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Submitted To The Faculty Of Cultural Sciences Hasanuddin University In Partial Fulfillment Of Requirements To Sarjana Degree

In English Department












Alhamdulillahi Rabbil ‘Alamin. First, I sincerely express my highest gratitude to Allah SWT from whom I can get strength, opportunity, inspiration, health, mercy and love during accomplish writing this thesis as one requirments to achieve degree in English Department, Faculty of Cultural Sciences Hasanuddin University. I do not forget to express my Shalawat and Taslim to our prophet Nabiullah Muhammad SAW who has taken us from the darkness to the brightness.

In this occasion, I would like to express gratitude and appreciation to my great family for her loves, prays, money, concerns, advice, support, my thanks indeed for you concern and endless love to me.

I would like to express my special thanks to the Dean of Faculty of Cultural Science Prof. Dr. Akin Duli M.A. and all his staffs, my highest gratitude also goes to the head of English Department, Dr. Abidin Pammu, Dipl. TESOL., M.A, all of the lecturers and the staff for their help and information during the writer’s study, and my massive appreciation goes to my supervisors Dra.

Herawati, M.Hum., M.A., Ph.D and Andi Inayah Soraya, S.S., M.Hum who have provided valuable suggestions and guidances in writing this thesis.

Furthermore, biggest thanks are also extended to rich kids a.k.a CUMLAUDE (Ayuma, Aisyah, Dian, Egik, Maria) who are being the writer’s best mate, and for the moment of togetherness we have been through since the first semester, so lucky to have you guys.Thanks to my bestfriend since Senior High School, Bidadari Syurga (Ikke, Rima, Vivi, Dwi, Nunu) who always


vi cheer,give pray and motivation the writer’s days up until now. My sisters from another mother COMBER (Kaka Tyra dan Sasda), BontoSunggu Squad ( Lola, Cicing, Ainun, Habibi, Fadil) who always supporting in group.

Thanksto Excalibur 14, and my best therapist UTILMA SQUAD ( Teem, Azwar, Mashur, Jek, Saseh, Indra Jeteh, Aco, Darul, Ongky, Ama, Wali, Faisal, Vida, Furqan, Fajri, Dani 1 2, Wawan, Jusril, Waiz) who always make laugh every single day , cares and for being my second family.The last but not least, special thanksto the good-hearted Muhsin Zubair Darmadi who always knowing how to handle me, always support, teach , cheer up , cares, and give me advice during writing this thesis.

The writer realizes that this thesis is not a perfect writing, it still has deficiencies. Therefore, any valuable critiques and suggestions will be appreciated. The writer hopes this thesis will be useful for the future researches.

Finally, thanks for all of you, May God always blesses.

Makassar, May 2018

Dian Haerunnisai Putri. S



TITLE ... i




ABSTRACT ... vii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ... 1

B .Identification of the Problem ... 3

C. Research Questions ... 4

D. Objective of the Study ... 4

E. Significance of Study ... 4

F. Sequence of the Writing ... 5


B. Structuralism Approach ... 7

1. Characters ... 9

2. Theme... 11

3 .Plot ... 11

4. Setting ... 12

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A .Methodological Design ... 15

B. Source of Data ... 16

C .Method of Collecting Data ... 16



D. Method of Analyzing Data ... 17

E. Research Procedure ... 17

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. The Structural Analysis in the novel Tortilla Flat ... 18

B. The Social Setting in the novel Tortilla Flat ... 44


B.Suggestion ... 47





DIAN HAERUNNISAI PUTRI S, 2018. Analysis Social Setting in Tortilla Flat by John Steinbeck. (Supervised by Herawati Abbas dan Andi Inayah Soraya).

The aims of this research consists of two objectives, first, describing the internal aspects of the novel and the second, explaining the social setting of the character in the novel Tortilla Flat

This research uses descriptive method, a method that describes the phenomenon as it is with the data obtained through literature study. Furthermore, in analyzing data, the writer uses a structural approach that focuses on the intrinsic elements that exist in literary works such as characters, themes, plot and setting.

Based on the results of the research, the writer has found two points, the first is the intrinsic aspect consisting of the characters Danny, Pilon, Pablo, Jesus Maria, Big Joe and pirate. The theme is value highly friendship and Danny’s House is the setting of this story. Plot is at the end of the story, Danny died and his house was on fire. Each left the place and there is no way together, they go with their own goals. The second points are social settings contained in the novel Tortilla Flat such us desire for freedom, Alcoholism, connected with natural and spirituality, and rejecting materialism.

Key Words: Social Setting, Tortilla Flat.



DIAN HAERUNNISAI PUTRI S, 2018. Analisis Latar Sosial dalam novel Tortilla Flat Karya John Steinbeck (Dibimbing oleh Herawati Abbas dan Andi Inayah Soraya).

Tujuan dari penelitian ini terdiri atas dua, pertama menggambarkan aspek internal yang ada pada novel dan kedua menjelaskan latar sosial pada tokoh dalam novel Tortilla Flat.

Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif, sebuah metode yang menggambarkan fenomena apa adanya dengan data yang diperoleh melalui studi pustaka. Selanjutnya, dalam menganalisa data penulis menggunakan pendekatan struktural yang berfokus pada unsur-unsur intinsik yang ada di dalam karya sastra seperti tokoh, tema, alur dan latar.

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, penulis menemukan dua poin yang pertama adalah instrinsic aspek yang terdiri dari tokoh yang bernama Danny, Pilon, Pablo, Jesus Maria, Big Joe dan The Pirate. Latar dari cerita ini Dirumah Danny dan tema yang diangkat dari cerita ini adalah nilai persahabatan yang tinggi. Alur yang diceritakan berada ada di akhir cerita ketika Danny meninggal dan rumahnya terbakar. Masing-masing meninggalkan tempat dan tidak ada jalan bersama, mereka pergi dengan tujuan mereka sendiri. Poin kedua adalah pengaturan sosial yang terkandung dalam novel seperti keinginan untuk kebebasan, alcohol , terhubung dengan alam dan spiritualitas, dan menolak materialisme.

Kata kunci: Latar sosial, Tortilla Flat.




In this chapter, the writer explains about the background of study, identification of problems, research question, objective of the study, and sequences of writing. This chapter is the beginning of the research.

A. Background of Study

Social life is an existence of human beings that the inseparable from the interaction in society. The human will be involved in social integration and interaction into the environment surrounding him. His existence has made him as a member of society and he has social responsibility to the environment of society surrounding him. McKeenie(1983:22) explains that the term ‘social’ refers human being living together as a group in a situation requiring their associating one another.

