TEACHER’S QUESTIONING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM INTERACTION.

36  13  Download (0)

Teks penuh

(1)

TEACHER’S QUESTIONING STRATEGIES IN

CLASSROOM

INTERACTION

(A Case Study)

A Research Paper

Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana

Pendidikan Degree

Siti Nur Hadiani

0908880

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

(2)

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies in

Classroom Interaction (A Case Study)

Oleh Siti Nur Hadiani

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana pada Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni

© Siti Nur Hadiani 2014 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Januari 2014

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

(3)

PAGE OF APPROVAL

SITI NUR HADIANI (0908880)

TEACHER’S QUESTIONING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM INTERACTION (A Case Study)

Approved by:

First Supervisor

Pupung Purnawarman, M.S.Ed., Ph.D. NIP. 196810131998031001

Second Supervisor

Fazri Nur Yusuf, S.Pd., M.Pd. NIP. 197308162003121002

Head of Department of English Education Faculty of Language and Fine Arts Education

Indonesia University of Education

(4)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the questioning strategies employed in classroom interaction in one public senior high school in Cimahi. This study, thus, intends to explore what questioning strategies are applied by the teacher in the classroom interaction along with teacher’s and students’ perceptions of the questioning strategies applied in the classroom interaction. To meet the purposes of the study, a case study was employed. The data were obtained from classroom observation, interview with the teacher and interview with students. The basic frameworks of questioning strategies analysis are relied on Chaudron (1988), Wu (1993), Anwar (2000) and Tsui et al (2004) frameworks. This study revealed that the teacher employed several questioning strategies namely rephrasing, blank-filling, code-switching, probing, simplification, exemplification, repetition, and decomposition

in eliciting the students’ responses. However, the most dominant questioning strategy employed by the teacher was rephrasing strategy since this strategy was

effective in eliciting the students’ responses in the classroom interaction. This result was supported by the result of the interview with the students which revealed that the most helpful questioning strategy for the students was rephrasing strategy. The teacher and the students generally gave positive perceptions toward questioning startegies. For the teacher, questioning startegy is one of the teacher’s

tools in eliciting students’ responses. Meanwhile, for the students, questioning strategies are really helpful in comprehending the teacher’s questions and also helpful in gaining confidence to express their ideas verbally. Based on the findings, it is recommended that future research concerning the implementation of questioning strategy in Indonesia should be enriched with more attention to the correlation between the implementation of questioning strategies and students’ achievement.

(5)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini meneliti strategi bertanya yang digunakan guru dalam interaksi kelas di sebuah SMA negeri di Cimahi. Maka dari itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menelaah strategi bertanya apa yang digunakan oleh guru dalam interaksi kelas beserta persepsi guru dan siswa mengenai penggunaan strategi bertanya tersebut dalam interaksi kelas. Dengan mempertimbangkan tujuan dari penelitian ini, studi kasus dipilih sebagai metode yang cocok untuk digunakan. Data yang dibutuhkan dikumpulkan dari beberapa instrumen yang digunakan, yakni observasi kelas, wawancara dengan guru dan wawancara dengan siswa. Kerangka kerja dasar yang digunakan dalam menganalisis strategi bertanya dikembangkan berdasarkan kerangka kerja dari Chaudron (1988), Wu (1993), Anwar (2000) dan Tsui et al (2004). Berdasarkan hasil temuan, rephrasing, blank-filling,

code-switching, probing, simplification, exemplification, repetition, dan decomposition

adalah jenis strategi bertanya yang sering digunakan oleh guru dalam usaha memperoleh respon siswa. Meskipun demikian, strategi bertanya yang paling dominan digunakan oleh guru dalam interaksi kelas adalah strategi rephrasing karena, berdasarkan hasil analisis, strategi ini efektif dalam mendorong siswa untuk memberikan respon. Hasil analisis ini juga didukung oleh hasil wawancara dengan siswa yang mengungkapkan bahwa strategi bertanya yang sangat membantu siswa dalam memahami pertanyaan guru adalah strategi rephrasing. Secara umum, guru dan para siswa memberikan persepsi positif terhadap penggunaan strategi bertanya. Bagi guru, strategi bertanya merupakan salah satu cara guru dalam memperoleh respon dari siswa. Sedangkan bagi para siswa, strategi bertanya sangatlah membantu mereka dalam memahami pertanyaan yang diberikan oleh guru dan juga sangat membantu siswa dalam menumbuhkan kepercayaan diri untuk mengemukakan pendapat maupun ide mereka secara verbal. Berdasarkan hasil temuan, direkomendasikan untuk penelitian selanjutnya untuk lebih memfokuskan penelitian terhadap korelasi antara pengimplementasian strategi bertanya dan pencapaian siswa.

