, blending, haplologi, konversi, derivasi dan infleksi. Infleksi menjadi salah satu tipe pembentukan kata yang paling banyak digunakan dengan frekuensi kemunculan sebesar 49,6%, disusul dengan derivasi (24,6%), klitik (19,22%), adaptasi (1,5%), haplologi (1,5%), konversi (1,5%),

blending (1,2%) dan initialism (0,5%).

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I thank Father and Jesus Christ for life, chances, blessings and everything.

I would like to send my gratitude to my parent, Andri Asmara and Gunandarini Anastasia, for endless love and support. I also thank my sister, Giovani, for not disturbing me during the process of finishing the thesis.

I would like to send my gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Retno Muljani, M.Pd for the advice, guidance, time and support during the process of thesis writing. I would like

to express my gratitude to Yuseva Ariyani Iswandari, S.Pd., M.Ed for being a great proofreader and giving me advice.

I would like to thank my best friends, Raras Pramudita and Ignatia Bintang for their support and trust.

I send my gratitude to Elegy for letting me be a part of theirs and Golden Lantern Company for the process, professionalism and hardwork in SPD class.

I personally thank bibik Aldine and kakak Maris for checking my thesis and reminding me the errors, being partners in editor team and celebrating our defense

together.

For Class B friends, Ajeng, Sinta, Tintin, Endah ‘Kebedetch’, Yie, Ksatria Kuda Putih Rosi and Hencer unnie, Yogis, Awang, Hana, Chapidh, and kakak bos Lice

and other brilliant Class B friends, I send my deepest gratitude for friendship,

birthday surprises, Class B on Vacations, library-time, the courses we have had and

the lessons of life we have learned. I am proud to be the member of class B batch

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Finally, I thank all of my PBI batch 2009 friends for the unforgettable moments and the amazing four years we have had been through. I hope our friendship stay

memorable as yesterday’s, precious as today’s and everlasting as forever’s.

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CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

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6. Word Formation ………..

a. Definition of Word Formation ………..

b. Types of Word Formation ………

7. Communication ………...

8. Advertisement ……….

a. Definition of Advertisement ……….

b. Functions of Advertisement ………..

c. Types of Advertisement ………

d. Linguistics Features in Advertisement ………..

e. Coca-Cola and Pepsi Advertising Strategies ….

2. Theoretical Framework ……….

CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Method ……….

B. Research Setting ………..

C. Research Sources of Data ………

D. Research Instruments ………..

E. Data Gathering Techniques ……….

F. Data Analysis Techniques ………...

G. Research Procedures ………...

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

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8. Inflection ………...

a. Affixation ………

b. Apophony or Internal Change ……….

c. Suppletion ………

d. Partial Suppletion ………

B. The Frequency of Word Formation Used in Coca-cola and

Pepsi Advertisements ………..

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Conclusions ……….

B. Recommendations ………...

REFERENCES ……….

APPENDICES ……….. 59

59

63

63

64

66

69

69

71

73

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

2.1 English Inflectional Morphemes Adapted from O’Grady and de

Guzman (2011) ………... 23

3.1 Table of Word Formation Types (Adapted from Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004), Aronoff and Fudeman (2011), and Katamba (1993))………. 35

3.2 The Frequency of Word Formation Cases ……….. 36

4.1 The Occurrences of Borrowing ………... 43

4.2 The Occurrences of Cliticization ………..……….. 46

4.3 The Occurrences of Clipping ………..……… 48

4.4 The Occurrences of Initialism ………..………... 49

4.5 The Occurrences of Blend ………..……… 51

4.6 The Occurrences of Conversion ………..………... 53

4.7 The Occurrences of Derivation ………..……… 58

4.8 The Occurrences of Inflection ………..………... 64

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

2.1 The Illustration of The Difference Between a Root and a Base

Based on O’Grady and De Guzman (2011: 120) ………. 17

4.1 The Derivational Process of Entertainment ………. 55

4.2 The Derivational Process of Refreshment ……… 55

4.3 The Derivational Process of Goodness ……… 56

4.4 The Derivational Process of Cokeologist ………. 56

4.5 The Derivational Process of Beautiful ………. 57

4.6 The Derivational Process of Refreshingly ……… 57

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix Page

1 The Samples of Coca-cola Advertisements ………. 78

2 The Samples of Pepsi Advertisements ………. 79

3 The Word Formation Cases in Coca-cola Advertisements ….. 80

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

BOR : Borrowing

CLT : Cliticization

COI : Coinage

ACR : Acronym

INT : Initialism

BLE : Blending

CLP : Clipping

BFO : Back-formation

CON : Conversion

DER : Derivation

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1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of six parts. The first part is the background of the

study. The second part is the problem formulation that addresses the problems of

the study. The third part is the problem limitation. The fourth part is the research

objectives. The fifth part is the research benefit. The sixth part is the definition of

terms.

A. Research Background

Languages, including their internal morphology system, change from time

to time. In addition, the growth of speech communities causes languages as a

mean for communication undergo changes. New words are therefore formed

almost every day. It is similar to Wagner’s study that “the human community is

steadily growing and developing, just as the tool we use to communicate:

Language” (Wagner, 2010). It implies that as the human communities grow and

develop, the languages that the human communities use also undergo changes.

Further, there are many reasons why languages change. One of the reasons why

languages change is globalization (Ota, 1996). Globalization, according to

Featherstone (1995, as cited in Acar, 2004), is “a multi-way, heteregonizing and

enriching process allowing local cultures open up to the world and

contribute to cultural diversity”. Nowadays, the term globalization is related to

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Westernization or Americanization since the United States is now the sole

superpower with a dominant economic, cultural and military position in the global

order (Giddens, 2000, as cited in Acar, 2004). The effect of the globalization or

Americanization can refer to the bloom of American products. Regarding the

linguistics, the American products influence the process of coining new words.

The contribution of American products towards the process of coining new words

can be seen through the presence of the advertisements of the products.