Based on the statement, it can be said that the human beings are created to associate with others. Each person cannot be isolated from others. They are called dependent creatures because they depend on each other. They need others help to fulfill their needs so that they cannot rely on themselves.

In the literature, setting in a story is important elements, as well as other elements in fiction. The social life that the writer discusses here is the part of setting. The setting also called an important point, referring to the notion of place, the relationship of time, and the social environment in which the events told.

More details provide a concrete and clear footing of the story. It is important to give a realistic impression to the reader, creating a certain


2 atmosphere that seems actually exist and happen. The readers can sense and assess the truth, they also are able to resolve and actualize the background that told in order for them to feel more familiar.

According to Ratna (2008:127) said that, setting is able to lift condition of place, local culture, complete the characteristic in to the story The physical setting or condition in a novel also refers to a particular location such as, the name of town, village, road, hotel, lodging, and others. The reader can also relate to the background of time such as date, year, or event that refers to a specific time and in the literary. There are also spiritual backgrounds; those are beliefs, customs, as well as the values applied in the four concerned.

In addition, the nature of the background in many cases affects the character traits. It is also relevant with Nurgiyantoro (2005:44) who mention that one event will shaped by the state of the environment or the setting. Social status issues will also be affected by the setting and reflected in a way of thinking or may be linked to the slum dwellings or the elite located in the middle of the city.

Based on several opinions above, the writer concludes that the attitude of a person will greatly influenced by the situation and of the environment. This happens because of the longstanding spiritual influence of the community, whether customs, beliefs, or norms that are applied condition. This is the purpose of controlling society as an association. If the rule is broken, it will certainly get a reaction of protest from the public as a form of sanction for the violation.

John Steinbeck in the Tortilla Flat novel describes the life of the Paisano- the mixed-blooded masses of Spanish, Indians, Mexicans and Caucasians in a


3 poor fishing territory. The writer choose on Tortilla Flat because many lessons can find in this novel, such as the harshness of poor classes, how hard it is to earn money, to eat and have fun, and how to build a bond of friendship. The novel also describes the diverse conditions that each character performs from drinking alcohol, carefree life rejection of the desire to acquire material items and crime rates that occurred in 1935 in California, USA.

The writer decides to analyze the novel of John Steinbeck in order to represent the social setting by analyzing intrinsic through characterization, events, and setting that described in the novel Tortilla Flat by John Steinbeck.

Based on the reasons above, the research comes to the title Social Setting in John Steinbeck Tortilla Flat.

B. Identification Problems

After reading the novel Tortilla Flat by John Steinbeck, the writer has found out that some of the problems, which appeared in the novel, have significances to the analysis and can be seen as follows:

1. The social life refers to human being living together 2. The social life is the part of setting.

3. The intrinsic aspect that relates in the novel 4. The social setting that portrayed in the novel.


4 C. Research Questions

The writer limits the scope of problems in this research according to the discuss of this research object and the writer is interested to analyze the social setting in Tortilla Flat.

Thus, the writer formulates the problems such as below:

1. What does the intrinsic aspect exist in the novel Tortilla Flat?

2. How does the social setting portray in the novel Tortilla Flat?

D. Objective of the Study

In this research, the writer is going to accomplish some goals to be attained according to the statement of problems as follows:

1. To explain the intrinsic aspect in the novel Tortilla Flat.

2. To show the social setting which portrayed in the novel Tortilla Flat E. Significance of Study

The significant are intended into two aims. First, this research is hoped to enrich the theoretical bases of literary studies, especially in the science of analyzing setting as intrinsic element in literary work. Second, the writer wishes this study might give a contribution to the academic world, which includes the process of teaching and learning, and as an aid to the further researcher, which is appoint the same case. The writer hopes that the reader will be more thoughtful on how they analyze the conflicts in the novel built by the author.


5 F. Sequences of the Writing

This thesis arranges into five chapters.

1. The first chapter is the introduction that consists of background of writing, identification problem, statement of problem, objectives of writing, and sequences of writing.

2. The second chapter is a literature review, which consists previous study, and structuralism approach.

3. The third chapter is the methodology of the study. It contains methodology design, source of data, method of collecting data, a method of analyzing data, and research procedure.

4. The fourth chapter is the finding and discussion, which is most important part of the research as it contains the results of analysis.

5. The fifth chapter includes the conclusion of the whole research and suggestion.




In this chapter, the writer explains about supporting theory of the research, which consists of previous study, and structuralism approach.

A. Previous Study

Through literary review that has been done, the writer found some previous studies, which related to this research. The first is Wahyuni (2007) in The Influence of Social Conditions on Personality Development Gerald Arbuthnot at Oscar Wilde A Woman of No Importance explains the influence of social conditions on Gerald's personality development in the Uncritical Women of Oscar Wilde. He uses a genetic structural approach that is concerned with intrinsic and extrinsic aspects. The results of the study show that (1) Gerald's social environment greatly influenced the development of his pleasant, simple personality, and the mother became an ambitious and often denied mother after receiving an offer from Lord Illingworth as private secretary, (2)social aspects that influenced the development Gerald's personality is an inadequate life, love, and family background, (3) the author sends a message everyone has his own view of the happy life and the dangers of free promiscuity both to himself and to the descendants.

Second is Desyana A. R (2011) in The Influence of Social Environment on March L. M. Alcott, "Little Women" describes the enormous role of the social


7 environment for the development of one's character. He uses a genetic structural approach that related with intrinsic and extrinsic aspects.

The last is Mangalik (2011) in The Influence of Social Condition Novel Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby describes (1) the influence of social conditions on the development of the novels, (2) the social aspects of the environment that are in character development in novels, (3) in the novel He uses a genetic structuring approach that is by paying attention to intrinsic and extrinsic aspects. The results of the study show that (1) the social environment greatly changes the character of the abundant character and disseminates the wealth to meet his lover (2) the social aspects that influence the character development and delivery of the message to the author if each individual has a different view of life.

Although the previous study, also to analyses about social reality in the novel, but the writer has different way in bringing out social reality. The research uses different object and focuses on social setting through the structural approach.

B. Structuralism Approach

Structural Approach is an approach that focuses on the analysis of the structure of literary works. Structural approach is the intrinsic approach, which discusses the work on the elements that construct of the literary work from the inside. A structural approach is also an approach that views and understands the literary work in terms of the structure itself. This approach understands literature in close reading (literature reading in private regardless of author, reality, and reader).