(6)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

TABLE OF CONTENTS

STATEMENT... i

PREFACE... ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... iii

ABSTRACT... v

TABLE OF CONTENTS... vi

LIST OF FIGURE... ix

LIST OF APPENDICES... x

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1Background of the Study ... 1

1.2Research Questions ... 3

1.3Aims of the Study ... 3

1.4Scope of the Study ... 4

1.5Significance of the Study ... 4

1.6Research Methodology ... 4

1.6.1 Design ... 4

1.6.2 Subjects of the Study ...5

1.6.3 Data Collection ... 5

1.6.4 Data Analysis ... 6

1.7Clarification of Terms ... 7

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 2.1 Teacher’s Questions in Classroom ... 9

2.2 Functions of Teacher’s Questions...13

2.3 Teacher’s Questioning Strategies in Classroom ... 15

2.4 Types of Teacher’s Questioning Strategies ... 16

2.5Classroom Interaction and Questioning Strategies ... 26

(7)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

3.3.1 Classroom Observation (Video Recording)... 33

3.3.2 Interview...33

3.4Data Analysis... 35

3.5Validity and Reliability... 37

3.6Concluding Remarks... 38

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1Findings... 40

4.1.1 Teacher’s Questioning Strategies in Classroom Interaction... 40

4.1.1.1 Rephrasing...45

4.1.2 Teacher’s Perceptions of the Questioning Strategies Applied in Classroom Interaction...59

4.1.2.1 Teacher’s Perceptions toward the Implementation of Questioning Strategies...60

4.1.2.2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Applying Questioning Strategies in Classroom Interaction...64

4.1.2.3 Students’ Perceptions of the Implementation of Questioning Strategies Applied by the Teacher...67

4.1.3 Students’ Perceptions of the Questioning Strategies Applied by the Teacher in Classroom Interaction... 64

4.2Discussions...72

(8)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

4.2.2 Teacher’s Perceptions of the Questioning Strategies Applied in Classroom

Interaction... 74

4.2.2.1 Teacher’s Perceptions toward the Implementation of Questioning

Strategies...74

4.2.2.2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Applying Questioning Strategies in

Classroom Interaction...77

4.2.2.3 Students’ Perceptions of the Implementation of Questioning Strategies

Applied by the Teacher...79

4.2.3 Students’ Perceptions of the Questioning Strategies Applied by the Teacher in

Classroom Interaction... 79

4.3Concluding Remarks... 81

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

4.4Conclusions... 83

4.5Suggestions...85

BIBLIOGRAPHY...86

APPENDICES

(9)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

LIST OF FIGURE

(10)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Lesson Transcripts

Appendix 2 Interview Transcript with Teacher

(11)

1

the research questions, aims and significance. It also discusses clarification of terms

used in this study as well as the paper organization.

Language teaching itself can refer to the interactive process between

students and teacher or among the students themselves (Flanders, 1960). At this

point, interaction becomes an important part in language teaching since the students

can learn English through interaction with a teacher and sometimes with their

classmates (Spratt et al, 2005). Interaction is a major part of educational practices

that is also acknowledged as a major source for language acquisition (Suherdi,

2010; Damhuis and De Blauw, 2008). The interaction that is expected to happen in

the classroom is an active interaction between the students and the teacher, where

the students and the teacher are interactive. Unfortunately, the expected active

interaction desired rarely occurs during teaching and learning process due to the

less motivation to participate possesed by the students, especially in Indonesia.

Students in Indonesia are still shy in participating during teaching and

learning process. In addition, Husnaini’s (2005) and Stianingrum’s (2010) findings

in their studies show the percentage of teacher talk is more than 60%. The

percentage shows that teacher mostly dominate the interaction in the classroom.

Meanwhile, the students are rarely active and participative in the whole classroom

interaction. Teacher’s domination of classroom interaction can discourage the

(12)

2

initiator and sustainer of interaction (Brown, 2001). Regarding this, teacher may

differently have their own ways to activate and to initiate the interaction in their

communication established between teacher and students when the students give

answer (Sari, 2011; Caesin, 1995). Regarding questioning, Brown (2001) points

out that appropriate questioning in an interactive classroom can fulfill a number of

different functions, such as giving the student opportunity to produce language

comfortably, initiating a chain reaction of student interaction among themselves,

and providing students with opportunities to find out what they think by hearing

questioning strategies employed by the teacher since developing a repertoire of

questioning strategies is also one of the best ways for teacher to establish and

sustain the interactive classroom interaction (Brown, 2001). Questioning strategies

may also provide necessary stepping stones for the students to communicate

(Brown, 2001).