Advertisement, which is derived from the Medieval Latin verb advertere,

aims to direct one's attention to the availability, qualities, and/or cost of the

specific commodities or services (El-daly, 2011). Advertisements therefore focus

on how to gain one’s attention towards the specific product(s). In linguistics,

advertisements contribute to the influence of the new word forms. Since

advertisements are the tool to promote the products’ name and to persuade the

consumers to buy the products, the advertisers create the unique brand names and

the attractive expressions. The brand names and the expressions used in the

advertisements are able to lead the speakers to form the new words. Moreover, the

influence of the new word forms from the advertisements can spread quickly in

the society because the existence of advertisements seems to be everywhere.

Advertisements appear almost in form of every media, such as written forms

(newspapers, pamphlets, ballyhoos) and verbal forms (television, radio, internet).

According to Gardner and Levy (1955), a brand name does not only represent

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created as unique as possible to gain attention and to attract more consumers.

Kohli and LaBahn state that “a carefully created and chosen name can bring

inherent and immediate value to the brand” (Kohli & LaBahn, 1997). With the

existence of brand names spread by the advertisements, the new word forms are

often established because of the influence of the particular brand names. The

phenomena of the new word formation influenced by the brand names, for

instance, occur in the soft drink advertisements, specifically in the Coca-cola

advertisements. The advertisers of Coca-cola company used a new term uncola to

launch and promote a new type of soft drink from Coca-cola company, 7UP.

Issuing the term uncola to promote the drink successfully disobeys the linguistic

role (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams, 2010: 85). The process of forming uncola

involves the addition of a morpheme, the smallest meaningful unit, un- and a noun

cola. In fact, “there is no rule of English that allows un- to be added to the noun”

(Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams, 2010: 85). The word cola is the brand name from

the company, Coca-cola. It can be concluded therefore that the advertisers used

the derivation that builds the new words by adding some morphemes to the stems

(Wagner, 2010). In coining the word uncola, the advertisers added the morpheme

un- to the stem cola. Based on this phenomenon, derivation, one of the word

formation types, is applied for creating the advertisements.

It is interesting to study the relation between the words and the expressions

used in the advertisements and the influence in word formation since the

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expression uncola, the researcher claims that the process in the word formation is

still left unnoticed. In fact, it is important to know the process since it involves

many aspects of linguistics and the formation of the new words in the

advertisements is occasionally uncommon. The researcher therefore chooses to

analyze the word formation used in the soft drink advertisements. The reasons for

choosing the soft drink advertisements are that the soft drink advertisements seem

to be everywhere and they can be found in any media whether it is online or

offline and whether it is written or spoken. Moreover, the famous brand names of

the soft drinks are Coca-cola and Pepsi. The two products are unquestionably

popular in the eyes of the consumers and their advertisements seem to be

everywhere. Coca-cola and Pepsi are not merely the beverages, but they are

capable of uniting the world and connecting people, particularly Coca-cola with

their ideas of equality and togetherness and the visions of classless society (Fritz,

1985). Coca-cola, first produced and sold in 1886, became more popular since the

product was introduced to the world. Since then, it becomes the symbol of the

American Dream (Fritz, 1985).

Besides, some of the studies related to the soft drink advertisements and the

word formation triggered the researcher to explore the study of advertisements

and the word formation deeper. One of the studies related to the soft drink

advertisements is the undergraduate thesis by Titus Febriandri Prasetyo entitled

Pengaruh Iklan-Iklan Coca-cola Zero di Televisi Terhadap Minat Beli

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content and time duration affected the consumer purchase interest. The focus is

different from the researcher’s since the researcher is going to analyze the

language used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements. Second, the other study

related to the advertisements is the undergraduate thesis by Desita Anggraeni

entitled “Word Formation Process in Outdoor Advertisements”. Anggraeni

studied the word formation found in the outdoor advertisements in Semarang. She

did not limit the advertisements of the specific products to be studied, but she

analyzed all the advertisements published in the outdoor billboards. Different

from Anggraeni’s undergraduate thesis, the researcher focuses on the specific

advertisements, which are Coca-cola and Pepsi. Hence, unlike the two previous

studies by Prasetyo and Anggraeni, the researcher focuses on the language used in

the advertisements and limits the scopes of the study. The researcher only selects

Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements as the sources of the data.

B. Research Problems

Based on the research background, there are two research problems

addressed in this study. First, what are types of word formation used in the

Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements? Second, what are types of word formation that are

frequently used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements?

C. Problem Limitation

The limitation of the research is to discover the answers to the two

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advertisements. Since there are many soft drink brands, there will be enormous

types of word formation. Therefore, the researcher decides to focus on the soft

drink brand names mainly Coca-colaand Pepsi. The reasons for choosing the two

soft drink brands are that Coca-cola and Pepsi are not merely the soft drinks, but

they have become the symbol of American Dream and they are able to unite their

consumers in diversity. Moreover, instead of choosing the local versions, the

researcher took the version of Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements issued in the

United States of America. The consideration for choosing the American version is

that the language and the contents are going to be analyzed linguistically in

English. Besides, the version issued in the United States of America is globally

known rather than the local versions issued in countries other than the United

States of America.

D. Research Objectives

Based on the problem formulations, there are two research objectives

addressed in this study. First is to classify and analyze the types of word

formation used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements. Second is to identify

the most frequently word formation used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi

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This section provides the benefits of the research for the English language

learners and the future researchers.

1. To the English Language Learners

Through this study, the English language learners, particularly English as

foreign language (EFL) learners, are expected to know more about the word

formation that is truly occurring in the learners’ environment, for instance,

through the advertisements that are widely published ubiquitously. The languages

that are used in the advertisements intend to attract the consumers. Therefore, the

languages are commonly unique and they occasionally involve the uncommon

grammatical processes to create the new words. The phenomena can be studied

more in morphology since the word formation is one of the scopes in morphology.