8 According to Teeuw (1984:135), structural approach tries to describe the function of each element of literary work as structural unity that together produced a comprehensive meaning. It can be concluding that the structural approach is an approach in literature that analyzes the elements of the structure that build the literary work from within. Literary works have several intrinsic elements such as character, plot, setting, and theme. Those elements are called as the structure of story text. Wellek and Warren (1956:140) explain structural approach, which consists of material and structure of text of the literary works.

The material includes elements that are called formal. While structure is a concept including both, content and form as far as they are organize for aesthetic purpose.

It can be said that the structure of literary works is composed by form and content. The form is the way of the author writes, while the content is the idea that an author expression in writing. Literary works have been prepared on the series of elements that from a unity of meaning. Therefore, to explore the meanings, structural analysis is necessary. The steps in the structural analysis according to Nurgiyantoro (2005:35) are in the following:

1. Identifying the elements that build intrinsic literary works are complete and clear that consist the theme and which characters.

2. Examining the elements that have been identified which known theme, plot, characterizations, and the setting in literature.

3. Connecting each element so as to obtain the overall cohesiveness of meaning of literary work.


9 According to the explanation above, the writer can conclude that a structural analysis is study based on the internal elements of literature that is one unit in order to disclosure of the overall meaning. Structural analysis is not only done by list the specific elements of a work, such as plot, characters, setting, theme or the other. The important thing is how to show the relationship between elements to other.

In structural approach consist of several important aspects called intrinsic elements divided in characters, theme, plot, and setting.

1. Characters

Characters are the characteristics of the individual actors in a story.

Character in literature is the figure who actually takes part in the story (novels, short stories, tales, and fairy tales). Character in the story has a variety of functional or roles range from important. The differences are what makes the characters in the story received the title as the main character (central), the protagonist, antagonist, the role of primary helper, figures are not important (extras), and figure cheerleaders. In a sense difficult, figure depicted as an individual creation or custom author who experience the events in the various events of the story.

In some studies, a character may offer signs of the progress and the completion of pattern. William Kenney (1966:13) explains about a character score of novelty in an unchanged scene, maybe a change in the character himself and a character is seen maybe a change in a scene, which remains the same, in another narrative, shift in, thought and feeling.


10 From explanation above, the writer can describe a conclusion about a character that is in the story, figure of vital importance assorted and each character, every character that owned it different each other and present figure as the perpetrator in a story. In literary works character own an importance. The temper of the character in fiction could be considered as part from individuals in society. Author creates the character by first concerning the importance of society they bring, where they expect to possibly expose social messages.

Every character in a novel is motivated to act and do something. Hynes (2014:38) said that there are two major types of character; they are round character and flat character. Which is every character has their role that relate to the story. There were three ways to determine who the main character is: A character that always tangle with the theme. A character always interacts with another character along the story. And a character that always relates to grieving time. Character is very important in the story. Characters can make story keep moving, without character, the story cannot be formed as a literary work.

According to Semi (1993:33) said that the characters might be of several types:

1) The protagonist is the driver of the action on the story's objective story goal. In western storytelling tradition the protagonist is usually the main character.

2) The antagonist is the character that stands in the position of the protagonist.


11 3) Foil is the character that contrasts to the protagonist in a way that

illuminates their personality/characteristic.

4) Supporting character is a character that plays a part in the plot is not major.

5) Minor character is a character in a bit or cameo part.

2. Theme

Theme is the main idea, ideas, or thought that underlies a literary work and becomes the basis of the story, something that animates the story, or something that is the subject of the story. In addition, the theme is the beginning of rejecting the author in meaning the intent of his story.

According to Fananie( 2000: 84) said that Theme is idea, concept, and point of view of the author, which becomes background of creation of works.

Theme rose in the most part of the through characterizations, images, and action of the text. It means that talk about human life which contain with many problems in their life. Much writer use their problem to be the theme of the story based on their experience. Nurgiyantoro (2005:71) said that a theme of literary work always relates with the meaning of life.

3. Plot

According to Perrine (1983: 41) said that the plot is a selection and arrangement of incidents by the author in the novel, from actions and gives the story a particular focus. The plot is a sequence of incidents or events of which a story composed.


12 There are some elements in plot, such as the significant conflicts, the five distinct sections of stages and ordering plot. The emphasis in analyzing the plot is how the formation established. According to Semi (1993:46) that there are five essential parts of plot, such as: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.

1) Exposition: introduces all the main characters in the story. It shows how they relate to the other, what their goals of the person they are.

Most importantly, in the exposition, the audience the main character (protagonist), and the protagonist gets to main goal and what is at stake if fails to attain this goal.

2) Rising action: in rising action it starts with the death of the characters or conflict. The process of the story to build to conflict.

3) Climax: In this part, where the main character makes the single biggest decision that defines the outcome of their story who they are as a person.

4) Falling action, the sense that the loose ends are being tied up.

However, it is often the time of in the play, because it is the phase in which everything goes most wrong.

5) Resolution: the final of the confrontation between the protagonist and antagonist. This phase is confrontation of what leads up to it of why it happens and what it means.

Explanation of elements of the plot above, it can be conclude that the plot is a part, which is very helpful in making up literary work that has a pattern and


13 make a quality story of development, and understanding the plot, the reader can know clearly the story in its entirety.

4. Setting

Setting is important role because the setting is a depiction of a time and place that provides a foothold story takes place in a concrete and clear. In the book A Hand Book to Literature by Holman, author explains, "setting is the physical and sometimes spiritual, background of the action of narrative (novel, drama, short story, etc.) takes place.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the background is not just referring to a place or geographic location, but also on the timing, topography, psychological, religious and ambience (atmosphere in a character emotionally and also includes depictions of the state of a person or the public, social groups, customs, way of life, language, and others that affect a person (character).

Setting in the story has function to influence the situation, mood and personality of character. Setting is another important element in a novel, which informs the reader about the place and the time of the story.

Setting refers to condition or total environment where the characters live and socialize. setting is also situation not only a place where the action happens but also image of weather and social setting, so the readers easily image the situation of the fiction where and when the story happen. The setting is the location and the time of a story, is often list as one of the fundamental elements of fiction. Sometimes setting is referred as milieu, to include a context (such a society) beyond the immediate surroundings of the story.