Teacher, as the initiator and sustainer of interaction in the classroom, can

select and apply appropriate questioning stretegies in order to encourage the

(13)

3

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

questioning strategies that can be applied by the teacher. However, from so many

types of questioning strategies applied by a teacher, this study will only be based on

typical questioning strategies proposed by Chaudron (1988), Wu (1993), Anwar

(2000) and Tsui et al (2004) frameworks. According to the aforementioned

frameworks, repetition, rephrasing, simplification, decomposition, probing,

exemplification, blank-filling, code switching, and wait-time are the most common

strategies used by the teacher to get the desired answer or responses from the

students.

Departing from the explanation above, this study is aimed to investigate the

questioning strategies applied by the teacher in classroom interaction along with teacher’s and students’ perceptions toward the questioning strategies applied in classroom interaction. A public senior high school in Cimahi is selected to be the

2. What are teacher’s perceptions toward the questioning strategies

applied in classroom interaction?

3. What are students’ perceptions toward the questioning strategies

applied by the teacher in classroom interaction?

1.3 Aims of the Study

Given the aforementioned research questions, the main purpose of the study

(14)

4

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

students’ perceptions are focused on the most helpful questioning strategy for the students along with the students’ perceptions toward the implementation of questioning strategies.

1.4 Scope of the Study

The study will be limited merely on finding out the questioning strategies

applied by the teacher in classroom interaction. In addition, the scope of the study

will also be expanded on investigating the teacher’s and the students’ perceptions

toward the questioning strategies employed by the teacher in the classrooms. Teacher’s perceptions are focused on three aspects, namely teacher’s perceptions toward the implementation of questioning strategies, the advantages and

disadvantages of questioning strategies and teacher’s considerations in applying questioning strategies. Meanwhile, the students’ perceptions are focused on the most helpful questioning strategy for the students along with the students’ perceptions toward the implementation of questioning strategies.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The results of the study are expected to provide a comprehensive

description about the questioning strategies in classroom interaction in order to elicit students’ responses, so that the teacher can trigger the students to be more engaged and be active in the lesson. In addition, it is also expected to give valuable

contributions to the English teacher regarding classroom interaction that can be

used to cope with problems encountered while encouraging the students to speak

more so as to give effective English teaching to the language students.

In relation to the study program of English Education, this study is expected

to contribute a positive impact for English teaching models, particularly for the

better and the more effective questioning strategies.

1.6 Research Methodology

1.6.1 Design

In relation to the research questions above, this research will use qualitative

(15)

5

instruments namely classroom observation and interview. The data collected will be

coded and labelled by using IRF (Initiation-Response-Follow up) coding system

proposed by Sinclair and Coulthard (1975). Then, the data will be analyzed using

some related frameworks, such as Wu’s framework, Tsui et al, Anwar, and Chaudron’s framework. Those frameworks will be further discussed in chapter II. The use of those frameworks are intended to acquire and to discuss some findings

effective questioning strategies in eliciting students’ responses, to find out the

teacher’ perceptions of the effective questioning strategies applied in their

classrooms, and also to investigate the students’ perceptions toward the questioning

strategies applied by the teacher.

1.6.3 Data Collection

There are two kinds of data that will be gained in this study. They are field

notes and interview notes. Field notes are gained through classroom observation,

while interview notes are collected through interview.

- Classroom observation

The observation will be equipped by video recording. Video recording is

employed to get the details of teacher’ questioning strategies in eliciting students’

responses and students’ responses toward the questions given by the teacher that are

not covered through direct observation.

The primary data will be collected through this process of observation. The

(16)

6

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

and questioning strategies applied, and also students’ responses toward the

questions and questioing strategies given by the teacher. After being transcribed,

the data collected through classroom observation will be coded using IRF

(Initiation-Response-Follow up) system proposed by Sinclair and Coulthard (1975) then to be further analyzed and discussed using Wu’s framework, Tsui et al, Anwar, and Chaudron’s framework. The frameworks are further explained in chapter II.

- Interview

participation during teaching-learning process. The interview process will be

recorded by audio recorder to create an interview transcription. The classroom

observation and interview will be conducted several times in order to get the more

detailed description of questioning strategies that are effective in eliciting students’

responses as well as the teacher’s and the students’ perceptions of the questioning

strategies applied by the teacher in the classroom.