By knowing the process of word formation found in the advertisements, the

learners are expected not only to be the followers of the new word users. The

learners can improve their vocabulary items from the process of coining new

words and they can use the vocabulary items wisely in the further study or in the

daily communication.

2. To the Future Researchers

Advertisements and linguistics are the interesting fields to study. They are

ubiquitous and widely used in the society. The number of advertisements is

growing each day as the emergence of new products and the brand names,

particularly those that come from America. However, according to Stvan (2006),

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therefore expected that in the future research, there will be more ideas and

frameworks to study in this field.

F. Definition of Terms

This section defines the terms that will be used in the study, namely the

definition of advertisement, Coca-cola, Pepsi and word formation.

1. Advertisement

El-Daly (2011) states that advertisement, which is derived from the

Medieval Latin verb “advertere”, aims to direct one's attention to the availability,

qualities, and/or cost of the specific commodities or services. On the other hand,

advertising is a form of communication used to persuade the audiences (viewers,

readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services

(Agustrijanto, 2002, as cited in Anggraeni, 2011). In this study, the

advertisements that will be used are soft drink advertisements, specifically

Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements which are taken from the various online sources

through the search engine Google.

2. Coca-cola

Coca-cola was developed by Dr. John Pemberton, a pharmacist in Atlanta,

Georgia, in 1886 (Michman & Mazze, 1998). Further, Michman and Mazze state

that Coca-cola has been on the top of the soft drink industries with market share

range 37% - 47%. In marketing the products, Coca-cola creates the attractive

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analyzed linguistically.

3. Pepsi

Pepsi, managed by manufacturer Pepsi-Cola, was created in 1893 by Caleb

Bradham, a pharmacist, when he developed a unique mixture of kola nut extract,

vanilla and rare oils. Originally called ‘‘Brad’s drink’’ by his customers, it is now

known as Pepsi-Cola (Michman & Mazze, 1998). Since its development, Pepsi

has been competing with Coca-cola in the soft drink industries. However, rather

than be a “leader”, Pepsi is still considered to be a “follower” (Michman &

Mazze, 1998). Furthermore, Pepsi advertisements become the object of the study.

The languages and expressions used in Pepsi advertisements will be analyzed

based on the linguistics study.

4. Word Formation

Bauer defines word formation as the process whereby new words are

coined to denote new, or newly salient, concepts, and secondly a transpositional

function (Bauer, 2004). Moreover, Bauer provides two functions in word

formation, first, a function of lexical enrichment, and second, a function of

lexemes in which the lexemes appear in a new word class so that the same

meaning can be transferred to a new function in a sentence (Bauer, 2004). In this

study, there are eleven word formation types. The word formation types are

compiled from the studies of Aronoff and Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983),

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10 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The contents of this chapter attempt to explain the theories related to the

research. This chapter consists of two parts, namely the theoretical description and

the theoretical framework. The theoretical description presents the theories of

morphology, such as morphology, word, morpheme, affix, root, stem and base, word

formation, advertisement and theory of communication which become the foundation

of the research. The theoretical framework provides the main theories to solve the

research problems.

A. Theoretical Description

This section discusses the two major parts of theoretical description, namely

the word formation theories and the advertising theories. The word formation theories

contain the theories which encompass the scopes of word formation, namely

morphology, word and lexeme, morpheme, affix, root, stem and base and word

formation types. The advertising theories discuss the theories which are relevant to

the advertising cases. The theoretical description begins from morphology focusing

on the definition of morphology in general since the word formation is a study under

morphology. The next parts are the theories related to the terms that will be used to

analyze the word formation cases, namely word and lexeme, morpheme, affix, root,

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consist of two sections, namely the definition of word formation and the types of

word formation. The next parts discuss the theories related to the advertising, such as

communication and advertisement.

1. Morphology

Matthews (1991: 5) states that by the beginning of the 1960s, morphology

traditionally deals with the word since the word was merely one term in a hierarchy

of units. Matthews (1991: 5) provides the example in “They are trying hard, the

words are and trying would constitute a phrase are trying “. However, as the phrase

are trying consists of the elements from the words are and trying, the word trying

also has its elements try- and ing. Therefore, according to Matthews (1991:9),

morphology is no longer dealing with the words, but it deals with the internal

structure of words as it is explained in the previous example trying. Further, Katamba

(1993) defines morphology as synchronic discipline focusing on the study on word

structure. Regarding the topic discussed, morphology encompasses the phenomenon

of word formation since word formation is one of the branches of morphology (Plag,

2002: 4). Based on the definitions of morphology stated by Matthews, Katamba and

Plag, morphology is concluded as one of the branches in the linguistics focusing on

the study on internal word structure which will be the groundwork for this study on

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2. Word and Lexeme

Speakers of language utter millions of words every day as one of the ways to

communicate and keep in touch with others. Not only does it occur in spoken

communication, a word also occurs in the literacy and oral form. People use words to

make communication and connection with others. The words are uttered every day.

Hence, there is a huge possibility that new word forms. The forming of new words

involves the word formation. However, before moving further to the word formation,

the essential meaning of a word itself should be examined. Matthews (1974) proposes

the definition of word in two senses. Sense 1 refers to the definition of word

phonetically. A word consists of syllables and ultimately letters or phonemes and it is

considered the primitives or minimal elements of the secondary articulation of

language (Matthews, 1974: 24). The example based on Matthews’ study is the word

country, which phonetically consists of [kʌn] and [tri] with stress on the first syllable.

Sense 2 refers to the definition of word in grammatical and syntactic context.

Matthews (1974: 25) states that word in sense 2 belongs to the grammatical

articulation of language and its properties are most usually characteristic of syntactic

classification (for instance, see is a verb) or of meaning (for example, die is in one

sense opposite in meaning to live).

After having described the definition of word, the researcher is going to

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employs the example that has been illustrated by Katamba (1993: 17) in the sentence

as follows:

He went to the pub for a pint and then pockled off.