14 According to Rozelle in Faradhillah (2015:12), setting can be identified into several context surroundings of the story, as they are in the following:

a. Setting of place, it shows geographical location, where the story takes a place

b. Setting of time, it tells when the story takes a place, like historical period, time of day, year, etc.

c. Setting of weather, it describes the conditions of the story, like rainy, sunny, stormy, etc.

d. Setting of social conditions, it describes what the daily life of the character is like. The story contains local color like writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of particular place.

e. Setting of Mood or Atmosphere, it is about feeling is created at the beginning of the story like bright and cheerful or dark and frightening.

Based on Rozelle idea, the writer focuses on setting of social condition as the focus of this research. The writer tries to analyze the daily life of the character in the novel Tortilla Flat by John Steinbeck.




In this chapter, the writer discusses about methodology of research. This methodology includes the methodological design, source of data, method of collecting data, method of analyzing data, and research procedure.

A. Methodological Design

The methodological design in analyzing novel Tortilla Flat uses qualitative descriptive method. Qualitative research is a method that gives attention to the nature of data, the data in relation to the existence of content such as in literary work would involve the author, the social environment where the author lives, including the elements of cultural in commonly. In the humanities, the data is source on the work, the script, the data research, as formal data are words, sentences, and discourse.

In this research object, will explain the social setting uses qualitative research method. It is important in analyzing the literary work to explain the method clearly in order to show the aim of the research that it is accept scientifically.

B. Source of Data 1. Primary Data

Primary data is the main data on the object of study in research. The primary data hold the position as the focus in this research to get reliable information. The primary data in this research is the novel Tortilla Flat by John Steinbeck , this novel was first published in 1935 and has been published several


16 times in different years, and in this research the writer use novel was published in 2000.

2. Secondary Data

Secondary data are supporting the analysis theoretically is obtained from books, website and some other sources that related theories, review or explanation of any aspect in the novel. This secondary data obtain through library research where the writer got information by reading references, such as books, writings, journals, articles, and some other useful printed sources that related to the problems in this research. Then the writer begins to analyze the occurrence of comparison characters and takes note during the read of fiction.

C. Method of Collecting Data

First, the writer tries to get information by reading the novel Tortilla Flat and collects some important parts of the text in the novel, which have relation to the problems. After that, the writer puts these collected parts of text into this research in the shape of quotations and the information of events, in which the social setting that occur in the story.

Collecting data is an important step to achieve successful writing. In order to collect data for writing this research, the writer uses library research as the method of collecting data. Library research is a method of collecting data of any references, book, thesis and some relevant articles from internet as the additional sources that related to analyzing this research.


17 D. Method of Analyzing Data

The first, the writer tries to find the intrinsic aspects by reading the novel, after that the writer tries to elaborate the data and focus on the social setting in the novel Tortilla Flat by John Steinbeck.

E. Research Procedure

In order to proceed this analysis, the writer applies certain steps to arrange this thesis as follows:

1. Reading the primary data or the novel itself accurately and trying to understand it.

2. Identifying the main of the problems to analyzed.

3. Writing down the important things related to the main problems of the study.

4. Collecting the data, including text, thesis and some others sources from books and internet that relating to the object of research and other related aspects, then classifying the data according to the problem.

5. Analyzing secondary data and making some notes.

6. Writing the result of data analysis.

7. Concluding the result of data analysis.

8. The whole analysis data is formed into the thesis.




In this chapter, the writer explains the analysis of structural aspect of novel using Structural Approach. It describes about the intrinsic elements of the novel such as, characters, plots, settings and themes. The writer also discusses the social setting which portrayed in the novel Tortilla Flat.

A. The Structural Analysis

1. Character and Characterization

In Tortilla Flat novel, there are some characters will present in it. The characters can make the story to be very interesting with different background so they can turn the story. The characters that are showed in this novel such as:

Danny, Pilon, Pablo Sanchez, Jesus Maria Corcoran, the Pirate, Big Joe, Mrs.

Morales, Torelli, Dorales Engracia Ramirez, Corporal, Tia Ignasia, Tito Ralph, Johnny pom-pom, and Pater Ramon

a. Danny

Danny is one of the main characters of the story. Danny is the leader of Paisano’s, and lived in Tortilla Flat. But he did not stand out particularly from the screeching children of Tortilla Flat. He comes from an important family in Tortilla Flat, but does not seem to want to follow in their footsteps. It can be seen in the following conversations below:

‘’ He was related to nearly everyone in the Flat by blood or romance. His grandfather was an important man who owned two small houses in Tortilla Flat and was respected for his wealth. If was not because he did not have influential relatives.(Preface).


19 Based on the conversation above, he seems to be weighed down by responsibility, and rather than face it, he had rather buck it and run out into the woods. When Danny knows that he has inherited his grandfather’s two houses, he does not really have the reaction you would expect. Instead of feeling happy because he has got a place to stay and that he could even make some dough by renting out some rooms. He was worried about overall burden.

‘’When Danny came home from the army he learned that he was an heir and an owner of property. The Viejo, that is the grandfather, had died leaving Danny the two small houses on Tortilla Flat’’ (Steinbeck, 2000:7).

From the quotation above, it shows that Danny is very lucky to have inherited two houses and can do anything. However, Danny feels burdened with it. Because he just wants to live freely without any ties. Danny is a good-hearted man who wants to rent his house to his friends even though he knows his friend cannot afford it. Danny felt overwhelmed by the responsibility of home ownership and made arrangements to his friends to pay the rent. However, for him he just assumed that the house was just for fun investing

One day, when Pilon with the girls was partying and Danny was having fun. It is illustrated by the following quotation below:

‘’Danny, walking by, heard the noise and joyfully went in. Pilon fell into his arms and placed everything at Danny’s disposal. And later, after Danny had helped to dispose of one of the girls and half of the wine, there was a really fine fight. Danny lost a tooth and Pilon had his shirt torn off (…)

After that, Pilon felt better about the unpaid rent. Had he not been host to his landlord? (Steinbeck, 2000: 16-17).

Imagine they were renting a house for some dudes who partied every single night and they may worry about the walls, floors, and windows. However,


20 not Danny, he is just happy to join in the party. In addition, in the code of friendship between Danny and Pilon, shows Danny a good time that is just as good as paying him rent money, anyway.