1.6.4 Data Analysis

The data are collected from classroom observation and interview. In

addition, classroom observation will be equipped by video-recording. The data

collected from both instruments will be analyzed through several steps in order to

answer the research questions stated beforehand.

The data taken from video recording will be analyzed to find out what kind

of questioning strategies that are used by the teacher and are effective to elicit students’ responses. Therefore, the transcription from the video recording will be firstly explored and coded by using IRF (Initiate-Response-Follow up) coding

(17)

7

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

and labelling the teacher’s and students’ utterances during the whole process of teaching and learning. It is expected that by using IRF coding system, the

transcription can be easier and clearer to be analyzed.

After being coded, the transcription will be analyzed, classified and

inner thoughts toward the questioning strategies applied in classroom interaction.

Finally, the data gained through interview is also expected to be able to validate the

previous data collected from classroom observation.

1.7 Clarification of Terms

In order to avoid unnecessary misunderstanding, some terms are clarified as

follows:

1.7.1 Teacher’s Questions

Questions asked by the teacher during the teaching-learning process as

one of the best ways to encourage the students to be involved in the

(18)

8

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

learning process in classroom interaction. It also refers to the teacher’s

strategies to elicit verbal responses from the students which are

manifested in modification of question (Wu, 1993).

1.7.3 Classroom Interaction

Classroom interaction can be defined as the whole interactions

occurring inside the classroom between teacher and students or among

the students themselves. Flanders includes teacher talk and students talk

(19)

31

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu CHAPTER III

students’ perceptions toward the use of questioning strategies in managing classroom interaction. Teacher’s perceptions are focused on three aspects, namely

teacher’s perceptions toward the implementation of questioning strategies, the

advantages and disadvantages of questioning strategies and teacher’s considerations

in applying questioning strategies. Meanwhile, the students’ perceptions are

focused on the most helpful questioning strategy for the students along with the

students’ perceptions toward the implementation of questioning strategies. Therefore, the findings from this study are expected to provide information

regarding teacher’s questioning strategies in classroom interaction.

Considering the issue which were investigated in this study and also

cosidering that this study was focused on the process of classroom interaction in a

natural setting, a qualitative study embracing the characteristics of case study is

considered appropriate to be applied in this study.

There are several characteristics of a case study in analyzing a subject. The

characteristics are identified by activities during the investigation to the respondents

in naturalistic setting. Bassey (1999) mentions that case study is a study involving

taking extensive data from the subject being questioned or observed, trying to

extract some meaning from the data obtained through the observation, and then

trying to express and describe the meaning in a cogent way. Therefore, in this

study, the primary data were collected through classroom observation equipped by

video recording. The observation was conducted three times by focusing on the

(20)

32

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

this sense, this study is occured in nature where there is no manipulating data given

by the respondents since the data are obtained through direct observation.

In case study, the data usually collected and analyzed are in the form of

interview data, observation data, document data, and audio-visual data (Cresswell,

2009). Therefore, the instruments such as observation, video recording, and

interview are usually employed in the process of collecting the data. This is relevant

to this study where the data were collected through observation by using video

recording and the supported by interview.

3.2 Research Site and Subjects of the Study

The site of this study was one of public senior high schools in North

Cimahi. An English teacher and her students in XI IPA 2 class were the subjects of

this research. The class consists of 38 students in their first semester. The school

was chosen due to the availability of access to conduct the study there.

The teacher is selected to be the subject of this study on the basis of several

considerations. The considerations are the availablity and the experience of the

teacher. The English teacher involved in this study has taught at the school for more

than 10 years. It is obviously not a short period to have an experience in teaching.

In addition, the teacher also mostly uses English as the medium of instruction in her

class. Hence, the teacher and the class taught by the teacher were considered to be

the potential subjects in this study. It was expected that this study is able to

investigate the effective questioning strategies applied by the teacher in eliciting

students’ responses. Moreover, this study was intended to find out the teacher’s and the students’ perceptions toward the questioning strategies employed in the

(21)

33

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

3.3.1 Classroom Observation (Video Recording-based observation)

In this study, observation was used in collecting the data needed. The

observation was specifically conducted in the classroom setting, since this study

attempts to investigate the questioning strategies applied by the teacher. Classroom

observation was conducted in this study in order to obtain the data directly from the

investigated. Unfortunately, there was a difficulty in carrying out the observation. It

was true that several behaviors of interest occur rapidly in an educational setting.