Based on the example, Katamba (1993) provides the description of lexeme.

When the readers find the word pockled as an unfamiliar word, they probably look up

in the dictionary under the word pockle instead of pockled. Katamba assumes that

they know that pockled is not going to be listed in the dictionary. Furthermore, they

also know that the words pockling and pickles will also exist. Therefore, Katamba

(1993) concludes that lexeme is an abstract vocabulary item (p. 17). Further, a lexeme

is generally written in its citation form, for instance BOOK (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011:

43), that is written in the small capital letters. Similar to pockle, the words see, saw,

seen, sees and seeing are the realizations of the lexeme SEE. Moreover, regarding this

research, the term word and lexeme will be used in the analysis of data and discussion

of the research.

3. Morpheme

In the previous topic discussed, it is stated that morphology is the study on the

internal structure of word. Word is occasionally claimed as the smallest unit of

language that cannot be divided into smaller parts, as there are words the, at, desk,

which are morphologically simple (Katamba, 1993). However, Katamba states that

there are still many English words which are morphologically complex as depicted in

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into smaller units. In morphology, the element –s which is attached to the word eats

is defined as a morpheme. Unlike the word eats which can be broken down into

smaller parts, the morpheme –s cannot be broken down into smaller parts. Thus, a

morpheme is described as “the minimal meaningful element” (Spencer, 1991: 5). In

other words, a morpheme is used to describe the smallest unit of language. For

instance, according to Spencer’s theory, develop is considered a morpheme in

addition to be a word. In short, morpheme cannot be decomposed into smaller units

(Spencer, 1991: 5). Further, O’Grady and de Guzman (2011) distinguish morphemes

from the situation that they can stand alone or not into a free morpheme and a bound

morpheme. A free morpheme is “a morpheme that can be a word by itself, whereas

the morpheme that must be attached to another element is a bound morpheme” (p.

117). The morpheme girl, for example, is a free morpheme since it can stand alone as

a word, but the plural form –s is a bound morpheme. It cannot stand alone; thus, it

must be attached to a free morpheme. Moreover, in this study, the definition of

morpheme will be used to refer to the smallest unit that occurs in the analysis of the

data.

4. Affix

Morphemes can be distinguished between free morphemes and bound

morphemes as stated previously. The bound morphemes, the morphemes that must be

attached to the free morphemes, can be called affixes. According to O’Grady and

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bound, but must be bound in a particular position”. Further, Parker (1986: 69) states

that an affix is “the more familiar term for the class of bound grammatical

morphemes”. In short, affix is a bound morpheme, meaning that it must be attached

to a free form so it can stand as a word. There are two types of affix, namely prefix

and suffix. The classification of affix is based on its occurrences in the base. Prefix is

an affix that is attached in front of the base, for example, prefix de- in the word

de-activate. Suffix is an affix attached to the end of the base, such as suffix –er in the

worker (O’Grady & de Guzman, 2011: 120). Affix is involved in the creation of

word, as seen in the affix –er in worker. It is therefore used as a component to

identify and analyze the creation of word in the word formation.

5. Root, Stem and Base

A root, according to Katamba (1993: 41), is “the irreducible core of a word,

with absolutely nothing else attached to it”. In other words, a root is the core of the

word in which it is not yet attached and added to other elements. For example, the

word worker has work as the root and –er as the suffix. Further, the root typically

belongs to a lexical category, such as noun, verb, adjective, or preposition (O’Grady

& de Guzman, 2011: 119). Fromkin, Rodman and Hyams (2010: 80) share the same

opinion with Katamba to define a root that a root is “a lexical content morpheme that

cannot be analyzed into smaller parts.” On the other hand, according to O’Grady and

de Guzman, a root is also a base (in many cases) to which the affix is added (O’Grady

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Fromkin et al. (2010) and O’Grady and de Guzman (2011), the researcher concludes

that a root can be the core element in which it has not attached yet to other elements

and it cannot be analyzed into smaller parts. Moreover, it is the element to which the

affix is added.

A base, according to Katamba (1993: 45), is any unit to which either

inflectional affixes or derivational affixes can be added. However, there is a specific

term in dealing with inflectional affixes. A stem is used to deal with inflectional

morphology, including inflectional affixes (Bauer, 1983: 20). Bauer (1983) provides

the example in the word untouchables. The stem is untouchable and the inflectional

suffix –s is added to the stem. She (1983) concludes that “stem is the part of

word-form which remains when all inflectional affixes have been removed” (p. 20).

Katamba also proposes that all roots are bases. The definition of a base is

similar to O’Grady and de Guzman’s study (2011:119) that a base is also a root.

However, O’Grady and de Guzman enhance Katamba’s theory that a base can be

larger than a root since a root is always a single morpheme. In order to illustrate

O’Grady and de Guzman’s study, a tree diagram is used. The tree diagram is used to

“represent the hierarchical organization of words (and sentences)” (Fromkin, Rodman

& Hyams, 2010: 84). The tree diagram depicted in Figure 2.1 is to illustrate O’Grady

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Figure 2.1 The illustration of the difference between a root and a base based on O’Grady and de Guzman (2011: 120)

Based on Figure 2.1, black is a root since it has nothing to attach yet and it

cannot be divided and analyzed into smaller parts. When the suffix –en is added to

black, it becomes blacken which is a base for -ed. Blacken is not a root since it can be

divided into smaller parts (black and suffix –en). Black is therefore a root for the

entire word and it becomes the base for -en. On the other hand, blacken is simply the

base for –ed (O’Grady & de Guzman, 2011: 120). The root, base and stem therefore

are used as the terminologies to identify the creation of word in word formation

whether the word contains a root, a base, or a stem.

6. Word Formation

This part provides the theories which are relevant to word formation, namely

the definition of word formation and the types of word formation.