His character is formed in the novel mentioned below:

“Race antipathy overcame Danny’s good sense. He menaced the fishermen. “Sicilian bastards,” he called them, and “Scum from the Prison Island,” and “Dogs of dogs of dogs.” He cried, "Chingatumadre, Piojo." He thumbed his nose and made obscene gestures below his waist.

The fishermen only grinned and shifted their oars and said, “Hello, Danny. When would you get home? Come around to-night. We got new wine.”

‘’Danny was outraged. He screamed, "Pon un condoa la cabeza.” They called, “Good-by, Danny. See you to-night.” And they climbed into their little boats and rowed out to the lamprey launches and started their engines and chugged away.” (Steinbeck: 2000: 7).

The above piece of text shows how the character of the Danny depicted in this novel is cursing by exerting annoyance after released from Prison. The other character shown by Danny depicted in this novel is a brutal Danny behavior, as illustrated in the following piece of text:

“Danny was insulted. He walked back up Alvarado Street, breaking windows as he went, and in the second block, a policeman took him in hand’’ ( Steinbeck: 2000: 7).

Danny sank back, exhausted wide emotion. “I do not know. I forgot I owned them.”(Steinbeck: 2000:7).

Furthermore, the attitude of Danny that contradicts the attitude previously shown is a good child and described in the following description:

‘’Danny’s great respect for the law caused him to go quietly. If he had not just been discharged from the army after the victory over Germany, he would have been sentenced to six months. As It was, the judge gave him only thirty days’’ (Steinbeck: 2000: 7-8).


21 In this novel depicted that some of the characters that Danny was a drunkard, emotional, and he also love-having fun with women. They were dating with his neighbor Mrs. Morales. It is illustrated by the following quotation below:

‘’Danny smiled cynically at him. “Mrs Morales did, and I went to her house last night. That is a pretty woman in some lights, and not so old.


”The alarm came back to Pablo and Pilon.“My cousin Weelie says she is fifty years old,” Pilon said excitedly.

Danny spread his hands. “What is it how old in years she is?” he observed philosophically. “She is lively, that one. She owns her house and has two hundred dollars in the bank.” Then Danny became a little embarrassed. “I would like to make a present to Mrs. Morales.”

(Steinbeck: 2000: 24).

Toward the end of this story, the whole homeownership thing really starts to weigh Danny down. Surely, whatever the reason for his issues, Danny definitely becomes one big bummer:

‘’Danny began to feel the beating of time. He looked at his friends, and saw how with them every day was the same. When he got out of his bed in the night and stepped over the sleeping Paisanos, he was angry with them for being there. Gradually, sitting on the front porch, in the sun, Daily began to dream of the days of his freedom. He had slept in the woods in summer, and in the warm hay of bams when the winter cold was in. The weight of property was not upon him’’. (Steinbeck: 2000:


Danny always thinks about “the beating of time”. That could mean that he realize he is getting older, that he is getting older, that he is closer to death, that time is running out. Unfortunately, all that restlessness leads to Danny ultimate demise. He goes somewhat crazy toward the end of the story, he starts running off to sleep in the woods, coming into town only to steal and pillage. He even starts


22 stealing from his own house. Finally, at what turns out to be his farewell party, he tries to fight the devil himself. As for some of the crimes of insanity Danny as the mentioned below:

Every day they looked for him, and they began to hear curious rumors.

‘‘Yes, Danny was here last night. Oh. that drunk onel Oh, that thief! For see, Danny knocked down the viejo with a fence picket and he stole a bottle of grappa.(Steinbeck: 2000: 129).

At the wharf they found more evidence of their friend. “He was here,”

the fishermen said. “He wanted to fight everybody. Benito broke an oar on Danny’s head. Then Danny broke some windows, and then a policeman took him to jail.”(Steinbeck, 2000: 129).

Even Danny bear to sell his house to the seller of wine named Torelli and he sold it for twenty-dollars. Danny bought too much wine with his money. It can be seen in the following conversations below:

‘’Torrelli giggled, a thing so terrible that the Paisanos stepped back from him.

“Because,” he said, “the house belongs to me. Danny came to me and sold me hishouse for twenty-five dollars last night.” Fiendishly he watched the thoughts crowd on their faces.’’(Steinbeck: 2000: 135).

The friends throw a party for Danny to cheer him up. At the party, he gets drunk and violent and finally runs off a cliff to his death. Danny tries to do this and falls spectacularly. At the same time, adulthood doesn’t necessarily bring meaning, either, especially if you are living in a depression when opportunities are few and far between. If Danny is attractive character. It is because he senses something bigger and better out there. He wants it, but he cannot figure out how to find it.


23 b. Pilon

Pilon is one of Danny's best friends, the first introduction to Pilon is in the preface, when he goes to the army recruitment office and signs up to fight against Germany. Check out his cheeky exchange with the enlistment sergeant. . It is illustrated by the following quotation below:

"What branch do you want to go in?" "I don' give a god-damn," said Pilon jauntily (Steinbeck, 2000:5).

He does not really care too much about anything, but he has some serious style about it. He doesn't know where his next meal (or bottle of wine) is going to come from, he doesn't know where (or with whom) he" sleep next and he's totally fine with that.

Pilon rented Danny's house. Pilon went up the social scale by renting a house.Pilon is a good person who always shares what he had. It is illustrated by the following quotation below:

‘’The two friends were often together. Let Pilon come by jus of wine or a piece of meat and Danny was sure to drop into visit. And, if Danny were lucky or astute the same way, Pilon spent a riotous night with him (Steinbeck: 2000:16).

Pilon who have the ability as a thinker, and in this novel, the Pilon in his group is the thinker or the originator of the idea. Any problem that arises in the group then Pilon is the one who will provide the solution. In addition Pilon is a spiritual but lives his life by being a drunkard. Although Pilon is a drunkard, but always intends to not make mistakes.In this novel the character of the Pilon is described in the following description:

“Pilon,” he said sadly, “I wish you owned it and I could come to live with you.” (Steinbeck, 2000:13)


24 The quote above shows the character of a Pilon who is a thinker. As illustrated how the Pilon thinks quickly when he sees Mrs. Morales's cousin neighbors Danny's house.

"The weeds?”Pilon cried in horror. “Not those weeds" He explained his theory of Mrs. Morales’ chickens. (Steinbeck 2000:13).