Then, this kind of behavior may be missed by the observer while doing the

observation. Therefore, video-recording was utilized as the primary strategy in

gathering and collecting the data needed in this study in order to get the details of

the behaviors that were not covered through direct observation. Based on Hatch

(2002), the use of video recording in collecting the data can provide a way of

capturing contextualized face-to-face social behavior in greater detail that can be

accomplished using other means.

In order to get the best understanding of the site and the individuals,

conducting multiple observations over time is purposefully suggested (Cresswell,

2012, p. 215). Hence, observation and video-recording were conducted several

(22)

34

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

classroom interaction. In addition, personal interview was chosen to be applied in

this study.

The interview process was conducted after finishing the classroom

observation and video-recording process. The interview was conducted from 6

January 2014 to 11 January 2014. There were totally ten subjects interviewed in

this study. Those ten subjects included a teacher and nine students. The nine

students are chosen based on their level of participation in the classroom. They are

considered the representatives of the students who perform high, fair, and low

participation in the whole classroom interaction. Therefore, there were three

students from each level of participation. The students were selected based on the

interviewer still needs to follow some predetermined questions and procedures. For

the teacher, the questions in the interview included teacher’s questioning habit in classroom interaction, teacher’s perception toward the questioning strategies

applied in classroom interaction, teacher’s rationales in applying questioning

strategies and the advantages and disadvantages of applying questioning strategies

from the teacher’s perspective. Meanwhile, for the students, the questions given

were related to students’ perceptions and opinions of the questioning strategies

applied by the teacher in classroom interaction, the most helpful questioning

strategy from the students’ perspective, and the advantages and disadvantages of

the implementation of questioning strategies in classroom interaction. (The full

(23)

35

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

1992, p. 153). Cosenquently, the data gained from this instrument were in the form

of interview notes and audio-recording. The audio recording was transcribed and

analyzed to answer the second and third research questions regarding teacher’s and

students’ perceptions toward the questioning strategies applied by the teacher in the

classroom interaction.

observation and post observation. Pre-observation was intended to know the

general situation and general characteristics of the teacher and the classrooms who

were the subjects of this study. Also, it was intended to get the focus of what is

going to be observed. Meanwhile, post observation was intended to collect the

primary data needed for this study.

The data collected from post observation were in the form of video

transcriptions transcribed from the video recording. The data gained from video

recording were analyzed to find out what kind of strategies that are effective to

elicit students’ responses. Then, the stages of analyzing the data from video recording were as follows:

1. Transferring the video into computer in order to make it easier to

analyze the data.

2. Watching and observing the video carefully.

3. Taking notes of some significant events or situation that may occur

during the teaching-learning process. There was no check-list equipped

in this taking notes process.

4. Transcribing the video to display the language used in the classroom.

5. Coding the data obtained from the video. The data were coded by using

IRF (Initiation-Response-Follow up) coding system proposed by

(24)

36

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

6. Classifying and categorizing the questioning strategies appeared in the

three lessons then make a tally of the frequences of questioning

strategies in the lessons video.

7. Calculating the number of questioning strategies employed by the

teacher in the whole classroom interaction. This was intended to see the

percentage of questioning strategies applied by the teacher.

8. Classifying and categorizing the questioning strategies employed by the

teacher using Chaudron (1988), Wu (1993), Anwar (2000) and Tsui et

al. (2004) frameworks. The questioning strategies were classified into

several categories, such as repetition, rephrasing, simplification,

decomposition, probing, exemplification, blank-filling, code switching,

and wait-time according to the characteristics of the questioning strategy

itself.

9. Interpreting and discussing the data to address the research questions

regarding the effective questioning strategies applied by the teacher in

the classroom.

10.Concluding/drawing conclusions of the findings. The findings and

discussions place into conclusions and suggestions to exemplify the

study entirely.

It is expected that from this analysis, the study can investigate the strategies

applied by the teacher in eliciting information needed and in eliciting students’

responses through the aspect thoroughly observed.

Meanwhile, the data collected from interview was in the form of an

interview transcription. The transcriptions were also explored and coded to acquire

teacher’s and students’ inner thoughts toward the questioning strategies applied in establishing communicative classroom interaction.

In order to support the result of the analyzed data from video recording, an

interview was conducted in this study. The interview involved the teacher and some

nine students. The nine students were selected based on their level of participation

in the classroom; high, middle, and low level of participation. Therefore, there were

equally three representatives from each level of participation.

The questions of the interview were focused on the teacher’s and the

(25)

37

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

by the teacher in the classroom interaction. Audio recorder was utilized during the

interview process. Hence, the data were analyzed similarly with how the data

collected through video recording was analyzed. The stages of analyzing the data

collected through interview can be seen as follows:

1. Transferring the audio file into computer in order to make it easier to

analyze the data.