Base for -ed

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a. Definition of Word Formation

Bauer defines word formation as the process whereby new words are coined

to denote new, or newly salient, concepts and secondly a transpositional function

(Bauer, 2004). Moreover, Akmajian, Demers, Farmer and Harnish (2001) state that

new words enter a language through the process in word formation. It can be

concluded that word formation is related to the creation of new words.

b. Types of Word Formation

Word formation involves morphemes, affixes and words to form the new

words. The processes involve the addition, the deletion and the modification of the

internal structure of a word, for instance, the addition of the morphemes, affixes and

the modification of the bases. In this study, there are 11 word formation types

proposed based on the theories from Aronoff and Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983),

Campbell (2004), Katamba (1993) and O’Grady and de Guzman (2011).

The first type is borrowing. It is the linguistic process of taking words from

another language and making them part of its own vocabulary (Campbell, 2004: 62).

Further, Campbell states that the vocabulary that has been borrowed is called

loanwords. Borrowing is not restricted to only words or lexical items taken from one

language into another, but it is related to any linguistic material – phonological rules,

grammatical morphemes, syntactic patterns, semantic associations, discourse

strategies and any linguistic material that can be borrowed (Campbell, 2004: 62).

There are terms to distinguish between the language which borrows and the language

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donor language is the language which is borrowed from (Campbell, 2004: 62). The

example is a loanword cuisine. Cuisine is an English word which is borrowed from

French. Therefore, English is a recipient language and French is a donor language.

There are two types of borrowing according to Akmajian et al. (2001), namely direct

and indirect borrowing. For direct borrowing, the speakers of English often borrow

words from other languages, such as kindergarten (German), croissant (French) and

sushi (Japanese) (Akmajian et al., 2001: 27). On the other hand, indirect borrowing

occurs “when an expression in one language is translated literally into another

language” (Akmajian et al., 2001: 28). Akmajian et al. (2001) employ the term

firewater as the example of indirect borrowing. Firewater is the literal translation of

Native American word meaning “alcohol”. Regarding the reasons why borrowing

happens, languages borrow from one another because of need and prestige

(Campbell, 2004: 64). Campbell (2006) states that the speakers of a language need

the new terms to go along with the acquisition when they acquire some new items or

concepts from abroad (p. 64). Besides, the other main reason is that words are

borrowed from another language since the foreign terms are highly esteemed

(Campbell, 2004: 64).

The second type is cliticization. Cliticization is the linguistic process

occurring when grammatical words are unable to stand alone phonologically and they

must ‘lean’ on an adjacent word (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011: 36). The adjacent word

is known as a host, whereas the grammatical words that undergo cliticization are

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the contracted forms of the English auxiliary verbs, am becomes ‘m, is becomes ‘s

and are becomes ‘re (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011: 41). The example is ‘m in the

sentence I’m leaving now. Moreover, clitics are classified by their positions to the

hosts. Proclitic is a clitic attached to the beginning of a host and enclitic is one

attached to the end of the host (Katamba, 1993: 245). Katamba (1993: 245) provides

the example of proclitic in a French article l’ when it is attached before a

vowel-commencing noun like ami as in l’ami. The example of enclitic is the morpheme –‘s

which marks a possessive noun in English, as in Russell’s car. Moreover, enclitic is

also known genitive suffix. Katamba (1993) proposes that a genitive suffix is

attached to the end of whatever word precedes the last noun of a genitive noun

phrase, as in the morpheme –‘s in Russell’s car.

The third type is coinage or word manufacture. It occurs “when a word is

created ex nihilo, with no morphological, phonological or orthographic motivation”

(Bauer, 1983: 239). The phenomenon commonly occurs in the case of product names

where the industry requires the attractive names for the products, such as Kodak,

Kleenex and Teflon (O’Grady & de Guzman, 1996: 160).

The fourth type is acronyms. Acronym is formed by taking the initial letters

of the words in a phrase or title and using them as a new word (Bauer, 1983: 237).

The common examples of acronyms are related to the names of organizations, such as

UNICEF for United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund and NATO for

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Acronyms are to be distinguished from

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& de Guzman, 2011: 141), for instance DC for District of Columbia and CD for

compact disc. Initialism is the fifth type of word formation types.

The sixth type is blend. Blend occurs when “a new lexeme is formed from

parts of two (or possibly more) other words in such a way that there is no transparent

analysis into morphs” (Bauer, 1983: 234). In other words, a blend is formed from the

combination of two words or more. The examples of blends in English are smog from

smoke + fog; motel from motor + hotel, spork from spoon and fork.

The seventh type is clipping. Clipping is the process whereby a lexeme is

shortened but it still remains the same meaning and becomes a member of the same

form class (Bauer, 1983: 233). According to Bauer (1983), the way in which the

lexeme is shortened can be in the beginning of the base, as in bi (< bisexual), mike

(<microphone), in the final part of the word, as in Cong (< Viet Cong) and in the

middle of the word, as in jams (< pyjamas) (p. 233). Another example of common

phenomena in clipping is the process of shortening the title Professor into Prof.

Besides, clipping also occurs in the process of shortening names – Elizabeth becomes

Liz; Susan becomes Sue. Clipping is sometimes called abbreviations (Fromkin,

Rodman & Hyams, 2010: 97).

The eighth type is backformation. Backformation is “the creation of a word

by removing what appears to be an affix” (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011: 122). It

happens because of an incorrect morphological analysis (Fromkin, Rodman &

Hyams, 2010: 97). Therefore, the incorrect morphological analysis is considered

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word television based on analogy with –ion pairs, such as act/action, revise/revision

(Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams, 2010: 97). The word edit is also formed by

backformation from the word editor.

The ninth type is conversion. Conversion is “the change in form of class of a

form without any corresponding change of form” (Bauer, 1983: 32). Bauer states that

conversion does not require any corresponding change of form. It implies that

conversion does not need the change of form or the addition of affixes to make the

changes of word class. The common type of conversion is the change from an

adjective to a noun, such as found in poor to the poor and a verb from a noun, to

button from button (the shirt). The verb poor does not require the addition of affixes

to undergo conversion into a noun.