Pilon knows very well and understands how to take advantage of everything in any situation. Danny captured his agility by letting the Pilon stay at his home. However, unlike the lively Pilon in thinking, Danny invitation in different perceptions, as shown in the quotation below:

Pilon, remembering his brandy, thought this unfair. “I am getting in debt to him,” he thought bitterly. “My freedom will be cut ofiE. Soon I shall be a slave because of this Jew’s house.” But he did go out to look for some dinner’’ (Steinbeck 2000:13-14).

The thought of a Pilon, if he has lost his freedom and when he stay with Danny, because Pilon think aka tone of debt that he must pay. Some of the events that describe how the character of Pilon who often change and deftly in thinking as described in the following description:

One night he had a dollar, acquired in a manner so astounding that he tried to forget it immediately for fear the memory might make him mad.

A man in front of the San Carlos hotel had put the dollar in his hand, saying, “Run down and get four bottles of ginger-ale. The hotel is out.”

Such things were almost miracles, Pilon thought. One should take them on faith, not worry and question them. He took the dollar up the road to give to Danny, but on the way he bought a gallon of wine, and with the wine he lured two plump girls into his house.’’(Steinbeck 2000:16).

In the above paragraph explains, the agility of Pilon in thinking, who initially intend to pay rent to Danny turned away prefer to buy a bottle of wine.



‘’But on the way he bought two gallons of wine. "It is better so,” he thought. “If I give him hard money, it does not express how warmly I feel toward my friend. But a present, now. And I will tell him the two gallons cost five dollars.” This was silly, and Pilon knew it, but he indulged himself. No one in Monterey better knew the price of wine than Danny’’. (Steinbeck 2000:17).

‘’Pilon pounced. “See, Pablo, how would you like to rent part of my house? There would never be the cold ground for you anymore. Never the hard sand under the wharf with crabs getting in your shoes. How would you like to live here with me?”

(Steinbeck 2000:20).

Pilon sighed with relief. He had not realized how the debt to Danny rode on his shoulders. The fact that he was sure, Pablo would never pay any rent did not mitigate his triumph. If Danny should ever ask for money, Pilon could say, "I will pay when Pablo pays...”

Pilon was an honest man. Pilon was a responsible man and always trying to pay the rent to Danny but he was never consistent for the payment of the rent to Danny, as the mentioned below:

‘’He took the dollar up the road to give to Danny, but on the way he bought a gallon of wine, and the wine he lured two plump girls into his house’’. (Steinbeck 2000: 16).

Pilon’s able to maintain his renegade lifestyle because he is really quick on his feet. They say opportunity makes the thief, and Pilon sees opportunities everywhere. He never hesitates to make a buck or make off with somebody’s lunch. This is not a guy who would ever choose not to seize an opportunity.

Characterizes Pilon as the brains behind the operation, and also as someone with a very flexible sense of morality.

Pilon was a genius man. He always had a way him out of this trouble.

Pilon never lost his mind to solved his trouble as when he wooed Jesus Maria to


26 stay at Danny’s home and pay the rent. Finally, Jesus Maria surrender and hand over money. As mentioned as below:

"I will tell you," Pilon went on, "unless we pay Danny two dollars we shall all be turned into the street, and it will be your fault. You will have it on your soul that we sleep in ditches." (Steinbeck, 2000:28).

Pilon always help his friends who are in trouble as Danny wants to give a gifts to Mrs.Morales and Pilon bought a brassiere for Danny and reward Mrs.

Morales. As the mentioned as below:

‘’ Pilon pulled the brassiere from his pocket and let it dangle listlessy from his finger (Steinbeck, 2000:40).

‘’When Pilon handed over the brassiere and explained how it was a present for Mrs.Morales, Danny was reticent’’. (Steinbeck, 2000:41).

Part of Pilon's moral code comes from his religion. For Pilon, it is a big deal, for example, that the Pirate's quarters are dedicated to Saint Francis. It can be seen as below:

‘’It is true that for a time they had dreamed of how much wine it would buy, but after a while they lost the conception of it as legal tender. The hoard was aimed at a gold candlestick, and this potential candlestick was the property of San Francisco de Assisi. It is far worse to defraud a saint than it is to take liberties with the law’’. (Steinbeck, 2000: 96).

So while there is a whole lot of money in the Pirate's stash, the fact that it has been dedicated to a Catholic saint makes the money completely off limits.

For Pilon, there is no justification for stealing from a saint. It is even worse than stealing from your friends.

Pilon is (besides Danny the friend with the most personality, and this mostly comes from his smarts. He is also, in a way, an example of Danny could have been if he had not inherited those houses. Whereas Danny had to become


27 responsible, Pilon remains free to continue his wild life without any worry. He is sort of the ‘’what-might-have-been’’ for Danny.

c. Pablo Sanchez

Pablo is a good friend and obedient worship. Pablo has a broad and wise insight into responding to something by understanding his situation, so that he is always seen doing well, even though Pablo does not understand it. This is illustrated in the text snippet below:

“So I was, Pilon,” Pablo said jocularly. “But I was not well received. The judge said the sentence did me no good, and the police said I ate more than the allowance for three men. And so,” he finished proudly, “I am on parole.”(Steinbeck 2000: 19).

From the quotation explains the character of Pablo who always responds to something well. When Pablo is in prison, he proudly reveals his forgiveness.

Furthermore, Pablo who has a strong insight is reflected from the conversation below:

“Pablo," he said, “Dost thou never get tired of sleeping in ditches, wet and homeless, friendless and alone?”. Ah, Pablo, this is indeed living.”(Steinbeck 2000:20).

"If all the dew were diamonds,” Pablo said, "we would be very rich. We would be drunk all our lives.”(Steinbeck 2000:21).

The conversations above shows, Pablo has thought and fantasies that are good enough for his life.

To tell the truth, it is somewhat hard to come up with too much to say about Pablo. Whereas the other friends all have characteristics that are easy to identify, Pablo is sort of the featureless friend who just goes along with everybody


28 else's plans. He is always there, ready to help, but he does not come up with any ideas or plans on his own.

For example, when Pilon starts to talk himself out of paying Danny the rent he owes, Pablo is willing to support him in that endeavor, but does not really add too much to the conversation:

‘’It is just as well that we do not take two gallons of wine to Danny," said Pilon. "He is a man who knows little restraint in drinking."

‘’Pablo agreed. "Danny looks healthy," he said, "but it is just such people that you hear of dying every day" (Steinbeck, 2000: 31).