2. Listening to the audio carefully.

3. Selecting the data, which was the appropriate data and which was not.

4. Transcribing the audio file to make it easier to be analyzed.

5. Analyzing the transcription of the data collected through interview. The

analysis was focused on addressing the second and the third research

questions, which were related to teacher’s and students’ perceptions toward the effective questioning strategies applied in classroom

interaction. The result of this analysis was intended to support the result

of video recording data analysis.

6. Interpreting and discussing the data taken from the interview process to

address the research questions.

7. Concluding the findings into conclusions and suggestions for further

study.

3.5 Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments

Throughout the process of data collection and analysis, it is important for a

the research findings namely triangulation and member checking.

To apply this trustworthiness, three instruments of collecting the data were

employed which were video recording, classroom observation, and interview. It

was expected that by using multiple or various methods in collecting the data, this

(26)

38

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

Meanwhile, member checks or member checking is a process in which the

misinterpretation of the subjects’ answers during interview process, (2) preventing

the misinterpretation of subjects’ behavior during observation process, and (3)

clarifying the subjects’ perspectives toward certain process occuring. Therefore, in

this study, the researcher involved taking the findings back to the subjects. Due to

some considerations, the subject involved in member checking process was the

teacher. The teacher, then, was asked to read and check the research findings

including the questioning strategies applied by the teacher in her classroom and her

perceptions toward the questioning strategies applied in her classroom interaction.

3.6 Concluding Remarks

This chapter has described the methodology underpinning the study. This

study was mainly aimed at investigating the questioning strategies applied by the

teacher in eliciting students’ responses. Furthermore, this study also attempts to

find out the teacher’s and students’ perceptions toward the questioning strategies used by the teacher in classroom interaction. Since this study was focused on the

process of classroom interaction in a natural setting, a qualitative study embracing

the characteristics of case study is considered appropriate to be applied in this

study.

An English teacher and 38 students of a public senior high school in Cimahi

were involved in this study as the subjects. Qualitative approach was chosen to be

used in analyzing the data gained through classroom observation (video-recording)

and interview. The analysis of the data collected through video-recording were

based on some theoretical frameworks namely Chaudron (1988), Wu (1993),

Anwar (2000) and Tsui et al. (2004) frameworks. Further explanation regarding the

(27)

83

willing to employ questioning strategies in their teaching.

5.1 Conclusions

This section presents the conclusions of the study conducted based on the

three research questions mentioned in chapter I earlier. The main purpose of the

study is to investigate what questioning strategies are applied by the teacher in

classroom interaction. Furthermore, this study is also intended to find out the

teacher’s and the students’ perceptions of the questioning strategies in classroom

interaction. The perceptions were focused on three aspects, namely teacher’s

perceptions toward the implementation of questioning strategies, the advantages and disadvantages of questioning strategies and teacher’s considerations in applying questioning strategies. Meanwhile, the third section also discusses the students’ perceptions toward the questioning strategies applied in classroom interaction. The perceptions were focused on the most helpful questioning strategy

for the students along with the students’ perceptions toward the implementation of

questioning strategies.

In regards to the first research question, the findings showed that the teacher

employed several questioning strategies in classroom interaction namely

rephrasing, blank-filling, code-switching, probing, simplification, exemplification,

repetition, and decomposition. However, based on the analysis of data collected

from classroom observation, the most frequent questioning strategy applied by the

teacher in eliciting the students’ responses is rephrasing strategy.

(28)

84

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

will analyze what kind of answer or response expected by the teacher by giving

certain clues or certain choice.

Meanwhile, from the nine questioning strategies proposed in chapter II,

there is an unidentified strategy in the three lessons of video-recording namely

wait-time. The teacher infrequently gave longer wait-time for the students to give

responses. Regarding this, the teacher stated that the students often fail to answer

the questions and they will just keep silent when the teacher applied wait-time

strategy. Therefore, the teacher prefered employing the other questioning strategies

to wait-time strategy.

For the second research questions, there were several findings that can be

pointed out. Firstly, related to the teacher’s perceptions toward the implementation

of questioning strategies, the teacher generally showed positive perception. She

found out that generally questioning strategies applied in her lessons were helpful

for her in managing classroom interaction. The questioning strategies that was

found to be the most helpful was rephrasing.