The tenth type is derivation. Derivation is the morphological process that

results in the formation of new lexemes (Bauer, 1983: 27). The creation of new

lexemes involves the process of changing the category and/or the meaning of the base

to which it applies (O’Grady & Dobrovoisky, 1989). Fromkin, Rodman and Hyams

(2010) state that bound morphemes are called derivational morphemes. When they

are added to a root morpheme or stem, a new word with a new meaning is derived.

The form that results from the addition of a derivational morpheme is called a derived

word. Moreover, derivation involves the addition of affix to the base form. The affix

that is attached to the base form is called a derivational affix. Further, one of the

derivational affixes in English is suffix –er. It is mostly used to yield a verb to a

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The eleventh type is inflection. According to Aronoff and Fudeman (2011:

47), inflection involves the formation of grammatical forms of a single lexeme, such

as past, present, future, singular, plural, masculine, feminine, neuter and other forms.

In English, it is often expressed by the affixes, such as in work + -s. There are seven

inflection types according to Aronoff and Fudeman (2011: 171-177). The seven

inflection types are affixation, apophony or internal change, partial suppletion,

reduplication, root-and-pattern, stem alternations and suppletion. Affixation is the

process of adding an affix to a root or a stem to form a new lexeme or an inflected

form or a stem of an existing lexeme (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011).

Table 2.1 English Inflectional Morphemes Adapted from O’Grady and de Guzman (2011)

English Inflectional Morphemes Examples

-s third-person singular present He wait-s at school.

-ed past tense He wait-ed at school.

-ing progressive He is wait-ing his parents. -en past participle He has eat-en five donuts.

-s plural He ate the donut-s.

-er comparative Russell has long-er hair than Sam. -est superlative Russell has the long-est hair.

As seen in Table 2.2, the English inflectional affixes refer to the English

tenses (past tense, progressive, past participle), noun inflectional affixes (plural) and

adjective inflectional affixes (comparative and superlative). O’Grady and de Guzman

actually lists morpheme –‘s that marks the noun referring to the possession. However,

Katamba (1993: 249) argues that morpheme –s that marks the possessor of something

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belongs to cliticization and it is known enclitic. Therefore, the researcher omitts the

genitive suffix morpheme –s as the criterion to classify the data into inflection.

The next inflection type is apophony or internal change. It is the process that

involves the vowel changes within a root (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011: 173). The

second term of apohony, umlaut, is used to describe apophony found in the

singular-plural noun pairs, as in goose-geese or foot-feet. The third inflection type is

suppletion. Suppletion is “said to take place when the syntax requires a form of a

lexeme that is not morphologically predictable” (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011: 176).

The examples of English suppletion are the verbs is, am, are, was, were and be. There

are also suppletions with pronouns, as found in I and me or he and him. In certain

cases, English has also partial suppletion. Aronoff and Fudeman (2011) state that

partial suppletion occurs when the initial phoneme(s) of the word remain the same,

but there are internal changes and changes to the end of the word (p. 177). The

example of partial suppletion is think; thought. The fourth inflection type is

reduplication. Reduplication is formed when “a continuous substring from either the

beginning or the end of a word is copied”. Reduplication is commonly found in

Indonesia, for example, the Indonesian plural form, kuda-kuda means ‘horses’ or

rumah-rumah means ‘houses’. The fifth type is root-and-pattern. Root-and-pattern

involves “the internal variations in vocalic and syllabic patterns, while the

consonantal frame stays fairly stable” (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011: 174).

Root-and-pattern is commonly found in the Semitic language family, for instance, in Hebrew,

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alternation. The example of stem alternation is the present stem and perfective stem

in Latin, po:t (present) and po:ta:v mean ‘drink’ (Aronoff & Fudeman, 2011: 177).

Since inflection is commonly marked by the addition of affixes as derivation

does, there are various criteria proposed by Aronoff and Fudeman (2011: 168-169) to

help distinguish between inflection and derivation. First, inflection does not change

grammatical category and meaning, whereas derivation does. The word apples, which

is added to a suffix –s, is still a noun although it is a plural form. The verb work

which is added to the derivational suffix –er undergoes change its grammatical

category into a noun worker. Second, the derivational affixes tend to occur closer to

the root or stem rather than the inflectional affixes. In other words, an inflectional

affix cannot be combined directly with the base when there is a derivational affix.

Moreover, in this study, the researcher used 11 word formation types based

on the theories proposed by Aronoff and Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983), Campbell

(2004), Katamba (1993) and O’Grady and de Guzman (2011) which have been stated

previously.

7. Communication

The words are used to deliver the messages in the communication process.

However, the words cannot be the only device to deliver the messages in the

communication process. There should be the transmitter and the receiver. In the

process of communication, Himstreet and Baty (1984) state briefly that

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destination as undiluted or unchanged as possible”. It applies in the human language

communication when the speakers of language communicate. There is a transmitter

and the other one will be the receiver. The speaker who will be the transmitter will

‘send’ the messages through the language to the receiver. The receiver then receives

the messages. The process is complete because the messages reach the destination on

the receiver. Moreover, Himstreet and Baty (1984) provide the theory of human

communication in which the information source is the human mind, the transmitter is

voice, or whatever means humans have at their disposal to use in transmitting and the

receiver and the final destination are the sensory organs, such as ears, skin, nose and

eyes, along with the mind of the recipient of the messages.

In this study, which is related to the advertising, communication is

synonymous with information (Dainton & Zelley, 2011). The communication process

occurs between the advertisers and the consumers who receive the messages. The

messages transferred are in the non-verbal forms which turn to be the written

advertisements.