It might seem like Pablo does not have all that much to do in the novel like Pilon and Danny.

d. The Pirate

Having a large body, black, and body growth is not in line with his thoughts. It is illustrated by the following quotation:

‘’There was a shrinking in the Pirate’s eyes when he confronted any grown person, the secret look of an animal that would like to run away if it dared turn its back long enough. Because of this expression, the Paisano’s of Monterey knew that his head had not grown up with the rest of his body’’. (Steinbeck 2000:44).

The pirate has a lot of money and he was hoarding the money. When the Pirate tells the friends that the money he is hoarding is totally for candlestick for Saint Francis, the friends know that the jig is up.

‘’So it was over, all hope of diverting the money. Danny and Pablo morosely lifted the heavy bag of silver quarters, took it in the other room and put it under the pillow of Danny’s bed. In time they would take a certain pleasure in the knowledge that this money lay under the pillow, but now their defeat was bitter. There was nothing in the world they could do about it. Their chance had come, and it had gone. (Steinbeck 2000: 56).


29 These friends are supper disappointed about the fact that the Pirate turns out to be such a good guy.

‘’A GREAT many people saw the Pirate every day, and some laughed at him, and some pitied him; but no one knew him very well, and no one interfered with him. He was a huge, broad man, with a tremendous black and bushy beard. He wore jeans and a blue shirt, and he had no hat’’.

(Steinbeck 2000:44).

The paragraph snippet above shows the appearance of the pirate. Where he was known given the nickname of the pirate because of his beard, which is shown in the sentence, “They called him The Pirate because of his beard.”

The plain and trusting figure of the others as well as the gentleness of the pirate is shown in the following below:

The Pirate lived in a deserted chicken house in the yard of a deserted house on Tortilla Flat. He would have thought it presumptuous to live in the house it- self./The dogs lived around and on top of him, and the Pirate liked this, for his dogs kept him warm on the coldest nights. If his feet were cold, he had only to put them against the warm belly of Senor Alec Thompson. The chicken house was so low that the Pirate had to crawl in on his hands and knees. (Steinbeck 2000:44).

Plain figure that makes him think inappropriate to stay in a house.

Furthermore, the nature of compassion possessed by the pirate is shown below:

‘’When the Pirate had visited each back door and had his arms full of parcels, he walked back up the hill to Munroe Street and entered a vacant lot, and the dogs excitedly swarmed about him. Then he opened the parcels and fed the dogs. For himself he took bread or a piece of meat out of each package, but he did not pick the best for himself. The dogs sat down about him, licking their lips nervously, and shifting their feet while they waited for food. They never fought over it, and that was a surprising thing. The Pirate’s dogs never fought each other, but they fought everything else that wandered the streets of Monterey on four legs. It was a fine thing to see the pack of five, hunting fox-terriers and Pomeranians like rabbits. (Steinbeck 2000:45).


30 Despite the dreaded pirate appearance by the people of the city, yet he has a tender heart and he always takes care of his pet.

‘’The Pirate was following his words with breathless astonishment, and his brain tried to realize these new things he was hearing. It did not occur to him to doubt them, since Pilon was saying them. “I have all these Mends?” he said in wonder. “And I did not kifow it. And I am a worry to those Mends. I did not know, Pilon. I would not have worried them if I had known.” He swallowed to clear his throat of emotion. “You see, Pilon, the dogs like it here. And I like it because of them. 1 did not think I was a worry to my friends/' Tears came into the Pirate’s eyes.

(Steinbeck 2000:49).

The pirate's kindness is shown with loyalty, not wanting to make his friends worry, he listens and believes in the words of Pilon and Pablo without find the truth.

The Pirate's intentions are pure, and so are his thoughts. He never even catches on to the fact that the friends had originally tried to rob him when they take his money back into Danny’s bedroom to keep it safe he feels nothing but joy. As mentioned as below:

‘’The Pirate stood before them, and there were tears of happiness in his eyes, for he had proved his love for his friends.

"To think," he said, "all those years I lay in that chicken house, and I did not know any pleasure. But now," he added, "oh, now l am very happy"

(Steinbeck, 2000: 56-57).

The Pirate is not just happy that the friends are treating him well; he is overjoyed because he has proved his love for his friends. He thinks that he has cheered them up by coming to live with them, and that cheers him up. This dude is just a sweet, good soul, almost like a kid brother to the friends.


31 e. Jesus Maria

Jesus Maria Corcoran is one of the villains in the Tortilla Flat, people know him by the call of Jesus Mary. Jesus Maria has a gentle heart always wants to help humanity in distress. Jesus Maria was able to find the condition of his goodness can be used even though sometimes less fortunate.It is illustrated by the following quotation:

‘’Jesus Maria was a humanitarian, and kindness was always in him. He cleared his throat and spat. "Give me a drink,” he said. “My throat is dry.

I will tell you how it was.” He drank dreamily, like a man who has so much wine that he can take his time in drinking it, can even spill a little without remorse. “I was sleeping on the beach two nights ago,” he said.

“Out on the beach near Seaside. In the night the little waves washed a rowboat to the shore. Oh, a nice little rowboat, and the oars were there. I got in and rowed it down to Monterey. It was easily worth twenty dollars, but trade was slow, and I only got seven.” (Steinbeck 2000:26).

The quotation above shows the character of Jesus Maria who has a gentle heart, although Jesus Maria happy to get drunk but when drunk he was still able to show his soft feel with a sense of humanity.

‘’Pablo and Pilon rushed to him. “Our friend! He is hurt. He has fallen from a cliff. He has been run over by a train!” There was not the slightest tone of satire, but Jesus Maria knew it for the most deadly kind of satire.

He glared at them out of the eye, which still had some volition hi, such matters’’. (Steinbeck 2000: 34).

The humanity of Jesus Maria is again shown in the above piece of text, when Pilon and Pablo deliberately make fun of the opponent Jesus Maria when fighting earlier.

Jesus Maria, like Pablo, is a follower. He is usually not the one who comes up with the great plans, but he always goes along with whatever


32 Pilonschemes up. We know how he feels about his position in the group. When Pilon sends him into town to look for food.

‘’Jesus Maria started for Monterey very reluctantly, but Pablo and Pilon walked happily down the hill toward Torelli’s house’’. (Steinbeck 2000:


He goes along with the plan, but he's reluctant about it. This might be connecting to his so-called humanitarianism. His probably not as into stealing and swindling as the other friends are, though he has to do it to survive. The scene where Jesus Maria he has the best opportunity to show off his good deeds is when the Corporal shows up with his sick baby and Jesus Maria is the first one to come to the rescue. That chapter opens a description of Jesus Maria's heart and soul.