The second finding was related to the advantages and disadvantages of

applying questioning strategies. Based on the analysis, the advantages of applying

questioning strategies in classroom interaction were triggering the students to be

more active in participation, more confident in speaking English and to be more

engaged in the lesson. Meanwhile, by applying questioning strategies, the teacher

can check the students’ progress in comprehending the materials, check the

students’ knowledge of related materials, and also check the students’ readiness

before the teaching-learning process starts. Meanwhile, for the disadvantages,

employing questioning strategies inevitably takes longer time to wait for the

students to give the answer and response correctly. Then, sometimes employing

questioning strategies can be burdensome for the teacher since the teacher is

expected to be as creative as possible in modifying the questions.

Then, the third finding related to teacher’s perceptions was teacher’s

considerations in applying questioning strategies in classroom interaction. There

were some considerations to be considered carefully by the teacher in applying

questioning strategies in classroom interaction. The first consideration was the

students’ level of language mastery. In order to be able to elicit the students’

(29)

85

have been planned can be achieved effectively in the classroom.

The last research question was related to the students’ perceptions of questioning strategies applied by the teacher in classroom interaction. The students’ perceptions were focused on finding out the most helpful questioning strategy for the students and the students’ perceptions toward the implementation of questioning strategies. Based on the findings, the students also find rephrasing strategy as the

questioning strategies, the students found that questioning strategies are really

helpful in making them comprehend the questions given by the teacher better.

Moreover, questioning strategies also help the students in gaining their confidence

to express their ideas verbally since several strategies, like rephrasing, provide

clues or choice of the answers. Clues and choices of the answer can build the

strategies. Teacher, as the initiator and sustainer of the classroom interaction should

(30)

86

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

one of the best ways to create the interactive classroom interaction is by employing

questioning strategies. There are several questioning strategies that can be employed by the teacher in eliciting the students’ responses. The questioning strategies that can be applied are rephrasing, blank-filling, code-switching, probing,

simplification, exemplification, repetition, decomposition, and wait-time. However,

since the findings of this study showed that the teacher mostly applied rephrasing

strategy in classroom interaction. Employing rephrasing strategy can be suggested

to be applied more to elicit the responses from the students since the students

involved in this study also found that the most helpful strategy for them was

rephrasing strategy. Rephrasing strategy can be applied when the teacher wants to

ask certain questions related to concept or to check the students’ comprehension.

In addition, it is also suggested that the teacher can apply the other

questioning strategies as well. Based on the result of the analysis, there are some

strategies that are better to be applied more and there are some strategies that

should be considered carefully to be employed. Probing, simplification,

exemplification, and decomposition are categorized into better strategies to be

applied more. This is because the aforementioned strategies are strategies that can develop students’ thinking skills and develop the teacher’s creativity. Probing strategy can be applied when the teacher wants to check the students’ further knowledge or comprehension about certain learning material. Probing can also be applied in the beginning of the class when the teacher wants to check the students’ prior knowledge related certain topic.

Simplification and decomposition strategies can be employed when the

(31)

87

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

aforementioned strategies need to be minimized. The teacher said that sometimes

blank-filling and repetition were not helpful in eliciting the students’ responses.

Blank-filling sometimes failed to elicit the expected responses from the students

since the students tended to give random answers freely. Meanwhile, repetition

strategy is also considered less helpful in helping the students to comprehend the

question better since the problem lies on the question itself from the start.

Therefore, it is suggested that teachers can minimize the use of blank-filling and

repetition strategies in classroom interaction. Blank-filling can be applied when the

expected answer is the key point or the key word of the learning material. Then, repetition strategy can be more applied in getting the students’ attentions to the questions.

In addition, it is also suggested that the teacher can apply more wait-time

strategy in the classroom interaction since wait-time is really useful in developing

students’ thinking skills. Wait-time can be applied everytime the teacher asks

questions to the students though the teacher still needs to consider the time

allotment carefully. Therefore, the teacher somehow needs to be more patient in waiting for the students’ response.

In applying the questioning strategies, the teacher should consider several

considerations related to the level of students’ language mastery, the goal of the

lesson, and the time allotment. Thus, the teacher should be selective in applying certain questioning strategy in eliciting the students’ responses. Besides helping the students to comprehend the questions given, the questioning strategy applied by the

teacher should also facilitate the students in developing their thinking skill.

The next suggestion proposed is related to the students’ perceptions of the questioning strategies applied in the classroom interaction. Since the students feel

that the implementation of questioning strategies is helpful to make them easier in

comprehending the questions given by the teacher, the students themselves should

be brave in expressing their ideas. The students are not expected to be always dependent on the teacher’s questions. They are expected to be more active and participative in the classroom interaction by triggering themselves to be willing to

learn more.