8. Advertisement

This section describes the theories related to the advertisement, namely the

definition of advertisement, the functions of advertisement and the types of

advertisement. Besides, since the aims of this study are to analyze and describe the

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are provided. Also, the researcher provides Coca-cola and Pepsi advertising strategies

since this study uses Coca-cola and Pepsi as the objects of the study.

a. Definition of Advertisement

Advertisement is “an organization of text that provides information about a

product or service along with an anchorage of image that suggests some cohesion or

logical linkage leading to some relevance or meaningful interpretation to the target

consumers” (Dattamajumdar, 2006: 222). It implies that advertisement is a form of

text to give information about the products or services to the consumers. On the other

hand, advertising means a form of communication used to persuade an audience

(viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or

services (Agustrijanto, 2002, as cited in Anggraeni, 2011). Agusrijanto states that the

discourse in the advertisement is to persuade. Therefore, the advertisers intend to

persuade a certain category of people to buy a given product or service (Dimbley &

Burton, 1985).

In the advertising, communication creates a persuasive connection with people

(Dimblely & Burton, 1985). The persuasive activity is also described as the

promotions which are the “activities that communicate the product or service and

its merits to the target customers and persuade them to buy” (Kotler & Armstrong,

2001: 98, as cited in Chikorva, 2011). The messages delivered in the advertisements

are commonly defined as paid communication from an identified sponsor using the

mass media to persuade the audiences (Rodgers & Thorson, 2012: 4). However, the

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According to Valor (2005), “the discourse of advertising is characterized by two main

communicative elements: information and persuasion” (p. 43). Furthermore, Valor

(2005: 44) states that most of the studies related to the advertising have shown that

persuasion is the main purpose in advertising, whereas information is the secondary

purpose in advertising.

The communication in the advertising can be broken down into two branches,

namely verbal and non-verbal communication (Lapsanska, 2006: 19). In real life,

verbal communication is commonly used in the advertising, in which the advertisers

use the words. It does not employ oral or spoken language to persuade the costumers

to buy the products. On the other hand, non-verbal communication can be expressed

“through any sensory channel” (Lapsanska, 2006: 19). In other words, it can be

expressed in any media. In conclusion, non-verbal communication can be wordless

communication.

b. Functions of Advertisement

Rodgers and Thorson (2012: 5) propose four functions of advertisements.

First is brand building, which means creating concepts and beliefs about brands in the

minds of consumers. Second is lead generation, meaning the advertising message has

attracted people who are in the market for purchase. Third is driving purchase,

meaning there is a direct relationship between encountering the advertising messages

and buying the advertised brand. Fourth is changing life behaviors, meaning the

advertising messages lead directly to the behaviors, for instance, losing weight or

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c. Types of Advertisement

Cook (2001, as cited in Valor, 2005: 44) categorizes advertisements according

to various criteria. First, Cook categorizes advertisement by its medium, for instance,

newspaper, magazine, radio, television and internet. Second, it is categorized by

product or service, for instance, luxuries versus household necessities and product ads

versus non-product ads. Third, it is categorized by technique, for instance, the

hard-sell advertisement, which makes a direct appeal to the prospective buyer, and the

soft-sell ad, which works through indirectness and implication. Fourth, it is categorized by

consumer, which is considered the most important factor for an advertisement to be

successful.

d. Linguistic Features in Advertisements

Regarding the linguistic features, the language in advertisements often relies

on creative exploitation of language within predictable linguistic patterns and

techniques (Leech, 1966, as cited in El-daly, 2011). According to Leech (1966, as

cited in El-daly, 2011) it is one of the advertisers’ strategies to attract and sustain the

reader's attention in order to make the advertisement memorable and to prompt the

readers to do appropriate action. Moreover, Linghong (2006) proposes several lexical

features in the English advertisements, such as the use of monosyllabic verbs (be,

print, fit), the use of weasel words, “words used to evade or retreat from a direct or

forthright statement or position” (Linghong, 2006: 73), the use of favorable words,

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of personal pronouns, the use of compounds, the use of coinage or new words, the use

of anagrammatic spellings and the use of borrowed words.

e. Coca-cola and Pepsi Advertising Strategies

Coca-cola and Pepsi have different strategies to advertise their products. They

use a slogan, a jingle and anything that can be used to promote the products. For

instance, Pepsi attempted to target more costumers with the campaign “Pepsi

Generation” aimed to target the young customers for the marketing, whereas

Coca-cola used Tab, a diet soda, to focus on the female market (Michman & Mazze, 1998:

233). Further, Michman & Mazze (1998: 235) state that Coca-cola’s promotional

theme “the light refreshment” worked wonders (Michman & Mazze, 1998: 232). In

1942, Pepsi created and used a jingle concept to advertise the products. The jingle

emphasized a larger size bottle:

Pepsi-Cola hits the spot. Twelve full ounces, that’s a lot. Twice as much, for a nickel, too. Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you.

The jingle was translated into 55 different languages, and in 1949, Life

magazine called it immortal (Michman & Mazze, 1998: 237).

B. Theoretical Framework

There are two research problems in this study, namely the word formation

types used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements and the most frequently word

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description, the researcher employs the theories from Aronoff and Fudeman (2011),

Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004), Katamba (1993) and O’Grady and de Guzman

(2011) about the morphological phenomena focusing on word formation processes to

solve the two research problems.

To solve the first research problem, the theories that will be used are word

formation types which are compiled from the studies by Aronoff and Fudeman

(2011), Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004), Katamba (1993) and O’Grady and de

Guzman (2011). There are eleven word formation types, namely borrowing,

cliticization, coinage, acronyms, intialism, blending, clipping, back-formation,

conversion, derivation and inflection. Based on the provided theories, the researcher

attempts to analyze the word formations used in the Coca-cola and Pepsi

advertisements.

To solve the second research problem, the most frequently word formation

used, the researcher uses the theories of word formation from the studies by Aronoff

and Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004), Katamba (1993) and O’Grady

and de Guzman (2011). The researcher attempts to classify the word formations used

in the Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements into 11 categories, namely borrowing,

cliticization, coinage, acronyms, initalism, blending, clipping, back-formation,

conversion, derivation and inflection. Afterwards, the researcher will identify which

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32

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter consists of seven subtopics. The first subtopic is the research

method implemented to conduct the research. The second subtopic is the research

setting that refers to the place and time in which the research was conducted. The

third presents the sources of data. The fourth is the instruments used to collect the

data. The fifth is the techniques used to gather the data. The sixth is the data analysis.