‘’Jesus Maria Corcoran was a pathway for the humanities. Suffering he tried to relieve; sorrow he tried to assuage; happiness he shared. No hard nor haunted Jesus Maria existed. His heart was free for the use of anyone who had a use for it. His resources and wits were at the disposal of anyone who had less of either than had Jesus Maria’’. (Steinbeck 2000:84).

The values that described here are generosity and a willingness to share with anyone in need. Steinbeck was interested in the way that people band together and help each other out in times of trouble. In this novel, he deals with the way that people form groups in order to survive tough conditions. Steinbeck doesn't always think this is a good thing, but he's always interested in the way the groups are put together.

Even if Steinbeck has some fancy political theory behind his idea of the group, Danny's friends see it in terms of religious morality. As mentioned as below:



‘’Such was his reputation that Pilon had once said, "If Maria that Jesus had gone into the Church Monterey would have had a saint for the calendar, I tell you."

‘’Out of some deep pouch in his soul Jesus Maria drew kindness that renewed itself by withdrawal’’. (Steinbeck, 2000:84).

Pilon is referring to the Catholic tradition of assigning a saint for each day of the year (many calendars have those names listed on each date). He means that Jesus Maria could have become a saint, thereby making Monterey famous.

This also reminds us that Jesus Maria has a name that is symbolically loaded in the Catholic Church; it does not get much better than t big Joe. and Mary for good people. Steinbeck uses variety of things to describe Jesus Maria's kindness.

f. Big Joe Portugis

Out of all the members of the gang, Big Joe Portage is the one who just cannot seem to figure out the whole friendship thing. He is the only one who steals from his pals, but he gets to remain in Danny’s house because he always pays for his crimes by taking a real beating.

Big Joe is constantly in jail. In fact, he is more comfortable in jail than out of it. He is there so often because he cannot resist anything that comes his way including the opportunity to commit crimes.

‘’When the war was over, and all the troops were disbanded, Big Joe still had six months’ sentence to serve. 'The charge had been: “Being drunk on duty. Striking asergeant with a kerosene can. Denying his identity (he couldn’t remember it, so he denied everything). Stealing two gallons of cooked beans, and going A.W.O.L. on the Major’s horse.”( Steinbeck 2000: 58).

Therefore, Joe is very weak. He cannot be trusted with anything, really.

For sure, temptation gets the best of him more than once: for example, he steals Danny’s blanket, which earns him some forced labor from Pilon, and he dips into


34 the sacred stash of the Pirate’s quarters, which gets him the beating of a lifetime from friends. Big Joe always regretting though he takes his punishments without complaining, so that must be why the friends keep him around. He does not sound like such a bad person.

2. Theme

1. Loyalty Friendship

Danny and his friends value friendship highly. In spite of their willingness to fight, steal, and shirk work, they follow a strict code of ethics in their behavior toward each other. Central to this code is the respect of friends' property and the obligation to share with people who offer what they have. When one character offers to share something, the others always do the same. Danny shares his house, so his friends bring him whatever they have.

They even vow to feed him although they dodge the obligation to work toward this goal. The only character that struggles to behave according to the code of loyalty is Big Joe. By breaking the code, Big Joe helps clarify its boundaries.

When he breaks the code by stealing Danny's blanket, trying to use Danny's bed, or taking money from the Pirate, the other characters feel justified in violently

"disciplining" Big Joe.

The code of loyalty would not be so strong without Danny and Danny's house. In the early chapters, before Danny takes possession of his houses and allows the others to live with him as guests, the characters frequently try to keep their food and wine for themselves instead of sharing it. Only after Pilon, Pablo, and Jesus Maria move in with Danny does their little community begin to function


35 effectively. However, Danny's centrality to the community is also its weakness.

When he breaks the code at the end by running away, keeping his money and wine for himself, and stealing from his friends, nobody has any power to stop him.

He is their benefactor, so they cannot "discipline" him as they would Big Joe. This is why, when he stops running amok and returns home, he is accepted back without comment. This episode creates a feeling of uncertainty because it makes clear that Danny's house cannot last forever

3. Plot of the story

Most good stories start with a fundamental list of ingredients: the initial situation, conflict, complication, climax, suspense, denouement, and conclusion. It is plot that actually moves the story from beginning to end that adorn the story.

a. Exposition (initial situation)

Danny is back after the War and finds that he has inherited two houses from his dead grandpa. He is not too excited by this prospect, but he has no choice but to become a landowner, a respectable person in Tortilla Flat. It is illustrated by the following quotation below:

‘’When Danny came home from the army he learned that he was an heir and on owner of property. The Viejo, that is the grandfather, had died, leaving Danny the two small houses on Tortilla Flat’’.

‘’When Danny heard about it he was a little weighed down with the responsibility of ownership. Before he ever went to look at his property he bought a gallon of red wine and drank most of himself’’. (Steinbeck 2000:7).


36 This sets the stage for the novel. It is Danny's change in condition from an irresponsible, footloose, and fancy-free guy to homeowner with responsibilities and headaches that makes him from his gang of friends.

b. Rising Action (Conflict)

One by one, Pilon, Pablo, Jesus Maria, the Pirate, and Big Joe Portagee move into Danny's house after burning down the house them living in and Danny's friends swore comradeship. It is illustrated by the following quotation below:

"It shall be our burden and our duty to see that there is the house for Danny," he declaimed. "Never shall our friend go hungry."

‘’ Pilon and Pablo looked up in alarm, but the thing was said a beautiful and generous thing. No man could with impunity destroy it. Even Jesus Maria understood, after it was said, the magnitude of his statement. They could only hope that Danny would forget it ".

‘’For," Pilon mused to himself, "if this promise were enforced, it would be worse than rent. It would be slavery.

‘’ We swear it, Danny!" he said

‘’ They sat about the stove with tears in their eyes,and their love for one another was almost unbearable.

‘’Pablo wiped his wet eyes with the back of his hand, and he echoed Pilon's remark. "We shall be very happy living here,"he said. (Steinbeck, 2000: 43).

The six friends become a sort of a family, living off what they can scrounge and steal and helping each other when they can. The house burning down pushes all of them into one place together.

c. Climax (Crisis, Turning Point)

Danny starts to feel trapped as his days get more and more routine, and nothing seems to make him happy. The irresponsible life he lost when he inherited




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