Then, finally the findings of the study are expected to be able to provide

(32)

88

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

strategies in classroom interaction or any similar studies that will be carried out,

especially for the students of English Education Department at Indonesia University

(33)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu REFERENCES

Alwasilah, A. C. (2000). Pokoknya Kualiatif: Dasar-dasar Merancang dan

Melakukan Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: PT. Dunia Pustaka Jaya.

Anwar, Z. (2000). Interactional Features as Implemented in Teaching English at

Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN) 4 Jakarta. Bandung, UPI. Unpublished

Research Thesis.

Bassey, M. (1999). Case Study Research in Educational Settings. Buckingham:

Open University Press.

Bond, N. (2007). Questioning Strategies that Minimize Classroom Management

Problem. KAPPA Delta PI Record, 19-21.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to

Language Pedagogy. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Chaudron, C. (1988). Second Language Classrooms (Research on Teaching and

Learning). Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, L. & Lawrence, M. (1977). A Guide to Teaching Practice. London:

Methuen Inc.

Cotton, K. (1988). Classroom Questioning. NWREL: School Improvement

Research Seies (SIRS). Retreived December 11, 2013, from,

http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/3/cu5.html.

Courter, S. P. B. et al. (1996). Strategies for Effective: A Handbook for Teaching

Assistants. Madison, WI: University of Winsconsin System Board of

(34)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and

Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th Ed.). Boston:

Pearson.

Damhuis, R., & Blauw, A. D. (2008). High Quality Interaction in the Classroom

Interaction: A Focus for Professional Learning. L1 Educational Studies in

Language and Literature, 8(4): 107-126. Retrieved 2012, from

http://www.dare.uva.nl/document/13108.

Doff, A. (1988). Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Fawzi, A. H. (2009). Teacher’s Questioning Strategies in an EFL Classroom (An

Interaction Analysis of Teacher SMP Negeri 1 Lembang, Bandung Barat

Regency). Bandung, UPI. Unpublished Research Paper.

Fisher, R. (1995). Teaching Children to Learn. England: Stanley Thornes.

Harmer, J. (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Edinburgh:

Pearson Longman.

Harmer, K. (2003). Second Language Writing. New York: Cambridge University

Press.

Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings. New

York: State University of New York Press.

Husnaini. (2005). Teacher Talk and Learner Talk in Classroom Interaction (An

Interaction Analysis to An English Language Class at SMPN 29 Bandung).

Bandung, UPI: Unpublished Research Paper.

Khadidja, K. (2010). The Effect of Classroom Interaction on Developing The

(35)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New

Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd, Publisher.

Loughran, J. (2010). What Expert Teachers Do: Enhancing Professional

Knowledge for Classroom Practice. Singapore: KHL Printing Co Pte Ltd.

McMillan, J. H. (1992). Research in Education: A Conceptual Introduction 5th

Edition. USA: Harper Collins Publishers.

Mehan, H. (1979). “What time is it Denise?” Asking Known Information

Questions in Classroom Discourse. Theory Into Practice, 18, 285-294.

Nunan, D. (1992). Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D., & Lamb, C. (1996). The Self-Directed Teacher. New York:

Cambridge University Press.

Oyesola, G. O. (1990). Questioning Technique in Classroom Management.

Retreived December, 2013, from

http://www.unilorin.edu.ng/journals/education/ije/dec1990/QUESTIONING

%20TECHNIQUE%20IN%20CLASSROOM%20MANAGEMENT.pdf

Sari, Y. P. (2011). An Analysis of Teacher’s Questioning Strategies in A Public

Senior High School in Bandung. Bandung, UPI. Unpublished Research

Paper.

Suherdi, D. (2010). Classroom Discourse Analysis “A Systemiotic Approach”. Bandung: CELTIC Press.

Spratt, M. A. P. et al. (2005). The TKT (Teaching Knowledge Test) Course.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tsui, A. B. M. et al. (2004). Classroom Dicourse and The Space of Learning.

(36)

Siti Nur Hadiani, 2014

Teacher’s Questioning Strategies In Classroom Interaction

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

Wiggle, S. E. (1999). Higher Quality Questioning. Education Digest, 65 (4),

62-63.

Wu, K. Y. (1993). Classroom Interaction and Teacher Questions Revisited.

RELC Journal, 24 (2): 49-68. Retrieved July 20, 2013, from,

http://rel.sagepub.com/content/27/2/30.full.pdf+html

Yu, W. (2010). An Analysis of College English Classroom Questioning. Journal of

Language Teaching and Research 1 (2): 136-144. Qingdao University of

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...