The last part of this chapter is the procedures of the research.

A. Research Method

The research was qualitative research since it focused on understanding social

phenomena from the perspective of the human participants in the study (Ary, Jacobs

& Razavieh, 2002). The intended social phenomenon was the soft drink

advertisements that widely exist in society. The soft drink advertisements were

analyzed linguistically to understand the word formation used in the advertisements.

The research was also considered content analysis. According to Fraenkel and

Wallen (2008), content analysis is “a technique that enables researchers to study

human behavior in an indirect way through an analysis of their communications” (p.

472). Here, the focus of the content analysis is indirect research. The researcher

therefore took the data by analyzing and interpreting the recorded materials (Ary,

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materials can be taken from public records, textbooks, letters, films, tapes, diaries,

themes, reports and so on. In short, the materials used in a content analysis represent

the forms of human communication (Leedy & Omrod, 2005: 142). Regarding this

study, the researcher observed the public records that were Coca-cola and Pepsi

advertisements published in the United States from 1950 until 2012.

B. Research Setting

The researcher conducted the research from December 2012 until April 2013.

The research was conducted in Yogyakarta through a library study and indirect

research to collect the data. However, the research setting did not refer to the setting

of the participants since it referred to the researcher’s domicile in conducting the

research.

C. Research Sources of Data

The sources of the data were Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements that had

been collected from various online sources through the search engine Google. The

researcher chose Coca-cola and Pepsi advertisements as the research sources of data

since the two soft drink brands are widely recognized across nations. Moreover,

Coca-cola and Pepsi are the companies who have been dominating the soft drink

industry and cola market (Michman & Mazze, 1998). Since the volumes of the

relevant data were abundant, the researcher needed the samplings of the data. It is

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situation of texts, the researcher needs a sampling plan to ensure that the textual units

sampled do not bias the answers to the research question” (Krippendorff, 2004: 113).

Thus, the researcher used the stratified samples. According to Krippendorff (2004:

113), “stratified samples represent all strata either in equal numbers”. It implied that

the samples taken were stratified according to a certain specific definition, for

instance, the samples may be stratified by geographic area of publication or by

frequency of publication (Krippendorff, 2004: 113). Since the advertisements were

too large to be analyzed as a whole, the researcher stratified the advertisements based

on the geographic area of publication and the years of publication. The geographic

area would be the United States of America since it is the country where Coca-cola

and Pepsi were first produced. Besides, the language of the advertisements would be

analyzed linguistically in English. The years of publication were 1950 until 2012.

Further, since the range of the years was quite big, the researcher randomly selected

one advertisement from each year. The advertisements were taken from various

online sources through the search engine Google.

D. Research Instruments

There were two instruments used in this study. The first instrument was

human instrument as stated by Merriam (2002: 4) that “the researcher is the primary

instrument for data collection and data analysis.” It implied that human instrument

was the researcher who became the key person to observe the phenomena of the study

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After deciding the objectives, the researcher collected the data, classified the data and

analyzed the data based on the theories.

The second instruments were the observation forms, which are depicted in

Table 3.1 and Table 3.2. The observation forms were used for observing the

phenomena on word formation and classifying the data. Table 3.1 was used for

classifying the word formation types occurring in the Coca-cola and Pepsi

advertisements. Table 3.1 was used for answering first research problem regarding

the word formation types used in the data. There are 11 types of word formation used

for categorizing the data. The eleven types of word formation are based on the

theories from Aronoff and Fudeman (2011), Bauer (1983), Campbell (2004),

Katamba (1993) and O’Grady and de Guzman (2011). Each of word formation type is

given a code, for instance, borrowing is given a code BO. The rest of the codes can be

found below Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 Table of Word Formation Types

Figur

Figure 2.1 The illustration of the difference between a root and a base based on

Figure 2.1

The illustration of the difference between a root and a base based on p.34
Table 2.1 English Inflectional Morphemes Adapted from O’Grady and de

Table 2.1

English Inflectional Morphemes Adapted from O’Grady and de p.40
Table 3.1 Table of Word Formation Types

Table 3.1

Table of Word Formation Types p.52
Table 3.2 The Frequency of Word Formation Cases

Table 3.2

The Frequency of Word Formation Cases p.53
Table 4.1 The Occurrences of Borrowing

Table 4.1

The Occurrences of Borrowing p.60
Table 4.2 The Occurrences of Cliticization

Table 4.2

The Occurrences of Cliticization p.63
Table 4.3 The Occurrences of Clipping

Table 4.3

The Occurrences of Clipping p.65
Table 4.4.

Table 4.4.

p.66
Table 4.5 The Occurrences of Blend

Table 4.5

The Occurrences of Blend p.68
Table 4.6 presents the occurrences of the conversion cases used in the Coca-cola and

Table 4.6

presents the occurrences of the conversion cases used in the Coca-cola and p.70
Figure 4.1 helps to illustrate the derivational process of entertainment.

Figure 4.1

helps to illustrate the derivational process of entertainment. p.71
Figure 4.1 The derivational process of entertainment

Figure 4.1

The derivational process of entertainment p.72
Figure 4.4 describes how cokeologist is formed.

Figure 4.4

describes how cokeologist is formed. p.73
Figure 4.5 The derivational process of  beautiful

Figure 4.5

The derivational process of beautiful p.74
Figure 4.7 The derivational process of  promotion

Figure 4.7

The derivational process of promotion p.75
Table 4.8 The Occurrences of Inflection

Table 4.8

The Occurrences of Inflection p.83
Table 4.2 presents the frequency of word formation used in Coca-cola and

Table 4.2

presents the frequency of word formation used in Coca-cola and p.84

Referensi

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